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1 AIAS AIAS Autumn 2013 Newsletter AIAS conference on Inequality in the Netherlands and Europe Book: The long and winding road to an asbestos free workplace WageIndicator support for bargaining in the social services sector (WICARE) Amsterdam Institute for Advanced labour Studies

2 AIAS Amsterdam Institute for Advanced labour Studies UNIVERSITY OF AMSTERDAM What can we offer you? AIAS is an institute for multidisciplinary research and teaching at the University of Amsterdam. Founded in 1998, it brings together the University s expertise in labour studies from the Faculties of Law, Social and Behavioural Sciences, Economics and Business, and Medicine. AIAS mission is to strengthen its position as a leading academic centre in the field of labour studies in the Netherlands and abroad, fostering its acclaim as an attractive partner for international cooperation in research and teaching. Our threefold task is to perform and facilitate research aimed at developing, empirically testing and applying theories that can explain the working of labour markets, labour relations and organisations, and social and labour policies in an internationally comparative perspective. We maintain and further develop multidisciplinary teaching programmes concerning these issues and provide expertise to society by supplying analytical tools, results and data to enlighten policy making in the field of labour and to contribute to the intellectual and public debate on labour, employment and social policies. Research AIAS research focuses on the analysis of labour markets, social security and governance. It combines various disciplinary approaches along three perspectives: Societal regulations & coordination of markets, Individual transactions in markets and Societal and individual effects. Some of our research programmes we are involved in: GINI Growing Inequalities Impacts Equalsoc network of Excellence (Economic Changes, Quality of Life and Social Cohesion) Solidarity in the 21 st Century Flex Work Research Centre WageIndicator Teaching AIAS offers various forms of education: The course cycle Arbeidsvraagstukken en Beleid consisting of four courses (in Dutch): A. HRM in Beeld B. Arbeidsmarkt in Ontwikkeling C. Ongelijkheid en de Verzorgingsstaat D. Trends in Arbeidsverhoudingen E. Medezeggenschap: tussen toezicht en autonomie Various in-company courses PhD Laboratory, which aims at providing a stimulating and structured environment for the support of external PhD students, specifically teaching staff of the University of Applied Sciences. Social involvement Annually AIAS organizes conferences about ongoing research and current trends. Furthermore, several (lunch) seminars and workshops take place during the year, offering interesting opportunities for the exchange and deliberation of research on labour issues from all over the world. AIAS has a major collection of academic socioeconomic data in the field of labour relations, labour organizations, employment and working conditions in the Netherlands and abroad. AIAS and its staff contribute to society on many subjects, for different audiences and in varying formats (articles, books, reports, interviews, presentations etc...). The AIAS Working Paper, the Labour markets and industrial relations in the Netherlands and the GINI Discussion Paper series also addresses a great variety of topics. CONTENTS What can we offer you? 2 Editorial 3 AIAS Annual Conference 4 Events 5 AIAS Events 9 Working Papers 12 AIAS Series Labour markets & industrial relations in NL 15 GINI Publications 16 Newsletters 18 Publications Academic 24 Publications Professional 28 Publications Other 34 Data 35 Research 37 Focus on... Research 38 Overview research projects 40 Onderwijs/Teaching 42 AIAS in the media 45 AIAS-ers and more 48 People at AIAS 49 Announcements 50 COLOPHON This is a publication of the Amsterdam Institute for Advanced labour Studies, PO Box 94025, 1090 GA Amsterdam, The Netherlands Subscriptions / address changes or (Final) editing Angelique Lieberton, Jan Cremers and Paul de Beer Design / photo s Creative Es & Angelique Lieberton Cover Keynote speaker, Facundo Alvaredo Jordi Huisman Other photos: Jordi Huisman, Sean Stevenson, istockphoto Print run / edition Print run: 2300 / Autumn 2013 AIAS Printer: GVO drukkers & vormgevers B.V. Ponsen & Looijen

3 From the cover AIAS conference on Inequality in the Netherlands and Europe Page 4 Book: The long and winding road to an asbestos free workplace Page 29 WICARE WageIndicator support for bargaining in the social services sector Page 37 Focus on industrial relations Editorial In hindsight the city of Amsterdam hosted this summer some major events dedicated to industrial relations and labour studies. The International Labour and Employment Relations Association (ILERA), established in 1966 with the purpose to promote the study of labour and employment relations in the relevant academic disciplines and hosted by the International Labour Organization (ILO) of the United Nations (UN), held its 10th European Regional Congress from 20 to 22 June The conference Imagining new employment relations and new solidarities, organised by a consortium of universities, in collaboration with the Dutch Association for Industrial Relations NVA, brought a large group of academics to Amsterdam including top speakers on issues like employment relations, labour market developments and labour law. For the researchers at AIAS, acting as a co-host, this was an excellent opportunity to discuss the past, present and future of employment and labour relations with scholars, students and practitioners from across Europe and beyond. Videos of the keynote speakers have been made available on the conference website: ilera-europe2013.eu A week after (June 25-27, 2013) the Council for European Studies (CES) hosted the 20th International Conference of Europeanists in the same premises of the University of Amsterdam. CES dedicated its conference Crisis and Contingency: States of (In)stability to the economic crisis and the consequences for Europe, discussed in a broad program with panels, roundtables, book discussions and individual papers, combining disciplines, nationalities and generations. And again several AIAS-researchers gave act de presence. Presentations can be found at councilforeuropeanstudies.org If that was not enough, AIAS hosted directly after the summer break (September 4-6, 2013) the 5th Asian-European-Labour Forum (AELF). A few years ago the Friedrich- Ebert-Stiftung (FES) initiated the AELF to bring together labour research institutes, training institutes and think tanks closely linked to trade unions, as to exchange views on labour policy issues. During this 5th forum, Reducing Social Inequalities through Comprehensive Social Security Systems, the thesis was defended that the financial and economic crisis has opened a window of opportunity for reviving the international discourse on social security. In times of economic downturn, it has proven well to be a social, political and economic stabiliser by cushioning the negative impacts on individuals and the whole society as well as by supporting aggregate demand and facilitating recovery. The packed agenda demonstrates that AIAS acts in the forefront of societal relevant academic research. This Newsletter contains an overview of the activities of our team, composed of researchers, guests and students. It is an open invitation to contact our staff, in case you are interested in the outcome of our work. Jan Cremers Editor AIAS newsletter & senior researcher 3

