A Design of a Teaching Mode for an Upper Limb Therapy Robot

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A Design of a Teaching Mode for an Upper Limb Therapy Robot"

Transcription

1 A Design of a Teaching Mode for an Upper Limb Therapy Robot by Jason Harris A Thesis presented to The University of Guelph In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Master of Science In Engineering Guelph, Ontario, Canada Jason Harris, April, 2013

2 ABSTRACT A DESIGN OF A TEACHING MODE FOR AN UPPER LIMB THERAPY ROBOT Jason Harris, P.Eng. University of Guelph, 2013 Advisor: Professor H. Abdullah, P.Eng. Stroke is an age related illness with significant individual and societal impacts. The long term impacts associated with many strokes can be mitigated with timely rehabilitation. Therapy robots have been introduced to these programs in an effort to reduce the economic burden to society and to improve the level of care provided to stroke survivors. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a teaching mode for an upper limb therapy robot. The system will allow physiotherapists to interact with the therapy robot without the need for any specialized industrial training. At the same, the system will reduce the data associated with patient movements to reduce requirements for robot safety and motion systems. The proposed system was successfully confirmed using a laboratory scale industrial robot and a standalone motion control system consisting of commercially available AC servo motors and a motion controller with both generated and recorded paths.

3 Acknowledgements This journey is coming to an end because of the unwavering conviction that that was generously offered by a fantastic support group. Dr. Hussein Abdullah provided expertise, guidance and compassion while at the same time challenging and stretching the boundaries of my knowledge in his role as my advisor. I am a better person as a result of his mentorship. I would also like to express my gratitude to Dr. Gordon Hayward, who provided additional input in the home stretch. Thank you to Cole Tarry for his support during our early exploration of the research and his ability to support my ongoing efforts once he had moved on. Finally, I would like to thank my wife Emily for always believing in me. I am blessed to have you in my life and look forward to our next adventure. iii

4 Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction Motivation Objectives and Design Specifications Methodology Contributions Organization of Thesis... 5 Chapter 2 Literature Review Stroke Factors Affecting Recovery Therapy Robots Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Manus Robot The US Mirror Image Movement Enabler (MIME) REHAROB ARMin and ARMin II Other Robot Therapy Systems Measures Motion Capture Summary Chapter 3 Therapy Robot Manipulator and Passive Upper Limb Model Introduction iv

5 3.2 Anthropometrics Preliminary RRP Manipulator Design Preliminary RRP Manipulator Kinematic Equations Revised RRR Manipulator Design Revised RRR Manipulator Kinematic Equations Passive Upper Limb Model Passive Upper Limb Model Kinematic Equations Summary Chapter 4 Therapy Robot System Integration Introduction Motion Capture Linear Simplification Therapy Robot System Simulation Simulation Recorded Data Worksheet Simulation Curve Fitting Worksheet Simulation Trough Generation Worksheet Therapy Robot System Simulation Interface Worksheet Therapy Robot System Simulation Other Worksheets Manipulator Motive System Testing Motor, Driver and Motion Controller Configuration Two Axes Control Optical Encoders and Encoder Data Acquisition Card Manipulator Motive System Software Force Sensor v

6 Chapter 5 Results and Discussion Introduction Teaching Mode Deterministic Exercise Paths Motion Capture Recorded Exercise Paths Linear Simplification Execution of Simplified Exercise Paths CRS A255 Manipulator Execution of Simplified Exercise Paths Manipulator Motive System Execution of Simplified Exercise Paths Trough Implementation on Executed Simplified Path Data Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Work Conclusions Future Work Bibliography Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D vi

7 List of Tables Table 2.1 Stroke Risk Factors... 7 Table 3.1 Modified D H Parameters for the Preliminary RRP Manipulator Design Table 3.2 Anthropometric Data (meters) Table 3.3 Modified D H Parameters for the Revised RRR Manipulator Design Table 3.4 Characteristics of the Passive Upper Limb Model Table 3.5 Modified D H Parameters for the Passive Upper Limb Model Table 4.1 Exercises Used in the Therapy robot System Simulation Table 4.2 NextMoveBX II Inter connections with the FlexDrive Servo Controller Table 4.3 JR3, Inc. Model 45E15A Pin Map Table 5.1 Exercises Used to Confirm Therapy Robot System Components Table 5.2 Simplified Exercise Path as a Percentage of Original Exercise Path vii

8 List of Figures Figure 2.1 MIT MANUS Base Module [5] Figure Degree of Freedom Linear Expansion Module [5] Figure 2.3 Initial MIME Configuration [36] Figure 2.4 Current MIME Configuration [36] Figure 2.5 REHAROB Configuration [39], 2005 IEEE Figure 2.6 View of the REHAROB Project Dummy Limb [40] Figure 2.7 ARMin and ARMin II Configurations [42][43], 2006, 2007 IEEE Figure 2.8 Upper Extremity Motion Capture System [47], 2009 IEEE Figure 3.1 Limb Length Ratios [50] Figure 3.2 Skeletal Frame for the Preliminary RRP Manipulator Design Figure 3.3 Preliminary RRP Manipulator Design Workspace Figure 3.4 Upper Limb Positions Used for the Revised RRR Manipulator Design Optimization Figure 3.5 Lower Limb Positions Used for the Revised RRR Manipulator Design Optimization Figure 3.6 Characteristics of the Revised RRR Manipulator Design Figure 3.7 Co ordinate Frames and Dimensions of the Passive Upper Limb Model Figure 4.1 Graphical User Interface Showing Teaching Mode Options and a Virtual Representation of the Patient s Limb Figure 4.2 Therapy Robot System Teaching Mode Steps Figure 4.3 Douglas Peucker Algorithm viii

9 Figure 4.4 Therapy Robot System Simulation Douglas Peucker Algorithm Outputs (ε=0.5cm) Figure 4.5 Therapy Robot System Simulation Exercise Envelope of 5 cm Figure 4.6 Therapy Robot System Simulation View of Patient s Right Side Figure 4.7 Therapy Robot System Simulation Optimized RRR Manipulator Joint Positions Figure 4.8 Baldor Motion Controller, Driver and Motor Test Setup (Schematic) Figure 4.9 Baldor Motion Controller, Driver and Motor Test Setup (Actual) Figure 4.10 Manipulator Motive System Software Figure 4.11 File System Interface Figure 4.12 Force Sensor Mounted to Tool Flange and Interfaced to A/D Converter.. 92 Figure 5.1 Diamond Exercise (Constant Tangential Velocity) Figure 5.2 Circle Exercise (Constant Tangential Velocity) Figure 5.3 Circle Exercise (Constant Tangential Acceleration) Figure 5.4 Logarithmic Spiral Exercise (Constant Tangential Velocity) Figure 5.5 Logarithmic Spiral Exercise (Constant Tangential Acceleration) Figure 5.6 Elbow Flexion Exercise Figure 5.7 Shoulder Flexion Exercise Figure 5.8 Douglas Peucker Outputs for Diamond Exercise Path Figure 5.9 Douglas Peucker Outputs for Circle (Constant Tangential Velocity) Exercise Path ix

10 Figure 5.10 Douglas Peucker Outputs for Circle (Constant Acceleration) Exercise Path Figure 5.11 Douglas Peucker Outputs for Logarithmic Spiral (Constant Tangential Velocity) Exercise Path Figure 5.12 Douglas Peucker Outputs for Logarithmic Spiral (Constant Tangential Acceleration) Exercise Path Figure 5.13 Douglas Peucker Outputs for Elbow Flexion Exercise Path Figure 5.14 Douglas Peucker Outputs for Shoulder Flexion Exercise Path Figure 5.15 CRS A255 Simplified Diamond Path Execution Figure 5.16 Interactive Forces for the Simplified Diamond Path Execution Figure 5.17 CRS A255 Simplified Circle Path Execution Figure 5.18 CRS A255 Simplified Logarithmic Spiral Path Execution Figure 5.19 Interactive Forces for the Simplified Circle Path Execution Figure 5.20 Interactive Forces for the Simplified Logarithmic Spiral Path Execution. 117 Figure 5.21 Manipulator Motive System Executing the Simplified Diamond Exercise Path (3D) Figure 5.22 Manipulator Motive System Executing the Simplified Circle Exercise Path (3D) Figure 5.23 Manipulator Motive System Executing the Simplified Logarithmic Spiral Exercise Path (3D) Figure 5.24 Manipulator Motive System Executing the Simplified Elbow Flexion Exercise Path (3D) x

11 Figure 5.25 Manipulator Motive System Executing the Simplified Shoulder Flexion Exercise Path (3D) Figure 5.26 Executed Simplified Circle Path Overlaid on the Circle Trough (top view) Figure 5.27 Executed Simplified Circle Path Overlaid on the Circle Trough (side view) Figure 5.28 Executed Simplified Diamond Path Overlaid on the Diamond Trough (top view) Figure 5.29 Executed Simplified Diamond Path Overlaid on the Diamond Trough (side view) Figure 5.30 Executed Simplified Logarithmic Spiral Path Overlaid on the Logarithmic Spiral Trough (top view) Figure 5.31 Executed Simplified Logarithmic Spiral Path Overlaid on the Logarithmic Spiral Trough (side view) xi

12 List of Abbreviations 2D two dimensional 3D three dimensional ARM Guide Assisted Rehabilitation and Measurement Guide BMI body mass index D H Denavit and Hartenberg DLL dynamically linked libraries GDP gross domestic product GIS geographical information systems HMI human machine interface MIME Mirror Image Movement Enabler MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology REHAROB Robotic Therapy System for Upper Limb Motion Therapy for the Disabled RRP revolute revolute prismatic RRR revolute revolute revolute SCARA selective compliance assembly robot arm xii

