Alternative and Renewable Energy Systems

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1 Alternative and Renewable Energy Systems

2 Known as the standard for technical training systems in use across virtually every industry and around the globe, Lab-Volt is now using its expertise to provide hands-on training solutions in Alternative and Renewable Energy Systems for Secondary, Career and Technical, Post-Secondary, and Workforce Development educational institutions. Alternative Energy is a natural progression for Lab-Volt. Since the postwar technology boom of the 1950 s, the company has been helping to train the minds and hands of the specialists and technicians who make the possible practical. Lab-Volt has maintained its leadership by combining expertise in virtually all scientific, technological and industrial disciplines with the ability to envision the most efficient and effective means to educate within the training center and classroom environments. Alternative and renewable energy sources are steadily climbing the ladder of environmental and commercial importance as scarcity and expense restrict the supply of non-renewable fuels. Lab-Volt recognizes the special nature of Alternative and Renewable Energy, an industry that combines factors more unique and specialized and having more complicated relationships than most traditional power generation and distribution fields. Lab-Volt s new alternative energy training systems cover foundational, intermediate, and advanced alternative energy technologies, including wind, solar, and hydrogen fuel cell technologies. This training focuses on the electrical and electronic components at the core of many green energy technologies and covers not only the production of alternative energy, but how that energy translates into common usage. While most power generation requires the creation, management, and conversion of heat energy into motion with most variations simply involving the way heat is produced alternative and renewable sources are far more varied. Many take advantage of the motion already found in nature; others harness nature s own renewable forms of heat 2

3 and energy. Capturing and converting that motion or energy often requires very non-traditional methods. Accordingly, development of the Lab-Volt Alternative and Renewable Energy Systems required rethinking the traditional approaches to training, from the need to understand the base science to how, for example, location and environmental issues affect an alternative/renewable energy source s ability to work efficiently or even acceptably. Lab-Volt training systems are proven and trusted worldwide by educators operating in all sectors, including schools and universities, vocational training, government and the military, commerce and industry, and more. Lab-Volt supports all of its products with state-ofthe-art service centers in the United States and Canada, and a comprehensive network of product technicians standing by worldwide. 3

4 Alternative Energy Training Programs Lab-Volt s Alternative Energy Training Program was developed as a three-tiered program. It begins at the secondary education level with 40 hours of Graymark s GreenTECH program and continues with hands-on training on our comprehensive Solar/Wind Energy Training System, Model These secondary education programs focus on installation and operation, including electrical skills, maintenance and support, and an understanding of the set-up and use of stand-alone (a small renewable energy system that is not connected to the electricity grid) and grid-tied (a small renewable energy system that is connected to the electricity grid) renewable energy systems. The college and university two-year program is based on Lab-Volt s Electromechanical Systems trainer and focuses on power generation, trans- *Some of the programs outlined in this brochure are in development and subject to change. 4

5 mission, and distribution and voltage/frequency power synchronization, as well as control of the many different types of generators used in wind and hydro power. Also included in this program are the power electronics behind alternative and renewable energy systems, and energy storage. Wind, solar, and hydrogen fuel cell technologies are also covered through theoretical study in the context of electromechanical systems. Alternative Energy Training Programs Lab-Volt also offers advanced courses in Power Factor Correction, Electric Vehicles, Wind Power Electricity Generation (Doubly-Fed Induction Generator), Wind Power Electricity Generation (Asynchronous Generator), Wind Power Electricity Generation (Synchronous Generator/DC Bus), and Hydropower Electricity Generation. 5

6 Secondary Education Programs Graymark GREENtech GREENtech is a low-cost turnkey Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy training Lab that includes all the courseware, hardware, software, tools and accessories needed to provide the basic knowledge & the hands-on skills required to enter the green collar job market. Introduction to the Trainer Energy Overview Solar Energy Wind Energy Fuel Cell Energy Electrical energy Distribution Career Opportunities Introduction to Electricity Electrical Circuits Solar Panels Fuel Cell Computer Interface Fuel Cells and Zero Emissions Car Wind Turbines Training Lab Components Reversible Fuel Cell Wind Turbine with different blade sizes 1-w Solar Panel Data Acquisition Board Graphic Software Hydro Car DC Motor with propeller 2 AA battery holder Student Theory and Lab Manual Student Accessories Student Tools 6