4 AIAS Inequality in the Netherlands and Europe Top Incomes, Poverty and Social Policy By David Hollanders On September 26 th the yearly AIAS-conference took place. As the year before, the location was Felix Meritis, a former Amsterdam society devoted to art and science, which was founded in 1777 during the Enlightment. As before, everything was perfectly organized. This year did on the other hand witness another theme, namely Inequality in the Netherlands and Europe, Top incomes, Poverty and Social Policy. The eminent speakers were complementary in more than one way. Some focused on the Netherlands, some on Europe, some on inequality and some on poverty. In all presentations three interrelated questions stood out. First, how to conceptualize and measure poverty and/or inequality, second, how these developed over time and compared across country and third, the underlying causes. More and better jobs The first speaker Michael Förster (OECD) showed that there are large cross-county differences in inequality. The Gini-coefficient of Iceland is below 0.25, whereas the Gini of Chile is above 0.50; other countries lie between these two extremes. Inequality increased the last three decades in a large majority of OECD-countries, including USA, UK, Germany and the Netherlands. Income inequality rose both during economic booms and slumps and also in years with employment growth. The other way round longterm growth has been mostly captured by the top 1% of the income distribution. Several policies could reduce income-inequality. The speaker mentioned among other things boosting employment and career prospects ( more and better jobs ) and reviewing tax provisions in light of increased tax capacity among top-income households. More than the GINI-coefficient The second speaker, Wiemer Salverda (AIAS; University of Amsterdam) presented the outcomes of the GINI-project. This is an extensive, EU-financed project ( ), that uses one template for international comparability across 30 Country Reports. The aim is to dig behind the Ginicoefficient. Salverda pointed out that the often used GINI-coefficient largely misses the action in the tails of the income distribution. This matters, as tail measures (e.g. the lowest income in the top 10% divided by the highest income in the lowest 10% of the income-distribution) increased more than the Gini-coefficient. The Gini-coefficient can be supplemented in several other ways. For example, the wealth distribution is more skewed than the income distribution. Lowincome people take on relatively more debt (relative to their income) than high-income people. Also employment-inequality has increased dramatically. The employment gap between men with primary education and university degree was virtually absent in the Netherlands in 1980, but rose to thirty percentage points. Moreover, it is difficult nowadays for the less educated to get a fulltime job. Top incomes Keynote speaker Facundo Alvaredo (Nuffield College & Conicet & Paris School of Economics) spoke on Top incomes in historical and international perspective: Recent developments. He showed among other things that there is an almost perfect linear relationship between the marginal tax-rate for top incomes and the share of top-incomes. Poverty Two other speakers focused on poverty. Cok Vrooman (SCP) showed how poverty is measured by the Dutch Social-Cultural Michael Förster Wiemer Salverda Fa cu nd o Alvaredo 4

5 ANNUAL CONFERENCE Planning Bureau. Poverty is defined as an income that is insufficient for quasi-unavoidable expenses and very desirable expenses. As the concepts unavoidable and desirable are socially embedded, they are partly determined in focus-groups. On the SCP-measure, poverty has increased since 2007 to around 7.5%, but it is below the peak of ca. 8.5% in Ive Marx (University of Antwerp) approached poverty slightly different. He defines poverty as an income below 2/3 th of the median income. The advantage of the latter measure is its international comparability. Marx also remarked that his poverty measure captures the notion that economic growth should be divided roughly equally. A disadvantage as Vroman pointed out- is that it effectively ignores levels. By definition there is more poverty in a rich but unequal society there than in a poor but equal society. Social inequalities The policy-sessions in the afternoon were held in Dutch. Koen Caminada (University of Leiden) compared inequality in primary (market) income and secondary income (after taxation). He concluded that while there is a sizeable increase in primary inequality in almost all countries, tax-benefit systems have offset two-third of this increase. Marloes de Graaf-Zijl (CPB) pointed out that the provision of public services is relevant as well. Health care has had an equalizing effect, whereas education tends to reinforce social inequalities. Policy-measures A closing plenary discussion was devoted to policy-measures to reduce poverty and/ or inequality. Ive Marx stated that poverty is evidently detrimental for individuals especially children- and should therefore be targeted by government intervention. Whether inequality as such is disadvantageous for society is less clear-cut. The so called Wilkinson hypothesis forcefully postulates that inequality has negative economic and social effects, but several speakers stated that the empirical evidence is not always convincing. Caminada and van Zijl pointed out that inequality may affect incentives, thereby reducing employment and economic growth. The overall conclusion seems to be that poverty and inequality increased in many OECD-countries, but that the extent to which depends on the time-period, on the country and on the precise measure used. Ive Marx Cok Vrooman Photographer: Jordi Huisman Dr. Marloes de Graaf-Zijl Panel discussion Koen Cam inad ada 5

6 EVENTS Presentations Jan Cremers Migrants and Employment Intermediaries in the European Union During the 20 th International Conference of Europeanists (CES), Crisis and Contingency: States of (In)stability, in Amsterdam on June 2013 Jan Cremers (AIAS) participated as the discussant in a panel called Migrants and Employment Intermediaries in the European Union. The panel was organised by Gabriella Alberti (Leeds University) and Sébastien Chauvin (University of Amsterdam). The scope of this panel was to explore the relationship between temporary employment agencies and labour migration in the context of the EU. Tesseltje de Lange (Law faculty, University of Amsterdam) was one of the contributors. In his contribution Cremers summarised the contributions, mainly consisting of work in progress in an overview. Keynote speech at the Tagung zur sozialen Dimension Europas Jan Cremers contributed with a keynote speech at the Tagung zur sozialen Dimension Europas, Europäische arbeitsrechtliche Entwicklungen, Arbeitnehmerentsendung und Arbeitnehmerüberlassung, 25 and 26 January 2013, in Düsseldorf, Germany. SER-Congress on worker involvement Robbert van het Kaar On 1 October 2013, the Committee for the Advancement of Worker Involvement (Commissie Bevordering Medezeggenschap, CBM) organized a conference on the modernization of worker involvement/co-determinations (medezeggenschap). The CBM was established in June 2012 by the tripartite Social and Economic Council (Sociaal-Economische Raad, SER) and consists of representatives from employers organisations, union federations and four independent (academic) members (prof. mr. Ferdinand Grapperhaus, prof. dr. Aukje Nauta, prof. mr. Evert Verhulp and dr. Robbert van het Kaar). See for more information the CBM-website bestuurlijke/orenmedezeggenschap/bevordering_medezeggenschap.aspx The conference was attended by over 200 people, including employers, works council members, worker involvement-professionals and academic researchers. At the core of the conference were two sessions on worker involvement and flexible work (with an introduction by Robbert van het Kaar) and modern forms of worker involvement (introduced by Aukje Nauta). Cremers was involved in the drafting of the Posting of Workers Directive and has investigated the functioning of the Posting rules over a long period of time. In his contribution he gave some of the striking findings of the investigations. In a first section he described the genesis of the Directive, followed a situation of the posting rules in the frame of the economic freedoms, and the problems related to imple- mentation and enforcement. Based on the definition of posting derived from the Directive several theoretical and practical con- straints related to the employment relationship, the application of labour conditions and the respect for collective agreements can be formulated. The assessment of posting practices in the empirical section is underpinned by two studies co-conducted by the author, one in 2003 (before the EU enlargement) in 10 countries, a second one in 2010 in 12 countries. Finally he reflected on the necessity to revise the rules. The contribution has been made public (in German) on https://broschueren.nordrheinwestfalendirekt. de/broschuerenservice/mais/tagung-zur-sozialen-dimensioneuropas/1620 An English version is forthcoming. 6