13 TIA transient ischemic attack VA Veteran Affairs VBA Visual Basic for Applications xiii

14 Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Motivation In 2010 global health care expenditures totaled 6.5 trillion USD and accounted for 10.4% of global gross domestic product (GDP). In the five year period from 2005 to 2010 health care expenditures in North America increased by greater than 30% [1]. It is clear that this rate of growth is not sustainable given current economic conditions and the aging Baby Boom generation. In Canada over the next 23 years the number of seniors will double and ultimately account for 25% of the total population [2]. Therefore, by the sheer force of its numbers, this cohort will have a profound impact on the way that society manages old age and all of its associated health care costs. One of the biggest age related illnesses is stroke, with stroke rates more than doubling each decade after a person reaches the age of 55 [3]. Beyond the initial trauma, the prognosis for stroke patients is somewhat reliant on the timeliness and frequency of the intervention. In general, motility will decline after stroke without intervention [4]. Therefore, it is critical that stroke rehabilitation therapies evolve so that they may be delivered in a cost effective manner with equivalent or greater patient prognoses. It is entirely predictable that the health care systems are struggling to meet the increased demands imposed by the Baby Boom generation, with the result that stroke patients may not receive optimal interventions that are tailored to their individual needs. 1

15 Chapter 1 In the mid 1990 s it was envisioned that the use of robotics could be used to complement and potentially supplement physiotherapists for the simple repetitive therapies often employed for stroke rehabilitation [5]. Therapy Robot Systems hold out the promise that multiple patients could be served under the supervision of a reduced number of physiotherapists. Therapy Robot Systems also bring more repeatable and precise quantitative measurement techniques to the interventions for both initial and ongoing assessment. With further development it may be possible for therapy robots to alleviate some of the economic pressure associated with this grievous disease. This thesis presented work that was related to enhancing a therapy robot system by providing a teaching mode that enabled physiotherapists to teach customized exercises that are tailored to a patient s level of impediment and need. The customized exercises can then be processed using a linear generalization algorithm to reduce the dataset. The reduced dataset can be used: to program the therapy robot in a feedback mechanism to the therapy robot during motion to provide feedback about patient performance during the exercise The therapy robot system also provided a graphical user interface that allows the physiotherapist and patient to communicate with therapy robot. 1.2 Objectives and Design Specifications The objective of this research project was to develop a safe and reliable system for teaching therapy robot systems patient or physiotherapist led patient motions. The 2

16 Chapter 1 safety system will be provided with maximum processor availability if the amount of processing power utilized by the robot therapy system to reproduce patient or physiotherapist led patient motions is minimized. Proof of concept must be established with a physical implementation of the therapy robot system using components available to the University of Guelph s Rehabilitation Robotics Group. Proof of concept is only required for two dimensions as long as the theory is valid for both two and three dimensional exercise paths. Therefore, the therapy robot system must be proven with at least: A CRS C500 controller and CRS A255 robot manipulator Baldor NextMoveBX II motion controller, FlexDrive motor controller and a BSM80A 350BA AC servo motor The therapy robot system will also be capable of reproducing movements within an acceptable tolerance as specified by a physiotherapist. The original recorded exercise path and the proposed exercise path along with the robot movements must be available for review offline. 1.3 Methodology The methodology employed to meet the objectives stated in Section 1.2 are as follows: 1. Research the prior advances in the rehabilitation robots communities 2. Review the proposed therapy robot manipulator design by previous researchers at the University of Guelph 3. Revise the proposed therapy robot manipulator for a smaller workspace. This task was accomplished by ensuring complete overlap of the patient and therapy 3

17 Chapter 1 robot workspaces while minimizing the proposed therapy robot manipulator link lengths. 4. Develop a passive upper limb model for simulation and prototype testing purposes based on anthropometric data for the affected population. 5. Develop kinematic equations for the revised therapy robot manipulator and the upper limb model. 6. Program and prototype the motion capture system using the passive upper limb model complete with GUI. 7. Simulate the motion capture, data reduction and revised therapy robot movement. 8. Incorporate the data reduction algorithm into the therapy robot system software. 9. Incorporate controller interfaces for both the commercially available CRS robot and the proposed manipulator motive system into the therapy robot system software. 10. Test the therapy robot system integration using a standard set of exercises and compare the outputs to those of the therapy robot system simulation. 1.4 Contributions The main contributions of this thesis and the accompanying research project are: Contextual optimization of the proposed therapy robot manipulator to aid patients with the rehabilitation of an upper limb. Construction of an instrumented passive upper limb model that was used to test the prototype therapy robot exercise teaching/learning system. Programming of a therapy robot system simulator to test the exercise teaching/learning system algorithms. 4

18 Chapter 1 Development of a therapy exercise motion capture technique that results in reduced data set storage and transfer to the therapy robot exercise teaching/learning system controller. Integration of the therapy robot exercise teaching/learning system software with the passive upper limb model, a commercially available robot manipulator and proposed manipulator motive system providing proof of concept. Incorporation of a GUI for the therapy robot exercise teaching/learning system software for exercise path review and simulation. 1.5 Organization of Thesis The framework of this thesis is governed by the systematic approach employed to develop a prototype therapy robot exercise teaching/learning system. Therefore, the thesis is comprised of 5 additional chapters. Chapter 2 is comprised of a literature review and discussion of the research that has been undertaken on therapy robot systems over the last 20 years. Chapter 3 focuses on the development of a revised therapy robot manipulator. The workspace was optimized for a demographic with specific rehabilitation exercise regimes. This chapter also includes the development of a passive upper limb model that was used to test the prototype therapy robot exercise teaching/learning system. Chapter 4 describes the main components that were developed and integrated to prototype the therapy robot exercise teaching/learning system with a lab scale commercially available manipulator and potential future drives systems. Chapter 5 discusses the test methodology and the results that were obtained from the system implementation that was described in Chapter 4. The thesis is concluded in Chapter 6 by providing recommendations for future research and development work and potential application to other research topics. 5

19 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 Stroke The main type of stroke, Ischemic stroke, occurs when a thrombus forms in one of the arteries of the brain inhibiting blood flow [6]. A thrombus or blood clot forms as the final step in the hemostasis process where coagulation occurs and platelets aggregate [7]. Sometimes the thrombus forms elsewhere in the circulatory system and breaks off to form a thrombo embolus that can become lodged in one of the arteries in the brain, also inhibiting blood flow [7]. The severity of an Ischemic stroke is dependent on the size of the blocked cerebral artery and its location in the brain. Ischemic strokes account for approximately 75 80% of all strokes [6]. The second type of stroke is a hemorrhagic stroke. As the name implies, a blood vessel within the brain hemorrhages and fills any void spaces in the surrounding area. In both cases, the result is that increased pressure and a lack of oxygenated blood supply damage tissues within the brain [6]. There are numerous risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease. Risk factors are largely categorized as controllable and uncontrollable factors. Controllable risk factors can be further classified as Medical and Lifestyle Risk Factors [6] as shown in Table 2.1. Despite a declining number of hospitalizations and deaths associated with stroke, it remains one of the most impactful of all chronic diseases [8]. Diseases of the circulatory system are a leading cause of mortality [9] and permanent adult disability [10]. 6

20 Chapter 2 Table 2.1 Stroke Risk Factors Controllable Risk Factors Controllable Medical Controllable Lifestyle Risk Factors Risk Factors High Blood Pressure Tobacco Use and Atrial Fibrillation Smoking High Cholesterol Alcohol Use Diabetes Physical Inactivity Atherosclerosis Obesity Circulatory Problems Uncontrollable Risk Factors Age Gender Race Family History Previous Stroke or TIA Fibromuscular Dysplasia Patent Foramen Ovale Stroke has a substantial impact on the Canadian economy, families, and individuals. In 2000 it is estimated that strokes cost $3.6 billion in health care spending and lost productivity due to premature death and long term disability [11]. Greater than 1.1% of Canadians outside of institutional care suffer from the effects of stroke. Between one third and two thirds of these individuals and those in institutional care are left with some form of permanent disability requiring ongoing care [12] and about half of all stroke survivors are left with a non functioning arm [13]. The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada estimates that only 10% of patients completely recover from stroke [14]. 2.2 Factors Affecting Recovery Final assessment is mostly based on discharge from the hospital stroke unit or rehabilitation center [13]. The following complications are known to cause loss of motor function in hemiplegia: 7

21 Chapter 2 Shoulder pain Reduced range of motion Loss of sensory function Increased muscle tone There are different mechanisms involved in stroke recovery. It has been suggested that the following three interdependent mechanisms may be involved [15]: 1. Salvation of penumbral tissue surrounding the infarcted area; 2. Elevation of cerebral shock (i.e. elevation of diaschisis ); and 3. The ability of the brain to adapt by neuroplasticity Another study suggests that exercise training enhances the mechanisms associated with experience dependant plasticity [16]. Regardless of the mechanisms involved, it appears that recovery outcomes are highly dependent on the severity of the hemiplegia [17]. The majority of all treatments employed in Western medicine focus on restoring motor control through: 1. Neurodevelopment treatments that prevent undesirable muscle patterns and to redevelop automatic reactions, or 2. Proprioceptor neuromuscular facilitation that strengthens wanted movement patterns by stimulating proprioceptors in affected muscle groups. Both techniques are effective at restoring some movement fairly rapidly after treatment has been commenced. Other techniques exist, but they have limited application due to the nature of the complications associated with stroke [18]. 8

