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1 Marketing Management The Importance of Word of Mouth for Museums: An Analytical Framework The Importance of Word of Mouth for Museums: An Analytical Framework Andrea Hausmann Introduction Museums are in fierce competition not only with other museums and arts organizations but also with providers of a wide range of entertainment, educational and recreational products (Rentschler and Hede, 2007; Sandell and Janes, 2007; Kotler, Kotler and Kotler, 2008). In terms of museum marketing, survival in this competitive arena requires not only the right product decisions but also an effective communications policy (Colbert, 2007). For museums, communications policy traditionally comprises such tools as posters, flyers, advertisements, sales promotion measures, direct marketing and, increasingly, Web sites (Hausmann, 2001; McLean, 1997; Kotler, Kotler and Kotler, 2008). However, most of these tools are not only resource-intensive but of decreasing importance in this era of information overload and growing consumer resistance to advertising (Gladwell, 2000; Phillips and Rasberry, 2008). It is essential, therefore, that the literature on the marketing of museums discuss referrals among customers as a suitable and cost-effective means of creating awareness of products, disseminating information and winning new customers (Wilson, 1991; Gelb and Johnson, 1995; Helm, 2000a; Phillips and Rasberry, 2008; Trusov, Bucklin and Pauwels, 2009). In this era of the Internet (and especially social media), word of mouth (WOM) is gaining in effectiveness as a means of referral in applications such as Facebook and Twitter, making it possible to reach an unlimited number of people (Riegner, 2007; Trusov, Bucklin and Pauwels, 2009; Miller and Lammas, 2010). In contrast to general marketing, the fields of arts marketing in general and museum marketing in particular have conducted very little research on WOM. This is all the more surprising given that visitor surveys have repeatedly shown that personal referral is one of the main reasons for museum visiting (Helm and Klar, 1997; Beywl, 2005; Geissler, Rucks and Edison, 2006; Willems and Lewalter, 2007). Set against this background, the contribution of this article is threefold. First, it opens up a new area of research in museum marketing, with a comprehensive and well-founded theoretical analysis of WOM in the era of social media. Second, to foster empirical research on the topic of WOM in museum marketing where there have been no studies so far the article discusses techniques for museums to use in encouraging WOM, especially via social media. Third, the article describes an exploratory study of how these techniques are implemented in practice. The article is intended to narrow a wide gap in the museum marketing research and to shift the focus of theoretical and empirical research in this field to a relevant topic for museums. Andrea Hausmann is associate professor of arts management and head of the Cultural Management and Cultural Tourism master s program at European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), Germany. 32 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTS MANAGEMENT

2 State of the Research and Definition of Terms Word of mouth is a field of research that has been the subject of comprehensive theoretical and empirical analysis in the general marketing literature. It is the informal positive or negative communication by customers on the objectively existing and/or subjectively perceived characteristics of the products or services of a supplier (Helm, 2000a; Bayus, 1985; Buttle, 1998; Wilson, 1991; Mangold, Miller and Broadway, 1999). With regard to museums, these referrals may be made, for instance, in conversations between visitors to a museum or after the visit in a private and/or professional context (Helm and Kuhl, 2006). Basically, WOM is founded on trust and the fact that the senders and recipients of referrals come from the same social environment (Gelb and Johnson, 1995; Jansen et al., 2009). In view of the rise of the Internet and the resulting innumerable possibilities for people to make online referrals, and to have them spread like a virus, the literature discusses WOM by mouse click as a further development of traditional WOM (Godes and Mayzlin, 2003; Phelps et al., 2004; Allsop, Bassett and Hoskins, 2007). The vast diffusion of Internet technology in consumer as well as business-to-business settings opens up new arenas for WOM as can also be noticed by terms such as word-of-mouse or word-of-modem (Helm, 2000b, p. 159). Electronic word of mouth (ewom) is defined as a statement made by potential, actual, or former customers about a product or company, which is made available to a multitude of people and institutions via the Internet (Hennig- Thurau et al., 2004, p. 39). By virtue of social media and their various applications such as Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, the impact of ewom has increased further (Miller and Lammas, 2010; Jansen et al., 2009; Bakshy et al., 2011). Compared to