7 Solar/Wind Energy Training System Model Secondary Education Programs Lab-Volt Systems, Inc. is proud to lead the way in offering new hands-on training systems in Alternative, Renewable, and Sustainable Energy Technology. The Solar/Wind Energy Trainer is our initial offering in this series and includes state-of-the-art components and curriculum. Lab-Volt s Alternative Energy training programs are not only for those who can make a difference today, but also for those who will shape the future of these technologies. The Solar/Wind Energy Trainer forms a complete hybrid energy training system. This program demonstrates how wind turbines and solar cells are being used in the consumer and industrial markets to supplement the world s power needs. The program explores solar and wind as energy sources that can be used to help reduce dependence on non-renewable fuel sources. Students gain a global perspective when they understand the economics, efficiency, and low environmental impact of producing energy from non-polluting, renewable sources. Topic Coverage Energy Fundamentals Trainer Familiarization and Safety Solar Module Wind Turbine Energy Fundamentals Trainer Familiarization and Safety Solar Module Wind Turbine Solar/Wind Systems Going Green Shown with AC Flood Lamp (Sun Simulator) 7

8 College and University Programs Renewable Energy Training Program Renewable Energy Basic Training System This foundational training system, which covers the topics on these two pages, introduces students to both wind power and solar power, two popular sources of renewable energy with zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and requires only a basic knowledge of electricity principles. This course also introduces lead-acid batteries which are used to store electrical energy produced from wind power or solar power. DC Power Circuits DC Power Circuits features computer-controlled fourquadrant mechanical load capabilities. It reproduces the torque and speed characteristics of various energy systems, such as wind turbine or wave energy. The module is also used as a four-quadrant power supply required in power electronic experiments. Voltage, Current, and Ohm s Law Equivalent Resistance Power in DC Circuits Series and Parallel Circuits Lead-Acid Batteries Lead-Acid Batteries, Model 8801, consists of two valve-regulated, lead-acid (VRLA) batteries enclosed in a half-size EMS module and is used to study lead-acid battery characteristics as well as the storage of electrical energy produced using solar power. The batteries can be connected in series or parallel. Normal connection to the batteries is through 4-mm safety banana jacks mounted on the front panel of the module. These jacks are used when large amounts of power are supplied to the batteries or drawn from the batteries. A pair of miniature (2 mm) banana jacks mounted on the front panel of the module provides access to one of the two batteries via an auto-reset fuse. These miniature jacks are used when connecting the battery to either the Solar Panel Test Bench, Model 8805, or the Solar Panel, Model 8806 State of Charge, Voltage Regulation, Discharge Characteristic Curve, and Cycle Life Battery Capacity vs. Discharge Rate Battery Charging Fundamentals Battery Charging Methods 8

9 College and University Programs Renewable Energy Training Program Solar Power (Photovoltaic) Solar Panel Test Bench (with Solar Panel installed) Lead-Acid Batteries Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Panel (front and back) The Solar Power Technology Training System, Model 8805, is designed to introduce students to the production of electrical energy from solar power, with emphasis on the use and operation of photovoltaic (PV) panels (solar panels). The Solar Power Technology Training System mainly consists of the Solar Panel Test Bench, Model 8805, and the Solar Panel, Model By installing the Solar Panel on the Solar Panel Work Bench, students can conduct several indoor experiments on solar panel operation and performance using the artificial light source of the test bench. The Solar Panel can also be installed on a tripod (purchased separately) to perform extra optional outdoor experiments using sunlight. Solar Power System with Components Wind Power (Small) The Diode The Solar Panel (Photovoltaic Panel) Effect of Temperature on Solar Panel Performance Storing Energy from Solar Panels into Batteries Effect of Shading on Solar Panel Operation Solar Panel Orientation (optional outdoor exercise) Solar Panel Performance versus Insolation (optional outdoor exercise) Wind Power (Small) introduces students to the characteristics of wind power generation and how to store electrical energy produced by a wind turbine. Voltage-vs.-Speed Characteristic of a Wind Turbine Generator Torque-vs.-Current Characteristic of a Wind Turbine Generator Power vs. Wind Speed Storing Energy from a Wind Turbine into Batteries 9