22 Chapter 2 Therapy robots and their associated workstations have been used in very specific instances with applications rapidly advancing as the field of therapy robotics matures. It has been shown in several different studies that therapy robots are just as effective as traditional therapy, with some even claiming that therapy robots provide more effective rehabilitation [19]. Mechanical assistance does appear to have one advantage in that the reproduced motions appear to be smoother [19]. Robots and their associated workstations are also advantageous because they can introduce complex treatment environments that combine multiple therapeutic techniques through complex haptic and virtual environments. 2.3 Therapy Robots Robot therapies overcome some limitations associated with more traditional manual therapy solutions. Robots can be mass produced, do not fatigue, and provide excellent repeatability while providing objective and quantitative measures. Preliminary studies of the acceptance of robots by patients and physiotherapists were done by Dijkers and others in 1991 [20]. These studies showed that the robots could successfully repeat and record movements but lacked information about the quality of those movements. As the decade passed, interest grew in the field of therapeutic applications of robots. The goal of the majority of this research was to assist, enhance and quantify rehabilitation programs by implementing robotics and computer system technologies [21]. 9

23 Chapter 2 A literature survey shows that many robot assistive devices have been designed to deliver therapy for the upper limb. However, only a small subset of these devices has actually been tested in clinical trials. These clinically tested devices include: 1. MIT Manus One, 2 degree of freedom manipulator integrated with a visual interface [21][22][23]. 2. MIME One, PUMA 560 robot for the paretic arm with a 6 degree of freedom manipulator for the non affected arm [24][25]. 3. ARM Guide One, 3 degree of freedom manipulator that is motorized on the last joint with a visual interface [26]. 4. GENTLE One, 6 degree of freedom manipulator (3 active and 3 passive) with arm orthosis and a visual interface [27]. 5. BiManu Track Two, 1 degree of freedom manipulators [28]. 6. BATRAC / Tailwind Two, 2 degree of freedom manipulators (no motorization) with an audio interface [29]. 7. REHA ROB Two, ABB industrial robots [30]. 8. ReJoyce One, 6 degree of freedom manipulator with a video interface and telerehabilitation capabilities [31]. 9. University of Guelph Therapy Robot One, CRS A255 industrial robot and a visual interface [32]. Socially assistive robots are also of considerable interest. This category of robots focuses on encouraging interactions in which the patient actively participates in interactions that help to achieve therapeutic and rehabilitation goals. In one system, researchers have developed a robot that assumes different assistive personality behaviours. The assumed behaviour depends on observed patient traits [33]. 10

24 Chapter 2 A more in depth review of some of the founding and more unique therapy robot systems for rehabilitation of the upper limb follows. In general, these systems can be loosely categorized into one or more of the following categories: 1. Systems incorporating commercially available robot systems (i.e. manipulator, controllers etc.) interfaced with customized rehabilitation software, instrumentation and safety systems or fully customized designs with the mechanical, control, software, instrumentation and safety systems that are all developed by a common research entity. 2. Systems based on unilateral treatment of the affected limb or systems incorporating bilateral treatment strategies where both the non affected upper limb and the affected upper limb execute similar therapy routines. 3. Systems that focus on task specific rehabilitation activities or those that focus on repetitive motion. 4. Systems that allow for unrestricted movement of the elbow and shoulder joints or systems that fully control the upper limb Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Manus Robot The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Manus Robot System has seen the largest commercial acceptance. The system consists of a base module that shares common feature sets which include backward drivable mechanics and impedance controls with expansion modules [5]. The base module comprises a 2 degree of freedom robot manipulator constraining motion to a horizontal plane. The manipulator is a direct drive five bar linkage SCARA (selective compliance assembly robot arm) and is controlled using readily available computer components with 16 bit analog to digital and digital to analog input/output cards as well as a digital input output card. The same personal computer also provides visual tasks on monitors for both the patient and the 11

25 Chapter 2 operator. The base module allows for minor passive vertical deviations through a set of springs [34]. A second module consisting of a 3 degree of freedom device mounts to the end effector of the base module allowing for wrist rotations. Left and right handed orthoses were manufactured in multiple sizes for the end effectors of both modules and are connected via magnetic locks for ease of connection and rapid/safe disconnection in the event of an emergency. Late in 2000 the research group deployed a prototype as a third module. The final iteration of the 1 degree of freedom linear manipulator can be combined with the base module to expand the horizontal planar rehabilitation workspace to a third dimension beyond the passive deviations allowed for by the springs. Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2 show commercial versions of the MIT MANUS base module and the 1 degree of freedom linear expansion module. Figure 2.1 MIT MANUS Base Module [5] 12

26 Chapter 2 The base module incorporates 16 bit virtual absolute encoders for position and velocity measurements. For safety purposes, redundant velocity measurement is also provided by parallel DC tachometers. Patient to robot interactive forces are measured using a 6 degree of freedom force sensor that is mounted at the robot s end effector [5]. Figure Degree of Freedom Linear Expansion Module [5] The MIT MANUS has been present, in various forms, in a clinical setting since 1994 [5]. During that time, the system has been through numerous clinical tests and trials. In a recent journal article Volpe et al. concluded that both physiotherapist led and robot led intensive movement based training resulted in positive motor performance in patients with equivalent outcomes provided, both programs were completed with equal session duration, total number, and timing [35]. Finally, Volpe et al. raise an interesting point when they question the economic viability of physiotherapist delivered treatment 13

27 Chapter 2 within the North American health care delivery models, required to match the outcome produced by robot training The US Mirror Image Movement Enabler (MIME) The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Palo Alto Health Care System and the School of Engineering at Stanford University have partnered to develop the US Mirror Image Movement Enabler (MIME) Robot System. The MIME therapy system was originally developed as two, 2 degree of freedom exoskeletons in a master/slave configuration. As the patient moves the non affected arm through a combination of elbow flexion/extention and pronation/suppination activities, the patient reproduces the motions under their own power in the affected limb. Alternately, they are assisted/guided by a robot manipulator attached via the slave exoskeleton. Initially, a commercially available PUMA 260 robot was used to guide the slave exoskeleton [36]. Therefore, the first generation MIME therapy system could be categorized as a hybrid of fully customized design where the mechanical, control, software, instrumentation and safety systems are all developed by a common research entity with a commercial manipulator. The original system was based on somewhat restricted bilateral movement in the elbow and shoulder joints and it focused on repetitive motion. The initial configuration is shown in Figure

28 Chapter 2 Figure 2.3 Initial MIME Configuration [36] As research progressed, the master exoskeleton was replaced with a 6 degree of freedom digitizer, the slave exoskeleton was completely eliminated, and the small PUMA 260 robot was replaced with a larger PUMA 560 robot capable of fully supporting the patient s affected arm [37]. Additional rehabilitation modes were also implemented and are described below: 1. Passive mode (unilateral) The robot moves the affected arm to a target with no effort from the patient. 2. Active assisted mode (unilateral) The robot moves the affected arm to a target with patient guided forces. 3. Active constrained mode (unilateral) The robot only allows movement of the affected arm to a target when the patient applies enough force in the correct trajectory. 4. Bilateral mode The patient tries to replicate mirror image motions. The nonaffected arm is attached to the digitizer via a splint (similar to the one used on the affected arm) and the affected arm is guided by the robot as needed. 15

29 Chapter 2 Therefore, in the current configuration (Figure 2.4) the MIME therapy system provides broadest level of robot aid therapy. The current MIME therapy system is categorized as a hybrid of fully customized design where the mechanical, control, software, instrumentation and safety systems are all developed by a common research entity with a commercial manipulator. The system provides unrestricted unilateral and bilateral movement in the elbow and shoulder joints, and focuses on both task specific rehabilitation activities and on repetitive motion. Figure 2.4 Current MIME Configuration [36] The MIME therapy system has been tested in numerous clinical tests and trials. In a recent journal article Burgar et al. cited inconsistent results of the value of robot led intensive movement based training over equivalent physiotherapist led activities as being problematic for the wider acceptance of therapy robot programs [37]. This conclusion is with respect to study results obtained from MIME data performed in the 16

30 Chapter 2 acute period following a stroke. Burgar et al. appear to believe that this may not be the appropriate phase for the deployment of MIME into the rehabilitation process. This conclusion may be generally applied to all robot led rehabilitation activities. Therefore, Burgar et al. have identified that there may be an opportunity to produce significant improvements from the good trends that have been identified if the appropriate timing and duration are identified [37] REHAROB The REHAROB (robotic therapy system for upper limb motion therapy for the disabled) project is funded through the quality of life initiative of framework 5 of the European Commission. The REHAROB Therapeutic System consists of two unmodified ABB industrial robots. The first robot, a wall mounted ABB IRB 140 robot, is connected to the upper arm via an orthosis. The second robot, an inverted ABB IRB 1400H robot, is connected to the forearm via an orthosis. The two orthoses are instrumented to aid in the measurement of patient robot interactions. The configuration is shown in Figure 2.5. The system s four defining features are that [38]: 1. One robot controls the movements of the patient s upper arm and a separate robot controls the movements of the patient s forearm 2. The two robot design allows for more complex full range of motion exercises 3. It is developed from commercially available components 4. Patients can be treated in either a lying or sitting position 17

31 Chapter 2 The REHAROB therapy robot can be classified as a system that utilizes commercially available robot systems (i.e. manipulator, controllers etc.) interfaced with customized rehabilitation software and instrumentation. The system is based on constricted unilateral treatment and focuses on repetitive motion. Figure 2.5 REHAROB Configuration [39], 2005 IEEE A therapy session with the REHAROB Therapeutic System consists of a robot programming phase, editing of the programmed exercises for order and number of repetitions, and execution of the edited therapy program. The programming or teaching of the system is done in the presence of the manipulators. This is advantageous in that the actual configuration of the robot manipulators is controlled 18