traditional recommendations, which inevitably have limited reach (about 10 persons on average), ewom can spread epidemically, especially within social networks, where some members have hundreds or even thousands of friends or followers, and thus has a much greater communication impact (Kotler and Armstrong, 2009; Miller and Lammas, 2010). For museums, most of which have scarce resources (Fopp, 1997; Hausmann, 2001), it is particularly interesting that this impact is achieved with few resources (compared to those required for traditional communication tools). Moreover, geographic distances and time restrictions no longer play a role in the dissemination of information (Trusov, Bucklin and Pauwels, 2009; Jansen et al., 2009). The state of research on WOM in museum marketing differs significantly from that in general marketing. In fact, a comprehensive literature analysis undertaken by the author reveals a wide research gap. Except for Helm and Kuhl (2006), no researcher has addressed the topic in depth. Traditional WOM is mentioned only in passing in general publications on museum marketing (Sandell and Janes, 2007; Rentschler and Hede, 2007; Kotler, Kotler and Kotler, 2008) and is one aspect among several in studies on visitor satisfaction (Harrison and Shaw, 2004). In the literature on museum marketing research, A B S T R A C T For some time now, the literature on general marketing has been discussing word of mouth (WOM) as a valuable instrument for creating awareness of products, disseminating information and winning new customers. In this era of social media, WOM is also gaining effectiveness due to the fact that a single recommendation on Facebook or Twitter reaches an unlimited number of recipients. However, there has been virtually no research on the field of WOM in arts marketing in general and museum marketing in particular, even though visitor surveys have repeatedly shown that personal referrals are one of the main reasons for making a museum visit. The contribution of this article is threefold. First, it opens up a new area of research in museum marketing with a comprehensive and well-founded theoretical analysis of WOM in the era of social media. Second, to foster empirical research on the topic of WOM in museum marketing where there have been no studies so far it suggests techniques for museums to use in order to encourage WOM, especially via social media. Third, it explores how these techniques are being implemented in practice. K E Y W O R D S Word of mouth, museums marketing, museums, social media, social networks VOLUME 14, NUMBER 3 SPRING

3 ewom is not mentioned at all. This is all the more surprising given that surveys conducted in museums have repeatedly shown that third-party recommendation is one of the main reasons for visiting (Helm and Klar, 1997; Beywl, 2005; Geissler, Bucks and Edison, 2006; Willems and Lewalter, 2007). This is due to the kind of serv- ices provided by museums, as will be analyzed in detail in the following section. Value of Word of Mouth for Museums It is the general opinion in the literature that museums provide goods with a large share of immateriality (Hausmann, 2001; Karns, 2002; Helm and Kuhl, 2006; Kotler, Kotler and Kotler, 2008). Most of the services provided by museums (e.g., an educational experience at an exhibition, advice at the reception desk, the offerings of the museum s education department) are not tangible or storable, which means that the processes of production and consumption of museum services coincide in many parts of a visit (the uno-actu principle ) (Hausmann, 2001; Lovelock and Gummesson, 2004). Another characteristic of the production of museum services is the lack of standardization and the need to integrate an external factor, especially visitors (Bitner, 1997; Lovelock and Gummesson, 2004). This means that museums are service providers from the viewpoint of marketing science (Hausmann, 2001; Armstrong, Kotler and Brennan, 2009; Bruhn and Georgi, 2006). In this context, the economics of information approach distinguishes between search, experience and trust characteristics in services, as these have a substantial impact on the assessment possibilities and the information-seeking behaviour of potential users (Adler, 1996; Kaas, 1991). Whereas search characteristics can be assessed relatively easily and accurately before the purchase or use of a service (e.g., admission cost), experience characteristics can be judged only during or after using a product or participating in an activity (Karns, 2002). If, however, a service cannot be assessed completely or at all after it has been used, there is a large share of trust characteristics (Meffert and Bruhn, 2006; Bruhn and Georgi, 2006). This means that the greater the share of experience and trust characteristics, the greater the uncertainty of potential customers, the greater their perceived risk of making the wrong choice and the greater their information requirements. Several studies have shown that experience and trust characteristics dominate in the museum field (Hausmann, 2001; Karns, 2002; Helm and Kuhl, 