Get to Know Golf! John Dunigan

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1 Get to Know Golf! John Dunigan Get to Know Golf is an initiative designed to promote the understanding the laws that govern ball flight. This information will help golfers develop the most important skill in golf: Ball Control. What makes the ball go up? During impact, if the leading edge of the club is below the equator of the ball, the ball will rebound upward at an angle that is between the club head path (angle of attack) and the club s loft angle. The ball compresses, slides and rolls up the face, creating backspin (lift), which keeps the ball climbing upward and gives it hang time. The reason why we need to hit somewhat down on the ball is to ensure that the leading edge is below the equator of the ball at impact so that the club can work as designed. Equator Club Head Path (Angle of Attack) Target Line Spin Axis The backspin imparted to the ball by impact rotates around an axis called the spin axis (black line below). It is important to understand spin axis because curving golf shots are the result of a tilted spin axis. A straight ball flight has a horizontal spin axis. We call that zero. Like the wings of an airplane, when the wings are parallel, the plane flies straight. When the spin axis tilts to the right, just like an airplane banking in the air, the ball will curve to the right. And when the spin axis tilts to the left, the ball will curve to the left. The red arrow shows backspin. Spin Axis = 0 Spin Axis Tilted Right Spin Axis Tilted Left

2 What makes the ball fly straight or curve? According to research by TrackMan, developers of a club delivery and ball flight monitor, the club face accounts for approximately 85% of the ball s initial direction with a driver, and 75% with an iron. The club path accounts for the remainder. When the ball starts out in the wrong direction, it s a good bet the problem is a club face error. When the path and face are heading in the same direction through impact, the spin axis is zero and the ball will fly straight. The spin axis will tilt whenever the face and path head in different directions. Hence, the club face and club path have an equal effect on ball curvature. When the club face is the left of the club path, the spin axis tilts left and the ball curves left. When the face is right of the path, the spin axis tilts to the right and the ball curves right. Understanding ball flight is confusing because the club face can be pointed square to the target, yet be right or left relative to the club path. For example, if the club face is 3 degrees right of target, the ball will start out to the right of the target, but if the club path is 6 degrees right of target, then the face is actually left of the path, so the spin axis will tilt to the left and the ball will curve left: Spin Axis Zero Tilt Spin Axis Tilted Right Spin Axis Tilted Left Face Square, Path Square Straight Flight Face Right of Path Ball Curves Right Face Left of Path Ball Curves Left Above are shown the three possible path and face relationships. The red arrow represents the club face angle, the blue arrow is the club path direction, and the black dotted arrow is the ball flight. Please understand that you can rotate these diagrams in any direction, but the flight will be the same: The ball will end up in a different place relative to the target, but the curve will be the same. For example, a straight pull left of the target has the Straight Flight configuration, rotated to the left of the target. There are 3 possible club face angles relative to the target: Square (straight), right (open) and left (closed). There are 3 club paths relative to the target: Square, Right (Inside-out), and Left (Outside-in). The key to ball flight control is mastering the club face / club path relationship, getting both moving in the direction required to make the ball fly the way you want. A slice and a draw are shown below. F B A Slice B A Draw P T P is the path of the club head F is the club face angle T is the line to the target B is the ball flight T F P is the path of the club head F is the club face angle T is the line to the target B is the ball flight Because the club face F is left of the target (closed), the ball B starts off to the left. B the face F is right of the path P, the spin axis will tilt to the right, causing the ball to curve right. Remember: Big Difference = Big Curve. P Because the club face F is right of the target (open), the ball B starts off to the right of the target. Because the path P is moving to the right of the club face F, (face left of path), the ball will curve to the left. The curve will be gentle because there is little difference between the face and the path.

3 The 3 Basic Ball Flights There are three types of ball flight; straight, slice, and hook. The ball can hook more or less depending upon the degree of difference between the club face and the club path directions: Big difference = big curve. Straight Face Square to Path Square = Straight Left = Pull Right = Push Slice Face Right of Path (path left) Face Square = Start Straight and Slice Face Left = Start Left and Slice Face Right = Start Right and Slice Hook Face Left of Path (path right) Face Square = Start Straight and Hook Face Left = Start Left and Hook Face Right = Start Right and Hook Pull Push Pull Slice Push Slice Pull Hook Push Hook Gear Effect and Off-Centered Contact Centered contact on the sweetspot will result in the ball doing what the ball flight laws tell us it will. But when the ball is struck off-center, a gear effect is created, which can tilt the spin axis of the ball in the opposite direction it should, causing it to curve unexpectedly. The diagram below shows centered contact and toe contact. The club will rotate to the right, and the gearing action will rotate ball in the opposite direction, causing the ball to curve to the left. The opposite is true for heel hits. It is very important to take the centeredness of hit into account when analyzing your ball flight because gear effect can essentially make the ball lie to you. If you have a wonderful straight path and face, but you hit the ball on the toe, the ball will hook. You may be tempted to fix a perfectly good swing in a misguided attempt to correct the flight that was caused by off center impact. I recommend that you mark the club face with dry erase marker every practice session to see exactly where you are making contact with the ball. It will greatly help you understand and improve your ball flight. Square Face+Square Path+Center Hit = Straight Flight Square Face+Square Path+Toe Hit = Hook Flight

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