32 Chapter 2 during the programming phase. However, during this time the patient and physiotherapists are directly in both robot manipulators workspaces. While safety measures have been incorporated into the system this approach complicates the physiotherapists tasks as patient guidance through rehabilitation trajectories has to be relearned with both patient and robot limitations in mind. Another interesting part of the REHAROB program is the development of an artificial limb with 8 degrees of freedom. Six of the degrees of freedom are actuated with DC motors. The remaining 2 of the degrees of freedom use servo brakes to model the resistance from spasticity. The dummy limb was used for testing the dynamic behavior of the REHAROB system. The dummy limb was designed with the following requirements [40]: Adjustable upper arm and forearm segments to simulate a diverse range of physical characteristics Variable joint resistance Workspace equivalent to the typical range of motion in the human upper limb in all normal configurations Anthropometric format resembling that of the human upper limb Symmetrically neutral to ensure testing of both right and left arm configurations Instrumentation capable of recording dummy limb trajectories and interactive forces Inclusive of the shoulder clavicle complex Capable of executing all rehabilitation exercises 19

33 Chapter 2 A schematic of the dummy limb is included as Figure 2.6. Limitations of this model are that joints were assumed as ideal kinematic couples, leading to small errors in calculated forces and positions. The development of an actuated and anthropologically close approximation dummy limb for testing of a therapy robot system appears to be unique to this research group. Figure 2.6 View of the REHAROB Project Dummy Limb [40] The REHAROB therapy system underwent initial clinical testing at the National Institute for Medical Rehabilitation in Budapest with a mix of healthy subjects and stroke patients. This initial clinical result was able to verify that the REHAROB therapy system 20

34 Chapter 2 was capable of executing the rehabilitation procedures, that the system could repeat the edited therapy programs, and that the system was reliable and safe during in all operations. The initial clinical testing did demonstrate that there were opportunities for improvement, and modifications were made before launching into a controlled clinical study. Results of the clinical study demonstrated that the REHAROB therapy system could usefully supplement traditional rehabilitation approaches ARMin and ARMin II ARMin is an exoskeleton therapy robot that is designed for the rehabilitation of the upper limbs. The research group designed ARMin with the following specifications: 3 degree of freedom shoulder joint 1 degree of freedom elbow joint Range of motion approximating that of the upper limb for patients with a stature between 150 to 220 cm. Low inertia Low friction No backlash Motor and gear must be backdrivable Must be able to move the patient s hand with a velocity of 1 m/s and acceleration of 1 m/s² Must be safe for both patient and the physiotherapist [41][42] 21

35 Chapter 2 Patient safety is maintained by redundant instrumentation and mechanical stops that limit the range of the exoskeleton structure. Each of the exoskeleton s four DC motors is equipped with optical incremental sensors with four potentiometers ensuring redundancy. A 6 degree of freedom force and torque sensor are installed at the exoskeleton s shoulder joint after axis 1 and axis 2 which drive the exoskeleton s shoulder abduction and adduction and horizontal arm rotation joints, respectively. An additional 1 degree of freedom torque sensor is installed at the exoskeleton s elbow joint. These instruments are used in several safety surveillance routines that ensure forces, torques, positions, speeds and torques are within specification. The exoskeleton is de energized if any of these measurements fall outside of expected values. The exoskeleton was designed with passive weight compensation so that the robot trips in a fail last position. The exoskeleton is backdriveable so it can be manually moved to any position in which that the patient can be comfortably removed from the exoskeleton. The ARMin system is also equipped with an emergency stop device that must always be engaged by a physiotherapist who observes the activities. The ARMin system initially had four different modes of control for therapy: 1. Prerecorded trajectory mode the patient arm and exoskeleton are guided through trajectories and then those same trajectories are repeated at different velocities 2. Predefined motion therapy mode the robot guides the patient through several preprogrammed exercises 3. Point and reach mode A modified MIT Manus strategy that allows reaching in three dimensions 22

36 Chapter 2 4. Patient guided force supporting mode The patient guides the exoskeleton through a trajectory that is assisted by the ARMin system. These four modes were later condensed into three: 1. Movement therapy the same as prerecorded trajectory mode 2. Game therapy A combination of the point and reach mode and additional active exoskeleton guidance mode in a game scenario. 3. ADL training mode the same as patient guided force supporting mode with additional visual cues that simulate common daily activities. The ARMin therapy robot can be classified as a fully customized design where the mechanical, control, software, instrumentation and safety systems are all developed by a common research entity. The system is based on constricted unilateral treatment and focuses on both task specific rehabilitation activities and on repetitive motion. The ARMin system was modified to include two additional degrees of freedom in the forearm and one additional degree of freedom in the shoulder joint [43]. The modified system was renamed as ARMin II. The original system was not able to successfully meet the range of motion specification, but did provide enough range of motion to meet most daily routines. The limitation occurred in the vertical shoulder rotation [42]. The modified system allowed for movements that more closely approximated regular tasks. Figure 2.7 shows schematics of both systems. It can also be seen that the number of force sensors was reduced and that the location of the sole remaining force sensor was moved closer to the patient. 23

37 Chapter 2 The ARMin and ARMin II systems have successfully met many of the specifications. Both systems have been successfully tested with both healthy test subjects and stroke affected patients. Results have shown that intensive robot therapy with the ARMin and ARMin II systems can significantly influence therapy outcomes. Figure 2.7 ARMin and ARMin II Configurations [42][43], 2006, 2007 IEEE 2.4 Other Robot Therapy Systems The Gentle/s project uses haptic and virtual reality technologies that are employed for post stroke rehabilitation. The project resides under the quality of life initiative of framework 5 of the European Commission to evaluate robot mediated therapy in stroke rehabilitation. The Gentle/s manipulator reinforces correct movement patterns in point to point trajectories in a three dimensional workspace [44]. Therefore, the Gentle/s therapy system provides rehabilitation regimes similar to those provided by MIT MANUS but with an expanded workspace. The Assisted Rehabilitation and Measurement Guide (ARM Guide) is a mechanical device that assists patients with restricted reaching motions. The ARM guide device 24

38 Chapter 2 may be described as a revolute, revolute, prismatic (RRP) manipulator with motorized control limited to the prismatic axis. The two revolute axes are controlled by magnetic particle brakes that are coupled to elastic components to constrain patient movements [19]. Movements in all degrees of freedom are measured using optical encoders. Patient to ARM Guide interactive forces and torques in all dimensions are recorded with a load cell. The ARM Guide is designed so that the patient experiences no gravitational loading from the device. Therefore, the ARM Guide therapy system provides rehabilitation regimes similar to those provided by the MIT MANUS base module but with the workspace limited to rays within a spherical workspace. The ARM Guide therapy system could also be compared against the regimes provided by the MIT MANUS 1 degree of freedom linear expansion module oriented along the prismatic axis. In this configuration, ARM Guide expands upon the MIT MANUS workspace by allowing constrained motion within the sphere. In either comparison, the ARM Guide therapy system lacks the virtual interface that is provided with the MIT MANUS system. Also of importance are the BATRAC / Tailwind therapy system and the ReJoyce therapy system. Neither device offers unique configurations with respect to the manipulator or the workspace, but each device does bring an added novel approach to the therapy robot offering. The BATRAC / Tailwind therapy system approach is a bilateral rehabilitation approach similar to that offered by MIME but with a reduced workspace. BATRAC is an abbreviation of the protocol being employed by this system. More specifically, BATRAC stands for bilateral arm training with rhythmic cueing [29]. The 25

39 Chapter 2 principle is that auditory cueing has been used successfully for improved gait training in subacute stroke patients and that it should also extend to other forms of therapy. The ReJoyce therapy system introduces telerehabilitation capabilities to robot led therapy. This advance in technology helps to extend the reach of robot led rehabilitation programs beyond hospitals and stroke clinics. 2.5 Measures Simple measures are critical for initial assessment and ongoing monitoring of the progress of the rehabilitation program. The measures can be classified as objective or subjective [45]. Complex measures are of growing importance but most will likely never be used by the vast majority of physiotherapists. Bohannan has proposed the following references for simple measures: 1. Cost (<$1000) 2. Technological sophistication (not computerized) 3. Ease of application (not confined to limited settings) Subjective Measures are those that are based on physiotherapist s judgment without the aid of any devices. When devices are used in subjective matters, they are present simply to enhance the physiotherapist s ability to perceive the observed input. Many employ dichotomous classifications, with the classification ranking the existence or nonexistence of a specific condition. Further categorization is sometimes employed when a condition exists. Ranking a named condition can sometimes lead to better precision. A 26

40 Chapter 2 limiting factor with subjective measures is that they lack precision, even with the presence of rankings. Bohannon and Smith found that the Ashworth scale lacked precision for patients with hemiplegia [46]. These measures are also not adequate to diagnose the specific areas that therapies should be focused on. This is problematic for all of the stakeholders who have an interest in a patient s progress. At the most basic level, objective measures can focus on counts. In increasing complexity, objective measures focus on the measurement of time or distance. More complex variables can be observed and add value to evaluations (e.g. velocity, acceleration and force). The instruments required to measure such simple units (such as stop watches and rulers) are relatively inexpensive and readily available. More complex measures can be costly but inexpensive alternatives do exist. Objective measures result in exact observations that have significantly reduced errors resulting from a physiotherapist s judgment. The variability associated with the observed measurement can sometimes be rapidly assessed with multiple measurements. The downfall of objective measures is that the increased precision isn t always required and that, generally, equipment is required to make the required observations. The measurement protocols most commonly employed in the comparisons between therapy robot programs and traditional therapy programs are: 27