2006). The experience characteristics of museum services might include the atmosphere and illumination in the exhibition rooms, the comprehensibility of a guided tour, the quality of restaurant/café services or the friendliness of the staff in the museum shop. While these characteristics can be grasped relatively easily and can usually be assessed by the visitor during or after the production of the service, other characteristics cannot be assessed at all or can be assessed only inadequately ex-post. First-time visitors in particular have to trust that certain characteristics (e.g., authenticity of objects, quality of the curatorship of an exhibition) are in place (Helm and Kuhl, 2006). This means that museum services should be classified as experience or trust goods, and it is generally accepted R É S U M É Depuis quelque temps déjà, la littérature sur le marketing général s intéresse au bouche-à-oreille comme instrument valable pour créer la notoriété de produits, diffuser de l information et attirer de nouveaux clients. En cette ère de médias sociaux, le bouche-à-oreille accroît son efficacité du fait qu une unique recommandation sur Facebook ou Twitter atteint un nombre illimité de destinataires. Toutefois, pratiquement aucune étude n a été effectuée sur le bouche-à-oreille pour le marketing des arts en général et le marketing des musées en particulier, même si des sondages auprès des visiteurs ont constamment montré que la référence personnelle est une des principales raisons motivant une visite au musée. Cet article apporte une triple contribution. Premièrement, il ouvre un nouveau domaine de recherche en marketing muséal grâce à une analyse théorique exhaustive et bien fondée du bouche-à-oreille à l ère des médias sociaux. Deuxièmement, pour encourager la recherche empirique sur le bouche-à-oreille dans le marketing muséal où aucune étude n a été réalisée jusqu à maintenant il propose des techniques à utiliser par les musées pour favoriser ce phénomène, surtout dans les médias sociaux. Troisièmement, il explore comment ces techniques sont utilisées en pratique. M O T S C L É S Bouche-à-oreille, marketing muséal, musées, médias sociaux, réseaux sociaux 34 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTS MANAGEMENT

4 in museum and arts management research that this classification leads to high-quality services and products and behavioural uncertainty on the part of visitors (Karns, 2002; Müller, 2008; Helm and Kuhl, 2006; Blömeke, Braun and Clement, 2008; Kilian, Walsh and Zenz, 2008). To eliminate this uncertainty, potential visitors can rely on the reputation and image of the museum (i.e., they can use surrogate information ) or on the opinions of experts (e.g., critics). According to the literature, however, referrals by friends and acquaintances are especially effective in reducing uncertainty among museum visitors, especially first-time or occasional visitors with little museum experience (Karns, 2002; Helm and Kuhl, 2006). This is attributable to the fact that, due to what is normally a positive correlation of preferences, the expected benefit of a referral by friends or acquaintances is usually believed to be greater than the expected benefit of a random choice (Nelson, 1970). Taking into account the insights gained in the preceding section, ewom is considered to be even more effective than traditional WOM because of its reach and its viral effects. What measures can museums take to encourage referral behaviour among visitors? Techniques for Stimulating Word of Mouth Generally speaking, organizations can act passively or actively with regard to WOM (Bayus, 1985; Helm, 2000a). While a museum s passive behaviour is reflected in the fact that visitor recommendations are regarded simply as a (desired) side effect of visitor satisfaction (Helm and Kuhl, 2006, p. 179) and no action is taken, a museum s active behaviour implies that measures are taken to increase WOM among visitors. Let us now turn to what can be categorized as traditional techniques, followed by more recent techniques in the context of social media. While the former category is broadly discussed in the marketing literature (and in museum marketing research by Helm and Kuhl [2006]), the latter is developed by the author from a review of the (relatively small) body of general marketing literature on the topic and refined for the museum context. Traditional Techniques The most important instruments discussed in the marketing literature (e.g., Haywood, 1987; Wilson, 1994; Helm, 2000b) can be summarized as follows: It is crucial for the museum to concentrate on visitor orientation and to ensure consistently high-quality service at each visitor contact point (Hausmann, 2001) in order to achieve visitor satisfaction (e.g., Helm and Klar, 1997; Helm and Kuhl, 2006; Kotler, Kotler and Kotler, 2008). This visitor orientation relates especially to the various additional services provided by museums (e.g., McLean, 1997; Colbert, 2007; Kotler, Kotler and Kotler, 2008). Other techniques for stimulating referral behaviour extend to various areas of the