7 EVENTS Beijing Global Deans Forum on Labor Science Maarten Keune Maarten Keune represented the University of Amsterdam and AIAS at the Third Global Deans Forum on Labor Science, organized by Renmin University of China and Cornell University in Beijing on October. The Forum brought together Deans, Directors and Chairs of programs in Industrial Relations (IR) and Human Resources from around the world to engage in dialogue about new research and education challenges in the labour field as a result of globalization, the financial crisis, changing government policies, and evolving student enrollment patterns. Participants came from China, Korea, Japan, US, Canada, the Philippines, Taiwan, Australia, the UK, Sweden and the Netherlands. They exchanged information about how their schools and departments are developing strategies to deal with these challenges. They discussed developments in the type of courses they offer in the field of labour and human resources as well as initiatives to increase multidisciplinarity and links between the university and practice. They also talked about how their research programmes are developing and how they organize and finance their schools, departments or institutes. In particular, they focused on possibilities for cooperation, both in education and research, between the institutions represented at the forum. As an outcome of the previous forum, Renmin University and Cornell University signed a comprehensive strategic cooperation agreement in December 2012 and a student exchange programme launched in New initiatives were discussed at the Beijing forum and are expected to take shape in the coming months. 7

8 EVENTS Some presentations held by AIAS staff Paul de Beer, Paneldebate on labour market policies at the Nederlandse Economen Dag, DNB, Amsterdam, October 18. Paul de Beer, speech on individual versus collective responsibility in meritocratic society for the symposium Neem nou Henny, De Burcht, Amsterdam, October 15. Natascha van der Zwan, Keuzevrijheid en Pensioen: Perspectief van de Werkgever [Freedom of Choice and Pension: The Employer s Perspective], paper presented at De Nederlandse Arbeidsmarktdag, October 10, 2013, The Hague. Paul de Beer, presentation of the paper The end of the open society for the workshop Inequality of opportunities or outcomes, University of Antwerp, September 27. Psul de Beer, speech on labour market policies for the conference Staat van Nederland, Stadsschouwburg, Amsterdam, September 23. Nuria Ramos Martín, gave a lecture on: Positive Action and Women Quotas in a seminar at the European Law Academy -ERA- in Trier, Germany. The seminar, financed by the PROGRESS programme of the European Union, dealt with EU Gender Equality Law and it was addressed to legal practitioners. Dr. Ramos also chaired the final session of the seminar. September 17. Nuria Ramos Martín. At the III conference: Regulating for Decent Work at the ILO, Geneva, Ramos Martín presented the paper: Regulating domestic work from the international to the national perspective: The new Spanish Laws on domestic work. July 4 July. Natascha van der Zwan, Making Wall Street Pay: Organized Labor and the 2008 Financial Crisis, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics, June 27-29, 2013, Milan. Nuria Ramos Martín, at the 20 th International Conference of the Council for European Studies, Amsterdam, Ramos Martín organised a panel on: Gender Equality in the Labour Market from an European and Comparative Perspective. The Chair of the panel was Prof. Dr. Klara Boonstra from the VU and the FNV; the discussant was Bart Vanhercke, director of the Observatoire Social Européen in Brussels. Four papers were presented by Prof. Dr. Boonstra, Dr. Minna Van Gerven, Antonio García-Munoz Alhambra and Dr. Nuria E. Ramos Martín. Ramos Martín s paper was titled: Positive Action in EU Gender Equality Law and Policy. June 26. Natascha van der Zwan, Reforming Pension Fund Governance in the Netherlands: Finding a Collective Voice, paper presented during the 20th International Conference of Europeanists, Council of European Studies, June 25-27, 2013, Amsterdam. Natascha van der Zwan, Join the Club! What Associational Democracy Can Teach Us About Pension Fund Governance, paper presented at the meeting of the International Labour and Employment Relations Association (ILERA) Europe, June, , Amsterdam. Paul de Beer, presentaton of paper on solidarity experiment for symposium on Diversity and solidarity at the ILERA conference, Amsterdam, June 22. Robbert van het Kaar, Public offers and worker Involvement in the Netherlands, Goodcorp Network, 16 May, Dublin Natascha van der Zwan, Freedom of Choice or Social Solidarity? The Political Construction of a New Pension Policy Paradigm, paper presented during the AIAS lunch seminar, May 16, 2013, Amsterdam. Paul de Beer, presentation and debate on pensions at the annual congress of the VVD in Maarssen, May 15. Paul de Beer: presentation on the history of the poldermodel for the Vakbondshistorische Vereniging (VHV) in De Burcht, Amsterdam, April 20 Natascha van der Zwan, Freedom of Choice or Social Solidarity? The Political Construction of a New Pension Policy Paradigm, paper presented at the Joint Sessions van de European Consortium of Political Research, March 11-16, 2013, Mainz. Paul de Beer, speech on the almost perfect labour market for the Jan Brouwer Conference of the Koninklijke Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen in Haarlem, January 25 8