10 College and University Programs Renewable Energy Training Program Ni-MH Batteries Ni-MH Batteries is an add-on to the Renewable Energy Basic Training System and introduces students to Ni- MH batteries. Today, these batteries are used extensively in a growing array of applications as they offer better performance than conventional lead-acid batteries. However, they are more expensive than lead-acid batteries Hydrogen Fuel Cell State of Charge, Voltage Regulation, Discharge Characteristic Curve, and Cycle Life Battery Capacity vs. Discharge Rate Battery Charging Fundamentals Battery Charging Methods Hydrogen Fuel Cell is an add-on to the Renewable Energy Basic Training System and introduces students to hydrogen fuel cells which are used in many specialized applications (particularly in the aerospace and military fields). However, commercial applications for hydrogen fuel cells are relatively scarce because they are quite expensive. There are also safety concerns related to the use of hydrogen in fuel cells. Battery Chargers and Small Electric Vehicles The Battery Chargers and Small Electric Vehicles course is an add-on to DC Power Electronics and introduces students to battery chargers and small electric vehicles (electric bikes and golf carts), two applications that are closely related to renewable energy. Utility Power Utility Power Utility Power CHARGER AC/DC AC/AC Conversion AC (60 Hz) On-Board AC DC Off-Board DC High Frequency AC Inductor Source (Coupler) Socket CHARGER AC/DC AC/DC Conversion Batteries Conductively Coupled (Direct coupled AC) Socket Batteries Conductively Coupled (Direct coupled DC) Vehicle Inductor (Receptor) Inductively Coupled Batteries 10

11 College and University Programs Renewable Energy Training Program DC Power Electronics: Diodes, IGBTs, and Choppers DC Power Electronics is an add-on to the Renewable Energy Basic Training System. This course allows students to study DC power electronics, which are used extensively to manage DC power obtained from wind power and solar power sources or stored in batteries. Familiarization with the LVDAM EMS System Familiarization with the Chopper Control Software Familiarization with the IGBT Module (Chopper Implementation) Introduction to High-Speed Power Switching The Buck Chopper The Boost Chopper The Buck/Boost Chopper The Four-Quadrant Chopper Single-Phase AC Power Circuits Single-Phase AC Circuits is an add-on to the Renewable Energy Basic Training System and DC Power Electronics. This course covers the fundamentals of AC power. Completion of the courseware related to this equipment package gives the student the basic knowledge of AC power required to study single-phase power electronics and home energy production as well as three-phase AC power circuits. The Sine Wave Phase Angle Instantaneous Power Capacitive Reactance Equivalent Capacitance Capacitive Phase Shift and Reactive Power Inductive Reactance Equivalent Inductance Inductive Phase Shift and Reactive Power Power in AC Circuits Vectors and Phasors in Series AC Circuits Vectors and Phasors in Parallel AC Circuits Impedance 11

12 College and University Programs Renewable Energy Training Program Single-Phase AC Power Electronics and Home Energy Production Single-Phase AC Power Electronics and Home Energy Production is an add-on to Single-Phase AC Circuits. This course covers single-phase power electronics and demonstrates how to produce single-phase AC power at home from renewable energy stored in batteries. Power Diode Single-Phase Rectifiers Familiarization with the Single-Phase Inverter/PWM Rectifier Control Software Familiarization with the IGBT Module (Inverter Implementation) The Single-Phase Inverter The Single-Phase PWM Rectifier Power Flow in a Single-Phase PWM Rectifier AC Power Generation for Local Use Supplying the Electrical Network with Home-Produced AC Power Three-Phase AC Power Circuits Three-Phase AC Power Circuits is an add-on to the Single-Phase AC Power Electronics and Home Energy Production and covers the fundamentals of three-phase AC power. Completion of the courseware provides students with the basic knowledge required to study three-phase rotating machines, three-phase power electronics, and thyristor power electronics. Balanced Three-Phase Circuits Three-Phase Power Measurement Phase Sequence Three-Phase AC Power Electronics Three-Phase AC Power Electronics is an add-on to Three-Phase AC Power Circuits and Single-Phase AC Power Electronics and Home Energy Production. This course covers the operation of the threephase rectifier (unipolar and bipolar outputs), three-phase inverter, and three-phase PWM rectifier; devices used extensively for large electricity generation from wind power, power factor correction, and electric vehicles. Power Diode Three-Phase Rectifiers Single-Phase Inverter Implemented with a Dual-Polarity DC Power Supply The Three-Phase Inverter The Three-Phase PWM Rectifier 12