marketing mix of museums (Helm and Kuhl, 2006). Numerous possibilities can be found in the area of product and communications policy: distribution of giveaways, organization of competitions, events and activities such as street festivals, R E S U M E N En las publicaciones sobre mercadotecnia se está desde hace algún tiempo considerando el boca a boca como un valioso instrumento para elevar la concientización sobre productos, divulgar información y atraer a nuevos clientes. En la época de los medios sociales, el boca a boca está siendo cada vez más eficaz debido al hecho que una sola recomendación en Facebook o Twitter llega a un número sinfín de destinatarios. Sin embargo, no se ha hecho prácticamente ninguna investigación sobre el boca a boca en el campo de la comercialización de las artes en general y de los museos en particular, aún si las encuestas sobre los visitantes han revelado repetidamente que la razón principal de visitar a un museo ha sido por recomendación de alguien. Con el presente artículo, se pretende contribuir a este tema de tres maneras. En primer lugar, se abre con él un nuevo campo de investigación sobre la mercadotecnia de los museos con un análisis teórico exhaustivo y bien fundamentado del fenómeno boca a boca en la época de los medios sociales. Segundo, se propicia la investigación empírica del mencionado tema, sobre el cual, hasta ahora, no se ha llevado a cabo ningún estudio, de manera a sugerir a los museos técnicas para fomentar la difusión boca a boca, sobre todo mediante los medios sociales. En tercer lugar, en el artículo se exploran cómo tales técnicas se están implementando en la práctica. P A L A B R A S C L A V E Boca a boca, mercadotecnia de los museos, medios sociales, redes sociales VOLUME 14, NUMBER 3 SPRING

5 unusual advertising measures (e.g., guerrilla marketing), creation of special communication situations ( open house events are an example of such a special communication situation; people come together in a cheerful environment and are therefore likely to exchange WOM). Other possibilities arise in conjunction with pricing policy for example, distribution of free tickets. Such measures in the marketing mix serve to actively stimulate WOM by making the museum and/or its services the object of personal communications between (potential) senders and recipients of WOM. In addition, there are special campaigns intended to stimulate WOM. In the context of such so-called referral campaigns, a museum s existing visitors (e.g., subscribers, members of friends circles or support organizations) are encouraged to actively communicate and make the museum s services known within their social environment (Helm, 1999; Nießing, 2007). If the WOM recipients respond (e.g., by buying a ticket or joining the friends circle), the sender is rewarded (e.g., free admission, discounted ticket). The recommender thus indirectly becomes a salesperson for the museum and/or its services (Mangold, Miller and Broadway, 1999). Figure 1 summarizes the traditional techniques for stimulating WOM. Techniques in the Context of Social Media Social media comprise Web-based applications that enable networking, interaction and the building of relationships with and between users (Evans, 2008; Meerman Scott, 2010; Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010). Social media are different from traditional forms of communication in that traditional sender-recipient models are eroded and the role of the message recipient is changed fundamentally. The recipient no longer merely receives but can also create, modify and disseminate content with little effort. The oneto-many model of traditional forms of communication has become a many-to-many model. Providers use the much-quoted wisdom of the crowd insofar as they no longer only provide content but also have it generated by and exchanged between users (Surowiecki, 2004; Weinberg, 2009; Brennan, 2010). Typical social media applications are knowledge communities (e.g., Wikipedia), content communities (e.g., YouTube), bookmarking sites (e.g., Mister Wong), games communities (e.g., Second Life), social networks (e.g., Facebook) and (micro)blogs (e.g., Twitter) the last two being especially suited to the research topic addressed here (Trusov, Bucklin and Pauwels, 2009; Miller and Lammas, 2010; Bakshy et al., F I G U R E 1 TRADITIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR STIMULATING WORD OF MOUTH Museum marketing Strategic perspective Operational perspective Implementation of visitor orientation and service quality General marketing mix Specific measures (referral campaign) Visitor (i.e., sender of word of mouth) 36 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTS MANAGEMENT