9 AIAS EVENTS Labour market intermediaries and employment policies in Europe Flexwork Research Conference October 2013, De Burcht, Amsterdam The University of Amsterdam jointly organized, with the support of Eurociett (the European Confederation of Private Employment Agencies) and ABU (the Dutch federation of Temp Agencies), a conference on Labour market intermediaries and employment policies in Europe: the way to work?. This yearly conference is part of their cooperation in the Flex Work Research Network flexworkresearch.org, a knowledge centre for researchers and policymakers on flexible work, which celebrates its 10 year anniversary this year. The international conference of the Flexwork Research Centre is aimed at academic reflection on flexible labour and labour market policies and was held on October in the Trade Union Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The first plenary lecture was held by Robert Giloth (Annie Casey Foundation) titled Workforce Intermediation for the Twenty First Century and the second plenary lecture was held by Denis Pennel (eurociett) titled The new reality of work: an increasing role for labour market intermediation? followed by five parallel sessions with ten different workshops ranging from Public-Private partnerships, Active Labour Market Policies to Labour Market Intermediaries. See the website for all the speakers: Fifth Asian-European Labour Forum (AELF) hosted by AIAS in Amsterdam, 4-6 September 2013 On 4 to 6 September 2013, the AIAS hosted the 5th AELF, the yearly meeting of a group of about 30 trade unionists and industrial relations researchers from seven Asian and seven European countries, including participants from the ILO, the European Trade Union Institute (ETUI) and the organising Friedrich- Ebert-Stiftung (FES). AIAS researchers Kea Tijdens and Maarten van Klaveren participate in this group. The FES initiated the AELF in 2009, and after Forum meetings in Germany, Vietnam, Norway and South Korea, De Burcht was the highly rewarded venue for the fifth meeting. The 2013 theme was 'Reducing Social Inequalities through Comprehensive Social Security'. It was placed in a broad context by keynote speaker Prof. Rolph van der Hoeven (EUR/ISS, The Hague), and introduced by overview presentations of ILO's Dr. Sangheon Lee and Maarten van Klaveren. Other presentations focused on recent innovations in social security, like on the Social Protection Initiative, by Dr. Frank Hoffer (ILO), and on India's MNREG Scheme, by Prof. Biju Varkkey from IIM, Ahmedabad. The participants devoted the third and last Forum day to the finalisation of their book project with the preliminary title 'Minimum Wages, Collective Bargaining and Economic Development in Asia and Europe'. Eleven out of 15 prospective country chapters could be discussed and commented by the editorial committee led by Maarten van Klaveren. This state of affairs took the participants to the shared conclusion that a book publication in Spring 2014 would be feasible. 9

10 AIAS EVENTS 10 th European Regional Conference ILERA held in Amsterdam June 2013, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam On June the 10 th European Regional conference of the International Labour and Employment Relations Association (ILERA) was held at the University of Amsterdam. The conference was organized by a consortium of Dutch universities with Maarten Keune of AIAS as the chair. Keynote: Prof. Jelle Visser Contributed Sessions The conference was organized around the theme Imagining New Employment Relations and New Solidarities and reflected on the present of employment relations and solidarities under the crisis, as well as on their future after the crisis. Close to 400 participants from 35 countries presented their papers in a total of 66 sessions in five streams: 1. industrial relations in a changing labour market; 2. Europeanisation of social and employment policies; 3. public sector restructuring; 4. new forms of regulation and governance; and 5. HRM and social innovation. The conference counted with set of high-quality keynote speakers including Jelle Visser, Claire Kilpatrick, Guglielmo Meardi and Peter Boxall. It also presented a plenary panel of young talented scholars and a panel on Dutch industrial relations with the participation of key actors from the trade unions and of the temporary agency sector. The conference was closed with a wonderful dinner at the Maritime Museum. We want to thank all participants again for their high-quality contributions and for the great atmosphere. The next European Regional ILERA conference will be in 2016 in Milan. Panel at ILERA conference The Sustainable Company Project Panel: The Sustainable Company Project a new approach to companies from the workers perspective (session book series) at the ILERA conference in Amsterdam. This panel discussed the main results of a unique project which is producing three edited volumes entitled the Sustainable Company series. The project is developing both a conceptual approach and practical proposals for a sustainable, stakeholder-friendly alternative to the shareholder value model of the firm. The contributions have been written by members of the GOODCORP network of academic and trade union experts on corporate governance and company law, which is organised by the European Trade Union Institute. A key part of the Sustainable Company is strengthening workers voice within the firm. The first two volumes have been targeted to current discussions on reforming EU corporate governance and company law. The third volume, in the process of compilation, is targeted at the discussion on sustainable investment, which the European Commission will be starting in Jan Cremers, senior researcher at AIAS and contributor to all three volumes, moderated the panel. See: 10

11 AIAS EVENTS Third Regulating for Decent Work (RDW) Conference 3-5 July 2013, ILO, Geneva On 3 to 5 July 2013, the 3rd Regulating for Decent Work (RDW) Conference took place in the ILO headquarters in Geneva. This conference, under the motto Regulating for Equitable and Job-Rich Growth, was organized by the Conditions of Work and Equality Department of the ILO, in collaboration with four academic institutes: the AIAS; the Centre for Employment and Labour Relations Law (CELRL) of the University of Melbourne; the Fairness at Work Research Centre (FairWRC) of the University of Manchester; and the Institut Arbeit und Qualifikation (IAQ) of the University of Duisburg-Essen. The third of two-yearly events, this conference gave proof of the growing academic interest in forms of labour market regulation with the creation of decent jobs as their paramount objective. In total about 200 participants attended the 45 group sessions and five plenaries. AIAS researchers played various roles. Kea Tijdens was active in the Organizing Committee as one of the three coordinators. In various configurations AIAS researchers Kea Tijdens, Maarten Keune, Janna Besamusca, Stephanie Steinmetz and Maarten van Klaveren delivered five presentations, focusing in particular on female labour participation, informal work and occupational sex segregation. Moreover, Maarten Keune acted as a panel member in the final plenary session on What future for industrial relations?. The RDW network has established its right to exist as a forum for bringing together and discussing critical assessments of current deregulation, though it was somewhat disappointing that the share of participants from emerging and developing countries (about one out of three) did not increase compared with Although due to a restructuring currently taking place within the ILO, the organization of a fourth RDW conference is not yet secured, such a forum seems worth maintaining (See for information the RDW project page: On the website of the ILO, you can find keynote speakers of the conference that talk about recent labour market policies in their country or region of interest, and suggest what more could be done to encourage equitable and job-rich growth: Successful Dutch labour market day 10 October 2013, SER, Den Haag On 10 October, the third biannual Dutch labour market day (Nederlandse ArbeidsmarktDag, NAD) took place at the premises of the Social and Economic Council (SER) in The Hague. The Dutch labour market day was organized by AIAS and Regioplan in cooperation with the SER. This year s theme was changing or anchoring labour. At the plenary sessions, the chair of the SER, Wiebe Draijer, the director of the Netherlands Institute for Social Research (Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau, SCP) and SER crown member and professor of European labour law, Ferdinand Grapperhaus, gave their view on the changes that take place in the labour market and the policy reforms that are needed. In two rounds of parallel sessions, about fifty papers of recent studies on a broad range of issues were discussed. In the afternoon, a forum of representatives of government and business discussed the consequences of the Social pact that was closed between the social partners and the government in April this year. The successful conference, which was attended by about one hundred visitors, was closed by the presentation of the award for the best paper of a young researcher. See also (in Dutch) 11

