# An Approach for Utility Pole Recognition in Real Conditions

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1 6th Pacific-Rim Symposium on Image and Video Technology 1st PSIVT Workshop on Quality Assessment and Control by Image and Video Analysis An Approach for Utility Pole Recognition in Real Conditions Barranco G. Alejandro I., Martínez D. Saúl, Gómez T. José L. Instituto Tecnológico de La Paz 1

2 Content Introduction (context) Study Cases Method Color and Illumination Histograms Shape Description Diameter Estimation Neural Network Training Comparison Conclusions References 2

3 Q A C I V A - P S I V T Context One reason why the robots were created is for the execution of any dangerous task for humans. An important application of the robots could be the repair of cable connections in utility poles (UP). For this task it is necessary to recognize the UP, cables, screws, nuts, thus dimensions and locations. This work begins specifically with the recognition of Mexican concrete UP installed by CFE (Mexican Electricity Federal Company). 3

4 Some cases Q A C I V A - P S I V T Database: 4

5 More cases Q A C I V A - P S I V T Database: 5

6 Q A C I V A - P S I V T Proposed method Key points Colour Shape Dimensions 6

7 Q A C I V A - P S I V T Illumination The histograms in HSV scheme of a piece of utility pole under different illuminations (I=-30, I=-20, I=-30, I=0, I=+30 and I=+60). 7

8 Q A C I V A - P S I V T Some invariances The histograms of different utility poles with the same solar illumination. 8

9 Q A C I V A - P S I V T Shape description A simple AND operation is implemented to delimit the body silhouettes, between color segmented image and the complement of edge image. Then Hu invariants describe the blobs shape. 9

10 Diameter Estimation f x i = a + bx i m 1 m 2 = 1 p r r = (x r r, y r r ) Q A C I V A - P S I V T p l r = (x l r, y l r ) dx, dy, dz = triangulation p l l, p l r triangulation p r l, p r r D = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 10

11 Performance Q A C I V A - P S I V T (a) Performance of NN training. (b) Confusion matrix in training A two-layer feed-forward network, sigmoid function to hidden and output neurons, with 10 neurons in a hidden layer. The network is trained with scaled conjugate gradient backpropagation (offline) using the nprtool of Matlab. 11

12 12

13 Conclusions Q A C I V A - P S I V T In this work a methodology for electric pole recognition based on color, shape and photometric stereo vision was proposed. The system uses conventional and low cost cameras. Results were totally satisfactory with 100% effectiveness in range where H component of HSV scheme is not distorted. The proposed method recognizes and locates utility poles. By comparing this method with the one proposed by [8] we can see the potential of this work. The proposed method was tested for recognition of utility poles in real conditions such as occlusions (from posters, graffiti s, trees and photos of partial poles), solar illumination, and geometrical distortions of the target. The effectiveness obtained from experiments, which indicates that the method is suitable for field applications. 13

14 Q A C I V A - P S I V T References 1. He Y., Tatsuno K.: An Example of Open Robot Controller Architecture - For Power Distribution Line Maintenance Robot System. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. 29, (2008) 2. Nakajima C.: Automatic recognition of facility drawings and street maps utilizing the facility management database. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, 1, (1995) 3. Cetin B.: Automated electric utility pole detection from aerial images. SOUTHEASTCON '09. IEEE,44 49 (2009) 4. Igor K., Amit A., Ehud R.: Color Invariants for Person Reidenti- fication. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 35, no. 7, pp (2013) 5. Berwick D., Lee S.: A Chromaticity Space for Specularity, Illumination Color and Illumination Pose-Invariant 3-D Object Recognition. Proc. IEEE Intl Conf. Computer Vision, pp (1998) 6. Halawani S. M., Sunar M. S.: Interaction between Sunlight and the Sky Colour with 3D Objects in the Outdoor Virtual Environment. AMS '10 Proceedings of the 2010 Fourth Asia International Conference on Mathematical/Analytical Modelling and Computer Simulation, (2010) 7. Batllea J., Casalsb A., Freixeneta J., Martı J.: A review on strategies for recognizing natural objects in colour images of outdoor scenes. Image and Vision Computing, 18, pp (2000) 8. Yokoyama H., Date H., Kanai S., Takeda H.: Pole-like objects recognition from mobile laser scanning data using smoothing and principal component analysis. ISPRS Workshop, Laser scanning 2011, ISPRS, Volume XXXVIII, (2011) 14

15 Q A C I V A - P S I V T References 9. Peyton Z., Peebles Jr.: Probability, Random Variables, and Random Signal Principles. McGraw Hill, pp (2000) 10. Prewitt J.M.S.: Object Enhancement and Extraction in Picture processing and Psychopictorics. Academic Press (1970) 11. Hu M. K.: Visual Pattern Recognition by Moment Invariants. IRE Trans. Info. Theory, vol. IT-8, pag (1962) 12. Lowe D. G.: Three-dimensional object recognition from single two-dimensional images. Artificial Intelligence, 31, 3, pp (1987) 13. Barranco A. I., Medel J.: Automatic object recognition based on dimensional relation. Computación y Sistemas Journal, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp (2011) 14. Barranco A. I., Medel J.: Artificial vision and identification for intelligent orientation using a compass. Revista Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia, Rev. Fac. Ing. Univ. Antioquia N. 58 pp (2011) 15. Zhang Z.: A flexible new technique for camera calibration. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 22(11): (2000) 16. Rodríguez G. J., Gómez J. L., Barranco A. I., Martínez S., Sandoval J.: Visual 3D object recognition and location for manipulator robot. Proceedings of CIRC 2013, pp (2013) 17. Burger W., Burge M. J.: Digital Image Processing: An Algorithmic Introduction Using Java. Springer, (2010) 15

16 Q A C I V A - P S I V T Thank you In the end, it's not the years in your life that count. It's the life in your years. Abraham Lincoln 16

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