41 Chapter 2 Fugl Meyer Motor Index Wolf Motor Function Test Arm Function Questionnaire part of Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire Ashworth Scale Functional Independence Measure, Chedoke McMaster Evaluation [19] 2.6 Motion Capture Several therapy robot systems incorporate a robot teaching or learning mode. Specifically, articles detailing the functionality of ARMin and REHAROB both discuss recording a patient s movements with the aid of a physiotherapist. One group of researchers has developed a wireless motion capture system specifically for physical therapy or real time control of a robotic arm [47]. The intent of the system is not to teach a robot how to perform therapies on patients with disabilities. The system was designed for teleoperating a robotic arm to achieve tasks that the patient is unable to achieve on their own. The approach is interesting because it captures the patient s EMG activity as well as the position and velocity of their upper limb. EMG measurement focused on the deltoids, biceps, triceps and brachioradialis and was achieved with surface electromyographic sensors. Motion data was captured using three rotary potentiometers connected wirelessly to the motion capture system via a CleveMed BioRadio. The rotary potentiometers are mounted on a mechanical brace 28

42 Chapter 2 that is flexible enough to suit large portions of the male and female populations as shown in Figure 2.8. The mechanical brace is mounted to a platform that allowed for: Variable heights Portability Left and right handedness Compatibility with a wheelchair The outputs from the system were compared to those measured by a goniometer. The maximum error of the system was ±5º. Figure 2.8 Upper Extremity Motion Capture System [47], 2009 IEEE 2.7 Summary Economic and resource pressures often force premature abandonment of upper limb rehabilitation in favour of cheaper and less resource intensive compensatory training. 29

43 Chapter 2 The ultimate goal of therapy robots is to provide alternate, more cost effective models for health care providers. In addition to the economic benefits, therapy robot systems allow objective and quantifiable monitoring of rehabilitation processes that will lead to more effective assessment techniques. These new techniques will allow a more accurate assessment of a patient s initial condition, in turn allowing for a customized rehabilitation program and more reliable measurement of their progress. The therapy systems discussed in Section 2.4 generally focus on rehabilitation of the shoulder and arm. In many of the systems the forearm is held in a fixed position and there is no opportunity for pronation or supination in the forearm. Furthermore, there is reduced or no emphasis on rehabilitation of the wrist or hand. Unfortunately, this approach does not provide full rehabilitation therapies that allow for ease in activities of daily living that rely on reaching and grasping strategies. Another area of opportunity for research appears to be the development of patient specific exercises for unilateral therapy systems. Existing therapy robot systems such as ARMin incorporate strategies that allow physiotherapists to teach the robot motions but this appears to be done in the presence of the manipulators, and literature searches examining the treatment of these recorded datasets failed to yield any results. 30

Potential for new technologies in clinical practice

Potential for new technologies in clinical practice Potential for new technologies in clinical practice International Neurorehabilitation Symposium University of Zurich Feb 12-13th 2009 Prof Jane Burridge Jane Burridge Feb 2009 Introduction Societal drivers

More information

Neuro-rehabilitation in Stroke. Amit Kumar Neuro-Occupational Therapist

Neuro-rehabilitation in Stroke. Amit Kumar Neuro-Occupational Therapist Neuro-rehabilitation in Stroke Amit Kumar Neuro-Occupational Therapist Neuro-rehabilitation A process whereby patients who suffer from impairment following neurologic diseases regain their former abilities

More information

Universal Exoskeleton Arm Design for Rehabilitation

Universal Exoskeleton Arm Design for Rehabilitation Journal of Automation and Control Engineering Vol. 3, No. 6, December 215 Universal Exoskeleton Arm Design for Rehabilitation Siam Charoenseang and Sarut Panjan Institute of Field Robotics, King Mongkut

More information

Rehabilitation Robotics What Lies Ahead?

Rehabilitation Robotics What Lies Ahead? Rehabilitation Robotics What Lies Ahead? W Zev Rymer Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago 3/3/09 International Neurorehabilitation Symposium 2009 1 Outline focus on stroke recovery Robot-assisted therapy

More information

Scooter, 3 wheeled cobot North Western University. PERCRO Exoskeleton

Scooter, 3 wheeled cobot North Western University. PERCRO Exoskeleton Scooter, 3 wheeled cobot North Western University A cobot is a robot for direct physical interaction with a human operator, within a shared workspace PERCRO Exoskeleton Unicycle cobot the simplest possible

More information

NICE Pathways bring together all NICE guidance, quality standards and other NICE information on a specific topic.

NICE Pathways bring together all NICE guidance, quality standards and other NICE information on a specific topic. Rehabilitation for movement difficulties after stroke bring together all NICE guidance, quality standards and other NICE information on a specific topic. are interactive and designed to be used online.

More information

Building on our strengths through technology. Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital Technology Strategy

Building on our strengths through technology. Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital Technology Strategy Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital Technology Strategy Building on our strengths through technology Advanced technology in rehabilitation is exploding as new and innovative approaches to therapy emerge and

More information

SUMMARY This PhD thesis addresses the long term recovery of hemiplegic gait in severely affected stroke patients. It first reviews current rehabilitation research developments in functional recovery after

More information

Reotherapy Provides Functional Gains in Traumatic Brain Injury Patient Four Years After Completing Traditional Therapy Services (Case Study)

Reotherapy Provides Functional Gains in Traumatic Brain Injury Patient Four Years After Completing Traditional Therapy Services (Case Study) 1 of 7 Reotherapy Provides Functional Gains in Traumatic Brain Injury Patient Four Years After Completing Traditional Therapy Services (Case Study) John Heinz, Allied Health Services- Wilkes Barre, PA

More information

Industrial Robotics. Training Objective

Industrial Robotics. Training Objective Training Objective After watching the program and reviewing this printed material, the viewer will learn the basics of industrial robot technology and how robots are used in a variety of manufacturing

More information

Stroke: Major Public Health Burden. Stroke: Major Public Health Burden. Stroke: Major Public Health Burden 5/21/2012

Stroke: Major Public Health Burden. Stroke: Major Public Health Burden. Stroke: Major Public Health Burden 5/21/2012 Faculty Prevention Sharon Ewer, RN, BSN, CNRN Stroke Program Coordinator Baptist Health Montgomery, Alabama Satellite Conference and Live Webcast Monday, May 21, 2012 2:00 4:00 p.m. Central Time Produced

More information

Force/position control of a robotic system for transcranial magnetic stimulation

Force/position control of a robotic system for transcranial magnetic stimulation Force/position control of a robotic system for transcranial magnetic stimulation W.N. Wan Zakaria School of Mechanical and System Engineering Newcastle University Abstract To develop a force control scheme

More information

An Evidence Based Occupational Therapy Toolkit for Assessment and Treatment of the Upper Extremity Post Stroke

An Evidence Based Occupational Therapy Toolkit for Assessment and Treatment of the Upper Extremity Post Stroke An Evidence Based Occupational Therapy Toolkit for Assessment and Treatment of the Upper Extremity Post Stroke Brenda Semenko, Leyda Thalman, Emily Ewert, Renee Delorme, Suzanne Hui, Heather Flett, Nicole

More information

Stirling Paatz of robot integrators Barr & Paatz describes the anatomy of an industrial robot.

Stirling Paatz of robot integrators Barr & Paatz describes the anatomy of an industrial robot. Ref BP128 Anatomy Of A Robot Stirling Paatz of robot integrators Barr & Paatz describes the anatomy of an industrial robot. The term robot stems from the Czech word robota, which translates roughly as

More information

Robot Task-Level Programming Language and Simulation

Robot Task-Level Programming Language and Simulation Robot Task-Level Programming Language and Simulation M. Samaka Abstract This paper presents the development of a software application for Off-line robot task programming and simulation. Such application

More information

Self-Range of Motion Exercises for Shoulders, Arms, Wrists, Fingers

Self-Range of Motion Exercises for Shoulders, Arms, Wrists, Fingers Self-Range of Motion Exercises for Shoulders, Arms, Wrists, Fingers These exercises will help keep your muscles strong and mobile, and your joints flexible. Other benefits of these exercises include: C

More information

Introduction to Robotics Analysis, systems, Applications Saeed B. Niku

Introduction to Robotics Analysis, systems, Applications Saeed B. Niku Saeed B. Niku 1. Introduction Fig. 1.1 (a) A Kuhnezug truck-mounted crane Reprinted with permission from Kuhnezug Fordertechnik GmbH. Fig. 1.1 (b) Fanuc S-500 robots performing seam-sealing on a truck.