12 WORKING PAPERS All working papers can be downloaded for free at the website: Go to the sections publications > working papers WP 134, August 2013 Economic valuation in web surveys A review of the state of the art and best practices Angeliki, N. Menegaki, Konstantinos P. Tsagarakis This paper is a review of the currently existent economic valuation surveys (with stated preference methods) developed for and administered through the web. Valuation surveys that employ stated preference techniques are not particularly verbose about the details of their web development or administration. Web surveys for economic valuation are a new, interest raising field, given the worldwide continually increasing computer literacy and internet access. Currently most web valuation studies are concerned with the valuation of a topic of interest (mostly from environmental and energy economics) and hardly few, if any at all, are concerned with the experimentation on the web opportunities themselves and the effect they have on the results of the studies. The paper also presents the advantages of web survey and contributes to consolidating an informed state of the art for field practitioners, developers and reviewers of relevant papers. WP 133, August 2013 Do Spanish firms support initial vocational training? Company behaviour in low-coordinated institutional frameworks Fernàndez Guerrero, D. This paper aims to provide an explanation for the limited development of initial vocational education and training (IVET) in Spain, by employing the Varieties of Capitalism (VoC) literature and other bodies of research in political economy. The author suggests that in the absence of the institutional conditions that would bind firms to cooperate in IVET, firms interest in supporting initial vocational training will be limited, and employers participation in the planning, control, development and funding of the system will be residual. Secondly, under these institutional con- ditions company s support to the system will be mostly conditioned by firms structural characteristics. In order to test these hypotheses he combines quantitative and qualitative research methods, including institutional comparisons between the organisations responsible for managing IVET in Spain and Germany; logistic regressions and Generalised Linear Models (GLM) on company support to initial workplace training; and qualitative, in-depth interviews complementing these quantitative tests. Results indicate an association between limitations in the coordinating capabilities the institutional framework can generate, the lack of employer involvement in the institutions regulating IVET in the Spanish political economy; and a pattern of company cooperation driven by firms structural characteristics. 12

13 WORKING PAPERS WP 132, Aug Interactive applets on the web for methods and statistics Ulf-Dietrich Reips, Gary McClelland The authors present two web applications designed to optimally fulfil the criteria of parsimony, usability, and availability (platform independence) in the teaching of important concepts in research methods and statistics. Effects of confounded variables may bias results in within-subjects designs, and can be avoided or exaggerated by counterbalancing of order. The first web application seeks to illustrate underlying concepts and relationships between true effects, confound effects, and choice of counterbalancing schemes by letting the user continuously manipulate the relevant variables. In the second web application regression is conceptualized interactively by dragging the regression line to minimise continuously updated squares together representing the sum of squared errors. The sites can be viewed at com/within/index.html and WP 131, Jul Can creative web survey questionnaire design improve the response quality? Julijana Angelovska, Petroula M. Mavrikiou The main goal of this experimental research is to explore the opportunities and challenges when taking a creative approach to web survey questionnaire design in order to improve the response rate and quality of responses. Two versions of a questionnaire related to attitudes toward academic procrastination are created; a conventional one and a questionnaire with a popup text message at the end describing the levels of procrastination of each student depending on the scores of the answers and grades of each student. Each student of a total population of 3030 receives randomly an invitation with a link to one of the two web survey questionnaires. A comparison on response rate and quality of responses between these two questionnaires is conducted. Even though no significant statistical increase of response rate appears to be in the second questionnaire, quality of responses in terms of dropouts is significant lower. Forthcoming Working Papers WP 136: Benchmark. Towards evidence-based work fi rst Els Sol, Julie Castonguay, Hanneke van Lindert, Yvonne van Amstel WP 137: Governance of EU labour law. EU s working time directive and its implementation in the Netherlands Els Sol, Nuria Ramos Martín WP 138: Multiple barriers and bridges to work Tomáš Sirovátka & Els Sol WP 139: Positive Action in EU Gender Equality Law: Promoting More Women in Corporate Decision Making? Nuria Elena Ramos Martín WP 140: Who has an informal job and how is that job paid? A jobbased informality index for nine sub-saharan African countries Kea Tijdens, Janna Besamusca, Maarten van Klaveren WP 141: Who should earn what? A Q methodological study on notions of justice of wage differences Wout Scholten, Margo Trappenburg 13

14 WORKING PAPERS All working papers can be downloaded for free at the website: Go to the sections publications > working papers WP 129, Jul Children, elder care and the probalilities Spanish woman have of holding decent works Alberto Villacampa González, Pablo de Pedraza García Using a cross-sectional sample of workers taken from the administrative data set Muestra Continua de Vidas Laborales 2008, the authors investigate how having children and elderly family members at home can affect women s labour situation in Spain. Following the International Labour Organisation concept of Decent Work, they defined a set of job situations that range from more to less decent, and then classified workers according to the decentness level of their work situation. The authors use logistic regressions to calculate the impact of children and elders on the probability of workers holding each level of Decent Work. They conclude that raising children has a strong negative impact for women s Full Time stabilisation, while increasing their options of working part time. The negative effect of childcare is so strong that even reverses the positive impact of age on women s chances of getting a Full Time Decent Job. Moreover, mothers are more exposed to unemployment and inactivity in a bigger proportion than other women. They also find that the younger the children the higher the negative impact, although the negative impact persists even when children reach 18 years of age. Similarly, taking care of an elderly person at home also hinders women s stabilisation at work, both full and part time. WP 128, Jul Collectieve zeggenschap in het Nederlandse pensioenstelsel: De Beroepspensioenvereniging Natascha van der Zwan The working paper presents a case study of pension associations for the liberal professionals (beroepspensioenverenigingen) in the Netherlands. Pension associations are organisations of the active, deferred and retired participants in a mandatory pension scheme for the liberal professions. Through their membership in the pension association, participants in these schemes decide themselves on the content of their pension scheme. Unlike most Dutch employees, these participants thus have collective voice over their pensions. Based on document analysis and interviews with stakeholders, the paper interrogates the institutional structures of these associations, their daily practices and their role within the broader occupational pension system. What emerges from this analysis is that the top-down introduction of collective voice through these pension associations has created a myriad of practices. The paper shows that the implementation of collective voice options has been complicated by three factors: the absence of a participatory culture among members, the institutional legacies of independent pension boards, and the absence of collective bargaining. Still, the pension associations have succeeded in making pension more accessible to participants and creating more checks and balances against pension fund boards. 14