6 2011). It is worth analyzing how these applications can be used by museums to encourage ewom among their friends, fans or followers. Taking into account the comparatively small body of research on this topic (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010; Schmid, 2011; Weinberg, 2009), the author grouped the findings into three categories, as follows: 1. Use of technology. Applications used in conjunction with the stimulation of referrals should meet the technical requirements necessary to give access to as many users as possible, to facilitate the passing on of content and to support interaction. 2. Provision of content. The content posted on the Web by the provider is considered the key criterion for the success of social media especially with regard to referral potential. However, this content should not be arbitrary; it must offer clear value added. 3. Stimulation of interaction. Given that the competition for user attention is growing dynamically in the realm of social media, it is not sufficient to simply post this content and leave it to fate. Appropriate virtual communication and interaction situations must be created. For the empirical analysis, it was necessary to further operationalize these findings. The author took broader ideas from the marketing literature into consideration and developed a conceptual framework using 17 items suitable for the field of research addressed in this article (see Table 1). Case Study To understand more about the phenomenon of WOM in the museum field and to provide evidence for the relevance of the conceptual framework developed above, this section explores one particular organizational setting. The analysis addresses the question of how the conceptual framework is implemented in museum practice. T A B L E 1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYZING WORD OF MOUTH IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL MEDIA (CATEGORIES AND ITEMS) Technology Content Interaction 1. Accessibility of application 2. Easy mechanisms to transfer/disseminate content (e.g., tell-a-friend ) 3. Installation (and opening) of comment functions 4. Links to partners (e.g., to other institutions with similar target groups) 5. Integration of other social media applications 6. Timeliness of content 7. Relevance of content (i.e., information specific to target group) 8. Exclusiveness of content (i.e., availability of exclusive information) 9. Presentation of content (e.g., storytelling, narratives) 10. Diversity of media (photos, recordings of rehearsals and performances, interviews with artists, etc.) 11. Transparency and honesty with regard to deficits in the production of services (e.g., response to criticism) 12. Opportunity for fans to evaluate content (e.g., to like it) 13. Opportunity to discuss content (e.g., to comment on posts) 14. Initiation of contentrelated discussions (e.g., through questions or comments) 15. Opportunity for others to initiate interaction (e.g., to post on wall ) 16. Activities to involve users (e.g., competitions, polls) 17. Response to user queries (i.e., feedback/ complaints management) VOLUME 14, NUMBER 3 SPRING

7 It was decided that the analysis would be restricted to ewom and therefore to techniques in the realm of social media. As outlined above, ewom is more efficient and effective than traditional WOM and its impact has increased even further in this era of social networks and (micro) blogging. Thus, the analysis focuses on WOM in the context of social networks. Given the multitude of applications, the one with the greatest impact in terms of WOM was chosen: Facebook. Facebook has enjoyed great popularity and success in recent years. Currently (July 2011), it has 750 million users worldwide (USA Today, 2011) and more than 22 million users in Germany (Nielsen, 2011). It seems logical to conclude that the more users a social media application has, the more valuable it will be in the context of the stimulation and dissemination of WOM. In selecting a methodology for the empirical analysis, the author considered the case study approach to be appropriate. Although this approach has its limits, it offers a detailed account of a specific case, examines contemporary phenomena in a real-life context, generates a broad understanding, and contributes to the current, exploratory state of research (Stake, 1995; Yin, 2009). And although the case described below is unique, it can nevertheless be used as an instrumental case (and possibly as an example of good practice), as the findings may be useful for other museums with comparable issues. It was decided that a museum suitable for these purposes should be heavily engaged with Facebook and be characterized as an early adopter of social media have many fans on Facebook be the subject of discussion by experts (in the literature and/or in social media forums) as an example of good practice Based on these criteria, and especially on the results of two studies (Conosco, 2010; Hartmann, 2011), the NRW-Forum was chosen for the case study. The NRW-Forum is situated in Düsseldorf, a city of some 600,000 inhabitants in the far western part of Germany. Its exhibitions challenge each subject within their cultural context. Exhibitions include themes of photography, media, fashion, communication, mobility or lifestyle (www.nrw-forum.de). The NRW- Forum is not only the German museum with the most fans on Facebook (see Table 2), but it also has a high growth rate in terms of new fans. The museum