More information

Passive Range of Motion Exercises

Passive Range of Motion Exercises Exercise and ALS The physical or occupational therapist will make recommendations for exercise based upon each patient s specific needs and abilities. Strengthening exercises are not generally recommended

More information

FUNDAMENTALS OF ROBOTICS

FUNDAMENTALS OF ROBOTICS FUNDAMENTALS OF ROBOTICS Lab exercise Stäubli AULINAS Josep (u1043469) GARCIA Frederic (u1038431) Introduction The aim of this tutorial is to give a brief overview on the Stäubli Robot System describing

More information

This week. CENG 732 Computer Animation. Challenges in Human Modeling. Basic Arm Model

This week. CENG 732 Computer Animation. Challenges in Human Modeling. Basic Arm Model CENG 732 Computer Animation Spring 2006-2007 Week 8 Modeling and Animating Articulated Figures: Modeling the Arm, Walking, Facial Animation This week Modeling the arm Different joint structures Walking

More information

Managing Complex Orthopedic Rehabilitation

Managing Complex Orthopedic Rehabilitation Managing Complex Orthopedic Rehabilitation Dynamic and Static Combination Stretching Orthosis only from... Protect/Mobilize at Each Stage of Post Surgical Course Address the Challenges Presented in the

More information

CALIBRATION OF A ROBUST 2 DOF PATH MONITORING TOOL FOR INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS AND MACHINE TOOLS BASED ON PARALLEL KINEMATICS

CALIBRATION OF A ROBUST 2 DOF PATH MONITORING TOOL FOR INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS AND MACHINE TOOLS BASED ON PARALLEL KINEMATICS CALIBRATION OF A ROBUST 2 DOF PATH MONITORING TOOL FOR INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS AND MACHINE TOOLS BASED ON PARALLEL KINEMATICS E. Batzies 1, M. Kreutzer 1, D. Leucht 2, V. Welker 2, O. Zirn 1 1 Mechatronics Research

More information

Self Care in New Zealand

Self Care in New Zealand Self Care in New Zealand A roadmap toward greater personal responsibility in managing health Prepared by the New Zealand Self Medication Industry Association. July 2009 What is Self Care? Self Care describes

More information

Clinical Guidelines for Stroke Management

Clinical Guidelines for Stroke Management Stop stroke. Save lives. End suffering. Clinical Guidelines for Stroke Management quick guide for physiotherapy This summary is an implementation tool designed to raise the awareness of the recommendations

More information

Occupational Therapy Toolkit Stroke

Occupational Therapy Toolkit Stroke Impairments and Functional Limitations: ADL, IADL, work and leisure impairment Impaired sit-to-stand, transfers, bed mobility and gait Hemiparesis, hemiplegia Impaired postural control Impaired coordination

More information

Chapter 1. Introduction. 1.1 The Challenge of Computer Generated Postures

Chapter 1. Introduction. 1.1 The Challenge of Computer Generated Postures Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 The Challenge of Computer Generated Postures With advances in hardware technology, more powerful computers become available for the majority of users. A few years ago, computer

More information

Injuries to the elbow can be very painful and this can cause difficulties with completing the required exercises.

Injuries to the elbow can be very painful and this can cause difficulties with completing the required exercises. 1 Elbow Dislocation Rehabilitation Protocol Elbow Dislocation The Elbow Joint is the most complex joint in the body. In order for it to recover to its best function consistent rehabilitation is essential

More information

Design Aspects of Robot Manipulators

Design Aspects of Robot Manipulators Design Aspects of Robot Manipulators Dr. Rohan Munasinghe Dept of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering University of Moratuwa System elements Manipulator (+ proprioceptive sensors) End-effector

More information

Operational Space Control for A Scara Robot

Operational Space Control for A Scara Robot Operational Space Control for A Scara Robot Francisco Franco Obando D., Pablo Eduardo Caicedo R., Oscar Andrés Vivas A. Universidad del Cauca, {fobando, pacaicedo, avivas }@unicauca.edu.co Abstract This

More information

Mark Adickes, M.D. Orthopedics and Sports Medicine 7200 Cambridge St. #10A Houston, Texas 77030 Phone: 713-986-6016 Fax: 713-986-5411

Mark Adickes, M.D. Orthopedics and Sports Medicine 7200 Cambridge St. #10A Houston, Texas 77030 Phone: 713-986-6016 Fax: 713-986-5411 Mark Adickes, M.D. Orthopedics and Sports Medicine 7200 Cambridge St. #10A Houston, Texas 77030 Phone: 713-986-6016 Fax: 713-986-5411 DISTAL BICEPS TENDON REPAIR PROTOCOL This rehabilitation protocol has

More information

HUR Rehab Line H E A L T H & F I T N E S S E Q U I P M E N T

HUR Rehab Line H E A L T H & F I T N E S S E Q U I P M E N T H E A L T H & F I T N E S S E Q U I P M E N T HUR Rehab Line HUR naturally different Contents HUR naturally different HUR SmartCard 1 HUR Rehab Line key to rehabilitation 2 SmartCard FCM Rehab Line computerized

More information

Robotics ABB Robotics Laser Cutting Software High precision laser cutting made easy - Greater manufacturing flexibility at lower capital investment

Robotics ABB Robotics Laser Cutting Software High precision laser cutting made easy - Greater manufacturing flexibility at lower capital investment Robotics ABB Robotics Laser Cutting Software High precision laser cutting made easy - Greater manufacturing flexibility at lower capital investment Robotic laser cutting Overview Allows for the increased

More information

JHS Stroke Program. 2016 JHS Annual Mandatory Education

JHS Stroke Program. 2016 JHS Annual Mandatory Education JHS Stroke Program 2016 JHS Annual Mandatory Education Learner Objectives At the conclusion of this module learners will be able to: State the definition of stroke Discuss the pathophysiology of stroke

More information

Xco-Trainer: empty talk or real effect?

Xco-Trainer: empty talk or real effect? Xco-Trainer: empty talk or real effect? By: R. van Bruinessen, S. Couzy, P. van Doorn, K. den Hertog, A. Weimar, G. van de Wetering. Summary This study examined the difference in muscle activity between

More information

Frozen Shoulder Adhesive Capsulitis

Frozen Shoulder Adhesive Capsulitis Frozen Shoulder Adhesive Capsulitis Brett Sanders, MD Center For Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic 2415 McCallie Ave. Chattanooga, TN (423) 624-2696 If you're having trouble lifting your arm above your head,

More information

BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS

BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Laboratory Experience #3 [Skeletal Muscle Biomechanics] General Objectives: Examine the maximum voluntary contraction of the biceps throughout its physiologic range

More information

ALBERTA PROVINCIAL STROKE STRATEGY (APSS)

ALBERTA PROVINCIAL STROKE STRATEGY (APSS) ALBERTA PROVINCIAL STROKE STRATEGY (APSS) Stroke Systems of Care Key Components APSS Pillar Recommendations March 28, 2007 1 The following is a summary of the key components and APSS Pillar recommendations

More information

Exercise and FES cycle fact sheet

Exercise and FES cycle fact sheet Exercise and FES cycle fact sheet FES = Functional Electrical Stimulation. An electrical current is passed through paralysed muscle causing it to contract. The electrical current uses the peripheral nerves

More information

Muscle Terminology. Intrinsic - pertaining usually to muscles within or belonging solely to body part upon which they act

Muscle Terminology. Intrinsic - pertaining usually to muscles within or belonging solely to body part upon which they act Muscle Terminology Intrinsic - pertaining usually to muscles within or belonging solely to body part upon which they act Ex. small intrinsic muscles found entirely within the hand or feet Muscle Terminology

More information

Design of a six Degree-of-Freedom Articulated Robotic Arm for Manufacturing Electrochromic Nanofilms

Design of a six Degree-of-Freedom Articulated Robotic Arm for Manufacturing Electrochromic Nanofilms Abstract Design of a six Degree-of-Freedom Articulated Robotic Arm for Manufacturing Electrochromic Nanofilms by Maxine Emerich Advisor: Dr. Scott Pierce The subject of this report is the development of

More information

The cost of physical inactivity

The cost of physical inactivity The cost of physical inactivity October 2008 The cost of physical inactivity to the Australian economy is estimated to be $13.8 billion. It is estimated that 16,178 Australians die prematurely each year

More information

Robot coined by Karel Capek in a 1921 science-fiction Czech play

Robot coined by Karel Capek in a 1921 science-fiction Czech play Robotics Robot coined by Karel Capek in a 1921 science-fiction Czech play Definition: A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices

More information

THE INTERNET STROKE CENTER PRESENTATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS ON STROKE MANAGEMENT

THE INTERNET STROKE CENTER PRESENTATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS ON STROKE MANAGEMENT THE INTERNET STROKE CENTER PRESENTATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS ON STROKE MANAGEMENT Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Gregory Albers, M.D. Director Stanford Stroke Center Professor of Neurology and Neurological

More information

Rehabilitation and Private Pay Applications TRAZER Based Solutions

Rehabilitation and Private Pay Applications TRAZER Based Solutions TRAZER Based Solutions This overview provides the background to assist rehabilitation professionals in evaluating how TRAZER technology can be used to enhance patient care and expand their business opportunities.

More information

Practical Work DELMIA V5 R20 Lecture 1. D. Chablat / S. Caro Damien.Chablat@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr Stephane.Caro@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr

Practical Work DELMIA V5 R20 Lecture 1. D. Chablat / S. Caro Damien.Chablat@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr Stephane.Caro@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr Practical Work DELMIA V5 R20 Lecture 1 D. Chablat / S. Caro Damien.Chablat@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr Stephane.Caro@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr Native languages Definition of the language for the user interface English,

More information

Copyright www.agileload.com 1

Copyright www.agileload.com 1 Copyright www.agileload.com 1 INTRODUCTION Performance testing is a complex activity where dozens of factors contribute to its success and effective usage of all those factors is necessary to get the accurate

More information

VRSPATIAL: DESIGNING SPATIAL MECHANISMS USING VIRTUAL REALITY

VRSPATIAL: DESIGNING SPATIAL MECHANISMS USING VIRTUAL REALITY Proceedings of DETC 02 ASME 2002 Design Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Conference Montreal, Canada, September 29-October 2, 2002 DETC2002/ MECH-34377 VRSPATIAL: DESIGNING SPATIAL

More information

TASK FORCE SUPPLEMENT FOR FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY EVALUATION

TASK FORCE SUPPLEMENT FOR FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY EVALUATION TASK FORCE SUPPLEMENT FOR FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY EVALUATION A. GENERAL PRINCIPLES Use of a Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE) is to determine the ability of a patient to safely function within a work environment.