15 AIAS SERIES These papers can be downloaded for free at the website: > publications > NL Industrial Relations series Labour markets & industrial relations in the Netherlands This series aims to publish reports prepared by AIAS staff concerning the Dutch labour market and the industrial relations in the country reprint Representativeness of Trade Unions and Employer Associations in the Insurance Sector Marianne Grunell The insurance sector is a small but important sector in the Dutch economy. There are two sub sections or domains, insurance companies and intermediaries. There are two employer organisations, the Association of Insurers (VvV) and Adfiz (previously Fidin), and four employee organisations: FNV Bondgenoten, CNV Dienstenbond, De Unie, BBV and, on behalf of the self-employed, the FNV Zelfstandigen. About 25% of employees are organised. The four unions are recognised parties at the negotiation table and thus signatory partners to the extended collective agreement in the insurance section. The extended multi-employer collective agreement (for the smaller companies) covers about 35% of the 50,000 employees. The large companies, all members of VvV, each have their own company agreement and dominate the sector. VvV covers 95% of the market. This implies that about 95% of employees are employed in a member company of VvV. Adfiz organises about 14% of companies (intermediaries). In this domain there is no multi-employer agreement and Adfiz is not involved in collective bargaining reprint Employment and Industrial Relations in the railways sector Marianne Grunell The employment challenges facing the Railways sector are related to the consequences of the process of liberalisation and to the expected understaffing. The economic crisis has hardly had any impact, although no growth has taken place in the sector. The social partners address the two issues in cooperation through collective bargaining and social dialogue. With regard to understaffing the social partners together have taken the initiative to establish an own technical school. With regard to the liberalisation process, which started before the year 2000, employer and employee representatives are dependent on decisions made by the government. At the moment the big question is whether the government will in 2015 once again award the concession for the use of the main rail network to the present company, the NS Group. 15

16 GINI PUBLICATIONS More information see Changing Inequalities and Societal Impacts in Rich Countries Thirty Countries Experiences & Analytical and Comparative Perspectives Edited by Brian Nolan, Wiemer Salverda, Daniele Checchi, Ive Marx, Abigail McKnight, István György Tóth and Herman van de Werfhorst These volumes are the product of a most extensive and fruitful scientific collaboration across countries and disciplines, focussed on issues of central importance to modern societies. It is a core output of the Growing Inequalities Impacts GINI research project, funded by the European Commission under the Socio-Economic Sciences and Humanities theme of the Seventh Framework Programme. This project has addressed pressing questions about the evolution of inequalities in income, in wealth, and in educational outcomes and opportunities; and the social, political and cultural impacts these may have, as well their policy context and implications. In doing so, it has drawn on the expertize and commitment of over 150 social scientists, drawn from the disciplines of economics, sociology, political science and public health, and covering a total of 30 countries 25 of the 27 European Union Member States (the exceptions being Cyprus and Malta), Australia, Canada, Japan, Korea, and the USA. This exceptionally wide span is an essential component and strength of the scientific endeavour. This book presents one central element of the product of this collaboration, in the form of individual country studies presenting an overview of the evidence on the evolution of inequalities and their impacts in the country in question over the last three decades. The other core output, reflecting both the findings from comparative analysis and the key messages from the country experiences detailed here, is also being published by Oxford University Press under the title Changing Inequalities in Rich Countries: A Comparative Analysis. There has been a remarkable upsurge of debate about increasing inequalities and their societal implications, reinforced by the economic crisis but bubbling to the surface before it. This has been seen in popular discourse, media coverage, political debate, and research in the social sciences. The central questions addressed by this book, and the major research project GINI on which it is based, are: Have inequalities in income, wealth and education increased over the past 30 years or so across the rich countries, and if so why? What are the social, cultural and political impacts of increasing inequalities in income, wealth and education? What are the implications for policy and for the future development of welfare states? In seeking to answer these questions, this book adopts an interdisciplinary approach that draws on economics, sociology, and political science, and applies a common analytical framework to the experience of 30 advanced countries, namely all the EU member states except Cyprus and Malta, together with the USA, Japan, Canada, Australia and South Korea. It presents a description and analysis of the experience of each of these countries over the past three decades, together with an introduction, an overview of inequality trends, and a concluding chapter highlighting key findings and implications. These case-studies bring out the variety of country experiences and the importance of framing inequality trends in the institutional and policy context of each country if one is to adequately capture and understand the evolution of inequality and its impacts. 16

17 GINI PUBLICATIONS Changing Inequalities and Societal Impacts in Rich Countries: Thirty Countries Experiences Addresses issues about inequality widely debated in the media in recent years Advances academic research in the field by in-depth analysis of country experiences Provides in-depth analysis of key issues in the social sciences across a range of disciplines Provides detailed background and information about inequality experiences and impacts in individual countries not found elsewhere Applies consistent analytical framework across 30 very different countries examining trends over 30 years Publisher Oxford University Press Date January 2014 (estimated) Price Book Hardback & ebook ISBN Pages 776 pages Detail Changing Inequalities in Rich Countries: Analytical and Comparative Perspectives Captures and investigates inequality trends in income, wealth, education, and the labour market Provides detailed information on inequality experiences across 30 countries examining trends over 30 years Combines statistically sophisticated comparative analysis with evidence from individual countries experiences Complements the volume Changing Inequalities and Societal Impacts in Rich Countries: Thirty Countries Experiences Publisher Oxford University Press Date January 2014 (estimated) Price Book Hardback & ebook ISBN Pages 424 pages Detail For ordering the books with a 20% discount look at gini-research.org/ Changing Inequalities & Societal Impacts in Rich Countries Thirty Countries Experiences edited by Brian Wiemer Nolan, Salverda, Wiemer Brian Salverda, Nolan, Daniele Checchi, Ive Marx, Abigail McKnight, István György Tóth, & Herman van de Werfhorst Changing Inequalities in Rich Countries Analytical and Comparative Perspectives edited by Wiemer Salverda, Brian Nolan, Daniele Checchi, Ive Marx, Abigail McKnight, István György Tóth, & Herman van de Werfhorst 17