had 2,328 friends on 28 February 2010 (Conosco, 2010), a figure that had grown to 17,550 by April 2011 (see Table 2) and to 20,290 by 8 July 2011 (Δ + 872%). While this fan base is still low in comparison to museums in the United Kingdom (e.g., Tate London: 262,639 fans on 8 July 2011) or the United States (e.g., MoMA New York: 803,443 fans on 8 July 2011), it can be said that the NRW-Forum is the market leader for Facebook in Germany. The museum also has a profile on YouTube (with 22,772 uploads and 61 subscribers) and on Twitter (2,137 tweets and 14,325 followers) and feeds its own blog (www.nrw-forum.de/blog/). All in all, the NRW-Forum can be characterized as a museum with high social media affinity. T A B L E 2 RANKING OF GERMAN MUSEUMS WITH OVER 4,000 FANS (APRIL 2011) Museum Location Fans NRW-Forum Düsseldorf 17,550 C/O Berlin Berlin 16,260 Mercedes-Benz Museum Stuttgart 14,033 BMW Museum Munich 13,346 KW Institute Berlin 8,875 Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt am Main 7,127 Hamburger Bahnhof Berlin 5,928 Vitra Design Museum Weil am Rhein 5,620 Museum für Moderne Kunst Frankfurt am Main 4,834 Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin 4,746 Neue Nationalgalerie Berlin 4,651 Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie Karlsruhe 4,183 Source: Hartmann (2011) Data Collection The three categories and 17 items of the conceptual framework (see Table 1) were considered in the case study. The period of the analysis was the four weeks from 8 June to 8 July During this period, 75 messages were posted on the wall of the NRW-Forum. These posts form the database for the analysis, the findings of which are presented in Table 3. Data Analysis The purpose of this exploration was to investigate how one of Germany s leading museums in terms of social media has used the 17 items included in the conceptual framework developed for this study. The following can be determined from the findings outlined in Table INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTS MANAGEMENT

8 T A B L E 3 CASE STUDY ANALYSIS OF NRW-FORUM (8 JUNE 8 JULY 2011) Category Item Number Explanation Technology 1. Accessibility of application Yes 2. Easy mechanisms to transfer/disseminate content Yes 3. Use of comment function Yes The museum s Facebook page is highly accessible and requires little more than a computer and a password. Anyone can access the page from anywhere. Facebook offers features to easily share and disseminate content. For example, the News Feed spreads information on Facebook through networks of friends. When people on Facebook like a museum, use a museum app or interact with other content that interests them, this activity generates a story on their profile and in their friends News Feeds. The comment function is open and the museum uses this opportunity to facilitate dialogue with its fans (see also items 11 and 17). 4. Links to partners with similar target groups Yes The museum provides a Like list and every Friday it recommends another German museum ( Museum Friday ). 5. Integration of other social media applications Yes The museum integrates its Twitter account, which can be synchronized with its Facebook page. In this way, the museum shares status updates, links, photos, notes and events with followers on Twitter, directly from Facebook. 6. updates per day (i.e., up-to-date profile) 2.59 On average, the profile is updated three times a day; this includes both posts by the museum and posts by others (see also item 14). 7. Target-specific information (i.e., relevance of content) Yes The information in the posts of the NRW-Forum is relevant for the target groups (i.e., fans of the museum), as it is concerned mostly with the museum and its activities (e.g., links to reviews, articles, information about past and future projects). Posts by others can also be considered relevant, as the majority concern the NRW-Forum s exhibitions and activities. Content 8. Availability of exclusive information (i.e., exclusiveness of content) Yes Exclusivity of information includes messages from the museum that can be received only by Facebook members (or are available only on Facebook). Museum Friday recommendations (see item 4) and the results of the Monday Question (see item 13) represent such exclusive content. Another example is a coupon that can be downloaded free and exchanged for a ticket to the museum. 9. Stories and narratives connected with information (i.e., presentation of content) No The NRW-Forum does not use storytelling or narratives to enrich its content. 10. videos/photos per post (i.e., diversity of media) 0.87 Almost all posts are linked to either a photo or a video. Most of the posts without media are posted by others. 11. responses to criticism (i.e., transparency and honesty of profile) 1 During the period under study, only one post (an exhibition review) included criticism. The museum responded appropriately (i.e., gave an adequate explanation of why the exhibition did not include outside installations). VOLUME 14, NUMBER 3 SPRING

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