More information

Division of Biomedical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561-756, Republic of Korea 3

Division of Biomedical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561-756, Republic of Korea 3 Upper Extremity Rehabilitation Program Using Inertial Sensors and Virtual Reality for Patients with Upper Extremity Hemiplegia due to Disorders after Stroke Je-Nam Kim 1, Mun-Ho Ryu 2,3, Yoon-Seok Yang

More information

CATIA V5 Tutorials. Mechanism Design & Animation. Release 18. Nader G. Zamani. University of Windsor. Jonathan M. Weaver. University of Detroit Mercy

CATIA V5 Tutorials. Mechanism Design & Animation. Release 18. Nader G. Zamani. University of Windsor. Jonathan M. Weaver. University of Detroit Mercy CATIA V5 Tutorials Mechanism Design & Animation Release 18 Nader G. Zamani University of Windsor Jonathan M. Weaver University of Detroit Mercy SDC PUBLICATIONS Schroff Development Corporation www.schroff.com

More information

Mark Adickes, M.D. Orthopedics and Sports Medicine 7200 Cambridge St. #10A Houston, Texas 77030 Phone: 713-986-6016 Fax: 713-986-5411

Mark Adickes, M.D. Orthopedics and Sports Medicine 7200 Cambridge St. #10A Houston, Texas 77030 Phone: 713-986-6016 Fax: 713-986-5411 Mark Adickes, M.D. Orthopedics and Sports Medicine 7200 Cambridge St. #10A Houston, Texas 77030 Phone: 713-986-6016 Fax: 713-986-5411 TRICEPS TENDON REPAIR PROTOCOL This rehabilitation protocol has been

More information

CIM Computer Integrated Manufacturing

CIM Computer Integrated Manufacturing INDEX CIM IN BASIC CONFIGURATION CIM IN ADVANCED CONFIGURATION CIM IN COMPLETE CONFIGURATION DL CIM A DL CIM B DL CIM C DL CIM C DL CIM B DL CIM A Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is a method of

More information

Guidelines for Medical Necessity Determination for Occupational Therapy

Guidelines for Medical Necessity Determination for Occupational Therapy Guidelines for Medical Necessity Determination for Occupational Therapy These Guidelines for Medical Necessity Determination (Guidelines) identify the clinical information MassHealth needs to determine

More information

Range of Motion Exercises

Range of Motion Exercises Range of Motion Exercises Range of motion (ROM) exercises are done to preserve flexibility and mobility of the joints on which they are performed. These exercises reduce stiffness and will prevent or at

More information

New robot improves costefficiency. spot welding. 4 ABB Review 3/1996

New robot improves costefficiency. spot welding. 4 ABB Review 3/1996 New robot improves costefficiency of spot welding Field-proven technology; the robot system belongs to the well-proven IRB 6400 robot family. More than 7000 IRB 6000/6400 systems for spotwelding car bodies

More information

Automotive Applications of 3D Laser Scanning Introduction

Automotive Applications of 3D Laser Scanning Introduction Automotive Applications of 3D Laser Scanning Kyle Johnston, Ph.D., Metron Systems, Inc. 34935 SE Douglas Street, Suite 110, Snoqualmie, WA 98065 425-396-5577, www.metronsys.com 2002 Metron Systems, Inc

More information

Aerobic Exercise After Stroke HOW AEROBIC ACTIVITY CAN HELP YOU AFTER A STROKE

Aerobic Exercise After Stroke HOW AEROBIC ACTIVITY CAN HELP YOU AFTER A STROKE Aerobic Exercise After Stroke HOW AEROBIC ACTIVITY CAN HELP YOU AFTER A STROKE This resource provides aerobic activity recommendations for people at any point in their recovery from stroke. It is designed

More information

Medical Robotics. Control Modalities

Medical Robotics. Control Modalities Università di Roma La Sapienza Medical Robotics Control Modalities The Hands-On Acrobot Robot Marilena Vendittelli Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Automatica e Gestionale Control modalities differ

More information

Dr. Enas Elsayed. Brunnstrom Approach

Dr. Enas Elsayed. Brunnstrom Approach Brunnstrom Approach Learning Objectives: By the end of this lab, the student will be able to: 1. Demonstrate different reflexes including stimulus and muscle tone response. 2. Demonstrate how to evoke

More information

Rotator Cuff and Shoulder Conditioning Program. Purpose of Program

Rotator Cuff and Shoulder Conditioning Program. Purpose of Program Prepared for: Prepared by: OrthoInfo Purpose of Program After an injury or surgery, an exercise conditioning program will help you return to daily activities and enjoy a more active, healthy lifestyle.

More information

Subminiature Load Cell Model 8417

Subminiature Load Cell Model 8417 w Technical Product Information Subminiature Load Cell 1. Introduction... 2 2. Preparing for use... 2 2.1 Unpacking... 2 2.2 Using the instrument for the first time... 2 2.3 Grounding and potential connection...

More information

Rotator Cuff Surgery: Post-Operative Protocol for Mini-Open or Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

Rotator Cuff Surgery: Post-Operative Protocol for Mini-Open or Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Rotator Cuff Surgery: Post-Operative Protocol for Mini-Open or Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Considerations: 1. Mini-Open - shoulder usually assessed arthroscopically and acromioplasty is usually performed.

More information

Splinting in Neurology. Jo Tuckey MSc MCSP

Splinting in Neurology. Jo Tuckey MSc MCSP Splinting in Neurology Jo Tuckey MSc MCSP Splinting in Neurology When should splinting be considered? How to choose the most appropriate splint or position for splinting. Practicalities of providing a

More information

Clinical Care Program

Clinical Care Program Clinical Care Program Therapy for the Cardiac Patient What s CHF? Not a kind of heart disease o Heart disease is called cardiomyopathy o Heart failure occurs when the heart can t pump enough blood to meet

More information

Introduction to Robotics Analysis, Systems, Applications

Introduction to Robotics Analysis, Systems, Applications Introduction to Robotics Analysis, Systems, Applications Saeed B. Niku Mechanical Engineering Department California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo Technische Urw/carsMt Darmstadt FACHBEREfCH

More information

A ROBOT TEST-BED FOR ASSISTANCE AND ASSESSMENT IN PHYSICAL THERAPY. Mechanical Systems Laboratory University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716.

A ROBOT TEST-BED FOR ASSISTANCE AND ASSESSMENT IN PHYSICAL THERAPY. Mechanical Systems Laboratory University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716. A ROBOT TEST-BED FOR ASSISTANCE AND ASSESSMENT IN PHYSICAL THERAPY Rahul Rao i, Sunil K. Agrawal ii, John P. Scholz iii Mechanical Systems Laboratory University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716. Abstract

More information

GALLAND/KIRBY UCL RECONSTRUCTION (TOMMY JOHN) POST-SURGICAL REHABILITATION PROTOCOL

GALLAND/KIRBY UCL RECONSTRUCTION (TOMMY JOHN) POST-SURGICAL REHABILITATION PROTOCOL GALLAND/KIRBY UCL RECONSTRUCTION (TOMMY JOHN) POST-SURGICAL REHABILITATION PROTOCOL INTRODUCTION The ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction is a tendon transfer procedure. No muscles are transected during

More information

Tennis Elbow Rehabilitation Program

Tennis Elbow Rehabilitation Program Tennis Elbow Rehabilitation Program Purpose: An effective program for using Powerball in the direct treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis Tennis Elbow. This is a painful condition typically aggravated by

More information

Solar Tracking Application

Solar Tracking Application Solar Tracking Application A Rockwell Automation White Paper Solar trackers are devices used to orient photovoltaic panels, reflectors, lenses or other optical devices toward the sun. Since the sun s position

More information

The Use of the Lokomat System in Clinical Research

The Use of the Lokomat System in Clinical Research International Neurorehabilitation Symposium February 12, 2009 The Use of the Lokomat System in Clinical Research Keith Tansey, MD, PhD Director, Spinal Cord Injury Research Crawford Research Institute,

More information

Basic Biomechanics. What is Kinesiology? Why do we need Kinesiology? the body as a living machine for locomotion

Basic Biomechanics. What is Kinesiology? Why do we need Kinesiology? the body as a living machine for locomotion Basic Biomechanics the body as a living machine for locomotion What is Kinesiology? Kinesis: To move -ology: to study: The study of movement What the heck does that mean? Why do we need Kinesiology? As

More information

International Year of Light 2015 Tech-Talks BREGENZ: Mehmet Arik Well-Being in Office Applications Light Measurement & Quality Parameters

International Year of Light 2015 Tech-Talks BREGENZ: Mehmet Arik Well-Being in Office Applications Light Measurement & Quality Parameters www.led-professional.com ISSN 1993-890X Trends & Technologies for Future Lighting Solutions ReviewJan/Feb 2015 Issue LpR 47 International Year of Light 2015 Tech-Talks BREGENZ: Mehmet Arik Well-Being in

More information

Design of a Robotic Arm with Gripper & End Effector for Spot Welding

Design of a Robotic Arm with Gripper & End Effector for Spot Welding Universal Journal of Mechanical Engineering 1(3): 92-97, 2013 DOI: 10.13189/ujme.2013.010303 http://www.hrpub.org Design of a Robotic Arm with Gripper & End Effector for Spot Welding Puran Singh *, Anil

More information

Design of an Arm Exoskeleton Controlled by the EMG Signal

Design of an Arm Exoskeleton Controlled by the EMG Signal Design of an Arm Exoskeleton Controlled by the EMG Signal Mark Novak Cornel College PHY312 December 2011 Professor Derin Sherman Introduction An exoskeleton is a supporting structure on the outside of