18 ... European sources Austerity policy undermines collective bargaining ETUI maps wage development in polarising EU EIRO: working hours unchanged but real wages declining across Europe Dynamics underlying the crisis No right of association for religious workers Alliance for apprenticeships... Austria Improperly engaged worker killed Metal sector employers refuse joint negotiations Journalists sign inclusive collective agreement after four years of negotiations... Belgium Air strike possible Registration of posted self-employed revised Dock workers block port after union delegates are denied access End to status discrimination between blue and white collar workers in sight... Bulgaria Industrial disputes and job losses in the mining industry Trade union: general strike if government doesn t provide solution for corruption... Croatia Sluggish negotiations in health sector Support for migrant workers Unions, state, employers start social dialogue over temp agencies... Cyprus Domestic workers suffer 5% pay cut Wage cuts in the banking sector Collective agreement in hotel industry reduces pay Water sports centres organise strike over tendering law... Czech Republic CEO s more concerned on lack of skilled labour Wages stagnate after five years in one job Job losses in mining... Denmark Beer production brought to a halt Working conditions of pea pickers challenged NEWSLETTERS All (complete) newsletter can be downloaded for free Collective Bargaining Newsletter March - August 2013 Jan Cremers and Janna Besamusca The monthly Collective Bargaining Newsletter is produced by AIAS researchers Jan Cremers (editor) and Janna Besamusca in cooperation with the ETUI and can be found on the AIAS and ETUI websites. It includes additional links to records that provide background information. Since June 2013 all files are integrated in an online archive March 2013 EUROPEAN SOURCES Women suffer from the crisis A report from the European trade union federation for the public sector (EPSU) shows that austerity measures have been particularly harmful to women, who in most countries make up the majority of those employed in the public sector. The report looks at eight countries where governments have pursued a policy of public sector cuts. EPSU therefore calls for reversing these negative trends in the advancement for equality and asks the European Commission to take meaningful measures. (March 8, 2013) BELGIUM Ministers lodge complaint on social dumping The federal Economy Minister and the Employment Minister in the Flemish government have filed a complaint for social dumping in the meat sector against the German authorities before the European Commission. Workers from Eastern Europe, mainly Romanians and Bulgarians, work legally for extremely low wages, less than 5 per hour, in excess of 10 hours per day in the German abattoirs. They are not covered by social security or health insurance. According to the ministers, there is a huge amount of fraud and large numbers of these workers are subjected to deplorable conditions. (March 25, 2013) CZECH REPUBLIC Trade unions demand minimum wage increase The CMKOS trade union confederation demands an increase of the minimum wage from 8000 crowns ( 310) to 9000 crowns ( 349) per month. The minimum wage was last raised in The labour minister suggested an increase of around 600 crowns, which the trade union qualified as acceptable. The finance minister, however, expressed himself violently against any raise. The national average monthly salary is currently crowns ( 950). (March 26, 2013) FRANCE Unions and employers discuss permanent contracts for agency workers Trade union and employer representatives entered negotiations over the creation of a new type of contract that will aim to provide agency workers with more job security. If an agreement is reached, the derogation contract (contrat intérimaire) will be the 3rd contract type in the country, next to the permanent contract and the fixed term contract. The new type of contract would allow temporary agencies to hire staff on permanent contracts, but still allow unequal payment between direct hires and agency workers as well as lower wages and fewer hours when no work is available. (March 4, 2013) GREECE Banking sector collective agreement may be automatically cancelled As new troika-led legislation comes into force, banking trade union OTOE has found that its sectoral collective agreement might be automatically cancelled in May. In accordance with the new laws, any sectoral collective agreement will be automatically cancelled three months after its expiration if the parties concerned fail to reach a new agreement. If the banking sector collective agreement is cancelled, employees will have only the national minimum wage to fall back on. (March 14, 2013) April 2013 EUROPEAN SOURCES IMF policy threatens bargaining traditions In the International Trade Union Confederation s report ITUC Frontlines April 2013 the impact of the policy of the International Monetary Fund on collective bargaining is treated. The IMF policy is said to be a straightforward attack on collective bargaining traditions, based on the experiences in four EU countries (Romania, Greece, Spain and Portugal). Moves from industry- and economy-wide collective bargaining to enterprise bargaining will result in extremely low levels of trade union membership and equally low levels of collective bargaining coverage. The attack is not confined to the peripheral countries of Europe: more successful economies have been pressed to match draconian reforms to maintain their own competitive edge. (April 24, 2012) BULGARIA The struggle for social rights Twenty years after the fall of the Eastern European block, the transition to a social market democracy has been disappointing. The drastic overhaul of the social-insurance, pension, and health-care systems have sown enormous personal insecurity. The country s radical and extensive privatisation and economic restructuring have led to systemic impoverishment. According to the European Commission Report of March 2013, 49% of the total population and 52% of the children were in 2011 at risk of poverty or social exclusion. For pensioners aged over 65 the situation is markedly worse with the people at risk amounting to 61%. Actually, the economic crisis has escalated into a political one. (April 4, 2012) GREECE Mass layoffs in public sector The parliament passed a bill which will see up to 15,500 public-sector workers laid off by The job cuts are part of the conditions set by the EU and IMF in return for 8.8 billion in emergency loans. About 2,000 civil servants 18

19 NEWSLETTERS will be laid off by the end of May 2013, with another 2,000 following by the end of 2013 and a further 11,500 by end-2014, for a total of 15,500. The legislation is the latest wave of the country s severe austerity program. Several hundred demonstrators outside the parliament took part in a protest called by civil servants union ADEDY, and the private sector GSEE union. (April 29, 2012) NETHERLANDS Tripartite deal softens austerity Social partners and the government concluded a tripartite agreement on the labour market reform. The negotiations are a traditional part of the polder model of policy making including all stakeholders. Proposals to change the unemployment benefits scheme will be reversed. The signatories hope the accord will revive public confidence. A 4.3 billion raft of cuts planned for 2014 was put on ice. In the ranks of the trade union confederations a strong majority backed up the deal. (April 20, 2012) PORTUGAL Court rejects austerity measures The Constitutional Court rejected four austerity measures, including planned cuts in public sector pay and state pensions, after scrutinising articles of the 2013 budget. The court said it was unfair to single public sector workers out. Cuts in sickness and unemployment benefits were also rejected. (April 5, 2012) May 2013 GERMANY Further engineering strike averted - Pay deal at Volkswagen Trade union IG Metall agreed a pay deal with the metal industry s employers association, averting the threat of a major strike. Salaries will increase in two steps: a 3.4% rise in July 2013 and a further 2.2% rise in May Volkswagen negotiates its own separate wage agreement with unions for a number of years now. Based on this deal workers at Volkswagen s factories and financial services, in total 102,000 workers, will receive a pay hike in a two-step wage increase over the next 20 months (3.4% from September 2013 and another 2.2% from July 2014 onwards). The VW agreement runs until February 2015 and includes a one-time contribution of 300 in each worker s pension plan. (May 28, 2012) HUNGARY Trade union alliance in the making The three biggest trade union associations - ASZSZ, MSZOSZ and SZEF - announced an alliance at a joint general meeting in Budapest on International Workers Day. The aim is to establish an alliance that could fight for the acknowledgment of labour, for greater security and for dignified living conditions. The associations represent almost 70 unions with some 300,000 members, or about two-thirds of unionised labour. (May 5, 2012) IRELAND Court rules agreements unconstitutional The Supreme Court has declared the Registered Employment Agreements, which set pay rates for certain sectors, unconstitutional. In a significant judgment affecting several employment sectors, the court ruled such agreements are incompatible with the constitution as these delegated law-making powers beyond the Parliament (Oireachtas). The challenge to the REAs was taken by electrical contractors, who welcomed the decision. The electricians trade union TEEU has said the decision does not overturn existing pay rates and conditions. However, the electrical contractors group, the NECI, said the judgment means all current agreements `are cancelled. (May 9, 2012) NORWAY Report on early retirement Research institute FAFO published a paper about the early retirement systems, age retirement limits and pension schemes for occupations that have a lower than standard age limit in the occupational pension system. The study looks at schemes either based on legislation or on collective agreements. The overall pension system has undergone several changes over the past 7 years. It is expected that the traditional define benefit schemes will be transformed to new types of (hybrid) pension systems. (May 23, 2012) June 2013 IRELAND Laundry workers receive compensation Following a decade-long campaign by former residents of the Catholic-run Magdalene laundries 100 former residents will receive payments of at least 34.5 million euros to compensate them for their years of unpaid labour and public shame. Activists representing the socalled `Maggies had demanded justice and state compensation since 2002, when a previous government launched a compensation fund for people who had suffered abuse in Catholic-run orphanages and workhouses for children but declared former Magdalene residents ineligible - contending that the laundries were privately run institutions with negligible state involvement. (June 26, 2012) SWITZERLAND Introduction of minimum pay historical success For the very first time the trade union Unia has succeeded to reach a deal on the introduction of minimum wages in the machinery, electrical equipment and metal industries. In the collective agreement minimum wages are agreed that will protect workers against social dumping. It is estimated that 10 to 20% of the workers will directly profit from the protection of this long-cherished demand. Other improvements include more paternal leave rights and a longer period for mandatory consultation in case of collective dismissal. (June 21, 2012) UNITED KINGDOM Fight for equal pay won A group of female classroom assistants and nursery workers won an important stage in their fight for equal pay as they received the backing of the UK Supreme Court to take their claim back to an employment tribunal. The decision in their favour could have far-reaching implications. The 251 employees of Dumfries and Galloway Council argued that they were entitled to pay that was equal to the money received by men working at a similar level. The male employees have been earning 30% bonuses to which the women have not been entitled. (June 26, 2013) July