13 College and University Programs Renewable Energy Training Program Thyristor Power Electronics Thyristor Power Electronics is an add-on to Three-Phase AC Power Circuits and Single-Phase AC Power Electronics and Home Energy Production. This course introduces students to the thyristor and covers AC phase control as well as the operation of single-phase and three-phase thyristor bridges in the rectifier and inverter modes. Thyristor power electronics is used in static compensators (power factor correction) as well as to control generator excitation in hydroelectric power plants. The Power Thyristor Introduction to AC Phase Control The Thyristor Single-Phase Bridge (Rectifier/Inverter Modes) The Thyristor Three-Phase Rectifier/Inverter The Thyristor Three-Phase, Six-Pulse Converter Three-Phase Rotating Machines and Wind-Power Electricity Generation (Asynchronous Generator and DFIG Principles) Three-Phase Rotating Machines and Wind Power Electricity Generation is an add-on to Three-Phase AC Power Circuits and covers the operation of the squirrel-cage induction motor (motor and asynchronous generator operation), synchronous machine (motor and generator operation), and wound-rotor machine (motor and frequency converter operation). Completion of the courseware provides students with the knowledge of three-phase rotating machines required to study various advanced applications, such as electric vehicles, large electricity generation from wind power (using either a DFIG or a synchronous generator with a DC bus) or hydropower, and synchronous condensers (compensators). Students will also study electricity generation from wind power using an asynchronous generator. This technology is widely used to generate electricity from wind power as it is easy to implement. Prime Mover Operation The Three-Phase Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor Eddy-Current Brake and Asynchronous Generator Effect of Voltage on the Characteristics of Induction Motors Familiarization with the Reversible DC Power Supply Power Diode Single-Phase and Two-Phase Rectifiers Power Diode Three-Phase Rectifiers Familiarization with the Chopper / Inverter Control Unit (Chopper Modes) Familiarization with the Chopper / Inverter Control Unit (Inverter Modes) Familiarization with the IGBT Chopper / Inverter Module Introduction to High-Speed Power Switching The Buck Chopper The Boost Chopper The Buck / Boost Chopper The Four-Quadrant Chopper The Single-Phase Inverter Saturation and Effect of Frequency in Magnetic Circuits Wound-Rotor Induction Motor Wound-Rotor Induction Motor with Short-Circuited Rotor Wound-Rotor Induction Motor with Variable Rotor Resistors Wound-Rotor Frequency Conversion Principles Speed Control of a Wound-Rotor Generator using Rotor Resistors Variable Speed Doubly-Fed Induction Generator using Rotor Frequency 13

14 College and University Programs Advanced Renewable Energy Training Program Power Factor Correction (Sync. Cond., SVC, and STATCOM) Power Factor Correction is an add-on to Three-Phase AC Power Electronics, Thyristor Power Electronics, and Three- Phase Rotating Machines and Wind-Power Electricity Generation (Asynchronous Generator). This course introduces students to three different systems used in a three-phase power environment to achieve power factor correction. The three systems studied are the synchronous condenser (compensator), the static VAR compensator (SVC), and the static synchronous compensator STATCOM). Automatic Power Factor Control using a Synchronous Condenser The Static VAR Compensator (SVC) The Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) Electric Vehicles Charger Battery Fuel Storage Power Electronics Electric Motor Lightweight Materials Engine Radiator Electric Vehicles is an add-on to Three-Phase AC Power Electronics and Three-Phase Rotating Machines and Wind-Power Electricity Generation (Asynchronous Generator). This course covers the operation of the drive train in modern electric vehicles. Today, these vehicles are considered an essential step toward a larger use of renewable energy. 14

15 College and University Programs Advanced Renewable Energy Training Program Wind-Power Electricity Generation (DFIG Technology) Wind-Power Electricity Generation (DFIG) is an add-on to Three-Phase AC Power Electronics and Three-Phase Rotating Machines and Wind-Power Electricity Generation (Asynchronous Generator). This course covers wind-power electricity generation using a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). This technology is commonly used by power utilities to generate large amount of electricity from wind power. Wind-Power Electricity Generation (Sync. Gen. with DC Bus) Wind-Power Electricity Generation (Sync. Gen with DC Bus) is an add-on to Three-Phase AC Power Electronics and Three-Phase Rotating Machines and Wind-Power Electricity Generation (Asynchronous Generator). This course covers wind-power electricity generation using a synchronous generator with a DC bus. This technology is commonly used by power utilities to generate large amount of electricity from wind power. Hydropower Electricity Generation Hydropower Electricity Generation is an add-on to Thyristor Power Electronics and Three-Phase Rotating Machines and Wind-Power Electricity Generation (Asynchronous Generator). This course covers hydropower electricity generation. This technology has been commonly used for many years by power utilities to generate large amounts of electricity from hydropower. General Theory and Operation Generator Synchronization Voltage and Frequency Regulation 15

16 Lab-Volt Systems, Inc. Farmingdale, NJ USA Phone: Fax: Lab-Volt Ltée/Ltd. Québec (Québec) G2N2K7 CANADA Phone: Fax:

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