More information

Simulation of Trajectories and Comparison of Joint Variables for Robotic Manipulator Using Multibody Dynamics (MBD)

Simulation of Trajectories and Comparison of Joint Variables for Robotic Manipulator Using Multibody Dynamics (MBD) Simulation of Trajectories and Comparison of Joint Variables for Robotic Manipulator Using Multibody Dynamics (MBD) Jatin Dave Assistant Professor Nirma University Mechanical Engineering Department, Institute

More information

Therapeutic Canine Massage

Therapeutic Canine Massage Meet our Certified Canine Massage Therapist, Stevi Quick After years of competitive grooming and handling several breeds in conformation, I became interested in training and competing with my dogs in the

More information

A 5 Degree Feedback Control Robotic Arm (Haptic Arm)

A 5 Degree Feedback Control Robotic Arm (Haptic Arm) A 5 Degree Feedback Control Robotic Arm (Haptic Arm) 1 Prof. Sheetal Nirve, 2 Mr.Abhilash Patil, 3 Mr.Shailesh Patil, 4 Mr.Vishal Raut Abstract: Haptics is the science of applying touch sensation and control

More information

The Design of a Low-Cost and Robust Linkage Position Sensor

The Design of a Low-Cost and Robust Linkage Position Sensor The Design of a Low-Cost and Robust Linkage Position Sensor Project Proposal By: Leann Vernon and Phillip Latka Advisor: Dr. Jose Sanchez December 16th, 2013 Table of Contents Introduction 2 Project Description..

More information

Salem Community College Course Syllabus. Course Title: Physics I. Course Code: PHY 101. Lecture Hours: 2 Laboratory Hours: 4 Credits: 4

Salem Community College Course Syllabus. Course Title: Physics I. Course Code: PHY 101. Lecture Hours: 2 Laboratory Hours: 4 Credits: 4 Salem Community College Course Syllabus Course Title: Physics I Course Code: PHY 101 Lecture Hours: 2 Laboratory Hours: 4 Credits: 4 Course Description: The basic principles of classical physics are explored

More information

SOLAR POWERED PROSTHETIC ARM STIMULATED BY EMG SIGNAL USING LabVIEW

SOLAR POWERED PROSTHETIC ARM STIMULATED BY EMG SIGNAL USING LabVIEW SOLAR POWERED PROSTHETIC ARM STIMULATED BY EMG SIGNAL USING LabVIEW Keerthana R 1, Uma K 2, Naseem A 3 1 Research Scholar, Department of BMIE, Avinashilingam University for Women, Tamilnadu, India 2 Faculty,

More information

REHAB 442: Advanced Kinesiology and Biomechanics INTRODUCTION - TERMS & CONCEPTS

REHAB 442: Advanced Kinesiology and Biomechanics INTRODUCTION - TERMS & CONCEPTS Rehab 442: Introduction - Page 1 REHAB 442: Advanced Kinesiology and Biomechanics INTRODUCTION - TERMS & CONCEPTS Readings: Norkin & Levangie, Chapters 1 & 2 or Oatis, Ch. 1 & 2 (don't get too bogged down

More information

Intelligent Submersible Manipulator-Robot, Design, Modeling, Simulation and Motion Optimization for Maritime Robotic Research

Intelligent Submersible Manipulator-Robot, Design, Modeling, Simulation and Motion Optimization for Maritime Robotic Research 20th International Congress on Modelling and Simulation, Adelaide, Australia, 1 6 December 2013 www.mssanz.org.au/modsim2013 Intelligent Submersible Manipulator-Robot, Design, Modeling, Simulation and

More information

Active Vibration Isolation of an Unbalanced Machine Spindle

Active Vibration Isolation of an Unbalanced Machine Spindle UCRL-CONF-206108 Active Vibration Isolation of an Unbalanced Machine Spindle D. J. Hopkins, P. Geraghty August 18, 2004 American Society of Precision Engineering Annual Conference Orlando, FL, United States

More information

Drive market-winning innovation, without risk

Drive market-winning innovation, without risk SOLIDWORKS SIMULATION Drive market-winning innovation, without risk Ensure adequate exit duct sizing with Flow simulation Check resonance between the fan and the motor Truck Mount SnowBlower Wausau Everest

More information

CNC Machine Control Unit

CNC Machine Control Unit NC Hardware a NC Hardware CNC Machine Control Unit Servo Drive Control Hydraulic Servo Drive Hydraulic power supply unit Servo valve Servo amplifiers Hydraulic motor Hydraulic Servo Valve Hydraulic Servo

More information

Robotics and Automation Blueprint

Robotics and Automation Blueprint Robotics and Automation Blueprint This Blueprint contains the subject matter content of this Skill Connect Assessment. This Blueprint does NOT contain the information one would need to fully prepare for

More information

Chapter 7: Middle Adulthood PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD. Changes with age = Aging. Age Changes

Chapter 7: Middle Adulthood PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD. Changes with age = Aging. Age Changes Chapter 7: Middle Adulthood Module 7.1 Physical Development in Middle Adulthood PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD 4/14/2009 1 4/14/2009 2 Age Changes What stays the same as we age? What changes

More information

UVA HAND CENTER - THERAPY

UVA HAND CENTER - THERAPY Post-Op to Week 3: Distal Biceps Re-Insertion Rehabilitation Protocol - Pt is immobilized in 90 degrees of flexion, neutral rotation and wrist in a position of comfort, either a cast or brace/splint may

More information

ACTUATOR DESIGN FOR ARC WELDING ROBOT

ACTUATOR DESIGN FOR ARC WELDING ROBOT ACTUATOR DESIGN FOR ARC WELDING ROBOT 1 Anurag Verma, 2 M. M. Gor* 1 G.H Patel College of Engineering & Technology, V.V.Nagar-388120, Gujarat, India 2 Parul Institute of Engineering & Technology, Limda-391760,

More information

C is a point of concurrency is at distance from End Effector frame & at distance from ref frame.

C is a point of concurrency is at distance from End Effector frame & at distance from ref frame. Module 6 : Robot manipulators kinematics Lecture 21 : Forward & inverse kinematics examples of 2R, 3R & 3P manipulators Objectives In this course you will learn the following Inverse position and orientation

More information

DISCLOSURES RISK ASSESSMENT. Stroke and Heart Disease -Is there a Link Beyond Risk Factors? Daniel Lackland, MD

DISCLOSURES RISK ASSESSMENT. Stroke and Heart Disease -Is there a Link Beyond Risk Factors? Daniel Lackland, MD STROKE AND HEART DISEASE IS THERE A LINK BEYOND RISK FACTORS? D AN IE L T. L AC K L AN D DISCLOSURES Member of NHLBI Risk Assessment Workgroup RISK ASSESSMENT Count major risk factors For patients with

More information

Using angular speed measurement with Hall effect sensors to observe grinding operation with flexible robot.

Using angular speed measurement with Hall effect sensors to observe grinding operation with flexible robot. Using angular speed measurement with Hall effect sensors to observe grinding operation with flexible robot. François Girardin 1, Farzad Rafieian 1, Zhaoheng Liu 1, Marc Thomas 1 and Bruce Hazel 2 1 Laboratoire

More information

Reverse Total Shoulder Replacement

Reverse Total Shoulder Replacement SPORTS & ORTHOPAEDIC SPECIALISTS Reverse Total Shoulder Replacement 6-10 Visits over 4 months Reverse Total Shoulder Replacements are especially susceptible to dislocation during internal rotation, glenohumeral

More information

Integrated Neuropsychological Assessment

Integrated Neuropsychological Assessment Integrated Neuropsychological Assessment Dr. Diana Velikonja C.Psych Neuropsychology, Hamilton Health Sciences, ABI Program Assistant Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences Faculty of Health

More information

PHYSICAL EDUCATION IM 36

PHYSICAL EDUCATION IM 36 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IM 36 IM SYLLABUS (2014) SYLLABUS 1 Physical Education IM 36 (Available in September) Syllabus 1 Paper (2hrs 30mins) & Practical (30mins) Introduction This syllabus provides candidates

More information

Interactive Motion Simulators

Interactive Motion Simulators motionsimulator motionsimulator About the Company Since its founding in 2003, the company Buck Engineering & Consulting GmbH (BEC), with registered offices in Reutlingen (Germany) has undergone a continuous

More information

Internet based manipulator telepresence

Internet based manipulator telepresence Internet based manipulator telepresence T ten Kate, P Zizola, B Driessen, K van Woerden TNO Institute of Applied Physics, Stieltjesweg 1, 2628 CK DELFT, The NETHERLANDS {tenkate, zizola, driessen, vwoerden}@tpd.tno.nl

More information

Autonomous Mobile Robot-I

Autonomous Mobile Robot-I Autonomous Mobile Robot-I Sabastian, S.E and Ang, M. H. Jr. Department of Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore 21 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119077 ABSTRACT This report illustrates

More information

STROKE CARE NOW NETWORK CONFERENCE MAY 22, 2014

STROKE CARE NOW NETWORK CONFERENCE MAY 22, 2014 STROKE CARE NOW NETWORK CONFERENCE MAY 22, 2014 Rehabilitation Innovations in Post- Stroke Recovery Madhav Bhat, MD Fort Wayne Neurological Center DISCLOSURE Paid speaker for TEVA Neuroscience Program.

More information

Motor control & performance with aging. Today: Examine motor abilities with advancing age Describe motor regression and how it relates to

Motor control & performance with aging. Today: Examine motor abilities with advancing age Describe motor regression and how it relates to Motor control & performance with aging Today: Examine motor abilities with advancing age Describe motor regression and how it relates to motor behavioural changes physical changes central nervous system

More information