20 NEWSLETTERS AUSTRIA Journalists sign inclusive collective agreement after four years of negotiations After 4 years of difficult negotiations, during which employers withdrew from bargaining once and unions organised industrial actions, journalists have a new collective agreement. The agreement is the first to apply to both print and online editorial staff of daily and weekly newspapers, permanent freelance staff and to technical-editorial staff equally. The standard working week remains 38 hours, but work on a sixth day will not be counted as overtime and paid at a 50% supplement. In terms of pay the agreement represents a step back. Starting pay is down to 2,185 (from 2,541) per month and increases to a `standard wage level in over three years. (July 1, 2013) CROATIA Unions, state, employers start social dialogue over temp agencies On the occasion of the entry into the EU, trade unions, employers and government organised a round table on the future of temp agency work. The tripartite meeting was a first step towards a social dialogue in the sector and served primarily for the identification of the priorities of the partners. (July 2, 2013) DENMARK Outsourcing of cleaning work demarcates end of the full time job Research by public services union FOA shows that cleaners, who perform work that has been outsourced to cleaning companies, are no longer able to attain one full time job. Some cleaners have seen their hours drastically reduced, whereas others have been forced to work two jobs. FOA reports that cleaners taking on two jobs regularly work from six in the morning to seven in the evening. (July 2, 2013) FINLAND Minister calls for centralised wage agreement Speaking about the challenges posed by the economic crisis, the minister of finance has called on the social partners to reach a centralised wage agreement. According to the minister, a moderate yet comprehensive wage agreement would be both good for purchasing power and for economic predictability. (July 11, 2013) LUXEMBOURG Last minute deal averts strike in construction sector After 4 years of negotiations, trade unions OGBL and LCGB reached an agreement with employers in the construction sector. The collective agreement averts a strike and includes hikes in tariff wages as well as end-of-year premiums and better safety provisions on the work site. The new agreement does neither include re-negotiated working hours, annual leave and bad weather compensation, which employers wanted, nor any retroactive wage increases, demanded previously by the trade unions. (July 12, 2013) SPAIN Law limiting collective agreement extension comes into force A new law on collective bargaining has come into force, which severely limits the extension of collective agreements. In accordance with this law, all agreements that have not been renegotiated by 8 July will automatically lapse. Unions throughout the countries had called on employers organisations to press their members to ensure agreements had been renegotiated by then, but this does not appear to have happened. (July 7, 2013) August 2013 BELGIUM Registration of posted self-employed revised Companies with posted workers and self-employed workers from abroad that intent to work temporarily or partially in Belgium must complete a declaration via the Limosa website. The European Court of Justice had serious doubts about this obligation for self-employed. Following the judgment of the ECJ of 19 December 2012 (Case C-577/10), the government revised the Limosa-obligation to report a posting as a self-employed person. Starting July 1, 2013, the obligation is fully applicable again in a new form. (August 1, 2013) CYPRUS Domestic workers suffer 5% pay cut At the recommendation of the ministerial committee for the employment of third country nationals, the government has announced it will cut the fixed salary of foreign domestic workers by 5%, reducing gross salaries from 484 to 460. The cut reduces net salaries from 326 to 314. The government also announced it will terminate the indexation of the cost of living allowance for domestic workers. (August 10, 2013) ESTONIA Unions join forces The Estonian Trade Unions Confederation (ETUC) began talks with the Finnish Trade Union for Construction Workers to create a joint organisation with the aim to provide Estonian construction workers similar help as the Finns offer. The confederation has already started to look for contacts that would help create a trade union with considerable influence and a good services package. Several major labour branches are not covered by Estonian trade unions, notably banking and construction. (August 8, 2013) GERMANY Minimum wage in meat-packaging Following a campaign of the food workers union NGG and growing media exposure of abusive practices the governments of 4 cities in the State of Lower Saxony signed an agreement with meat-packing companies and their labour contractors establishing a minimum hourly wage of NGG describes the local governments actions as a step in the right direction, but insists that transport, tools, and clothing must be paid for by employers as the deal still allows deductions. (August 20, 2013) ITALY Fiat s landmark court ruling FIOM, the metalworkers trade-union of the confederation CGIL, won a ruling before the Constitutional Court after having petitioned against being excluded from the company union representation bodies (RSAs) at Fiat s plants for not having signed the company s labour agreements. The recent ruling ordered the carmaker to expand its worker representation base to include the unions that refused to sign the company s labour agreement. The Constitutional Court said in a statement that it considered illegitimate the part of the article that said unions who did not sign the collective agreements applied at a company s plant could be excluded from RSAs, even if they had taken part in the negotiations. (August 26, 2013) 20

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