1 JdB Sound Acoustics Presents KINGSTON ROAD UNITED CHURCH S A N C T U A RY A C O U S T I C S A N D S O U N D S Y S T E M B Y J O S E P H D E B U G L I O Copyright by Joseph De Buglio 2008
2 The Beginning Feb 2008, JdB Sound Acoustics was contacted to have the sound system upgraded. The Church had already tried several sound systems with little improvement from one system to the next. While the sound system was installed professionally, it was not designed correctly for the room. As often stated, most churches are put together with the best of intentions. That includes the design of the worship space, the acoustics and the sound system.
3 In order to have hearing problems in a church, either the building design, the acoustics or the sound system design has to fail - or all of the above.
4 Once a church is built, there many things that you can do to bring the performance of the space up to acceptable levels for exciting worship. The shape of the shell of the worship space will determine the type of sound the church will have. Sort of like what makes the sound of musical instruments, just like a Trumpet is different from a Tuba and a Violin is different from a Cello.
5 The rectangle is the best sounding shape for a worship space. By changing the length and width ratio s, you can make the room more suited for Classical sounds or Modern Rock and Roll sounds. For Kingston Rd United Church, the space is ideally suited for classical sound, but with a change to the acoustical fix of the room, it will become a Hybrid space. It will be able to perform very well for classical performances but it will also do very well for most contemporary programs too.
6 Every large room will have a unique range of sounds that the shape of the shell will support. It is possible to discover that special quality and as long as the acoustical treatment and sound system are designed for those behaviors, you can have great results. From a warehouse worship space to the big mega churches, every Church Shape will have musical and speech qualities that are desirable and useable.
7 For this worship space, the room is Long and Narrow. This room will not do well for Christian Heavy Metal or Punk. However it would do well with a rousing performance of a Southern Gospel concert. Sound problems in a church come in layers. Myth: Often Church Designers are mislead to believe that a sound system can somehow deliver clear speech and music with magic by increasing the sound system budget. This is a myth that is practiced every day in the church community.
8 This is a Modest Church, built in 1908.
9 Then, there is the sound system itself. The design of a church sound system is far more critical than the choice of speakers and equipment. Get the design right and modest equipment will do a great job. In most cases you can have to the best equipment in the world at any price and if you get the design of the sound system wrong, you will gain nothing except for hearing the problems in better fidelity. Sound problems in a church come in layers.
10 In the end, for a speech only system, even cheap equipment can meet the needs for people with hearing aids if the system is designed properly. That said, a properly designed sound system will limit the type of equipment you can use to meet your needs in a church. However, for each equipment type, there is a broad range of products to choose from in every budget category. Sound problems in a church come in layers.
11 Getting Started L O O K I N G A T T H E W H O L E P I C T U R E
12 When I first arrived, I found that the church had a Left/Right Mono system up front. The system had a second set of speakers half way back. This was the 3 rd system the church has owned over the years.
13 The Equipment Rack and mixer were at the front of the church behind the choir loft.
14 During worship services, there was no one to control the microphones. Even if they had an automated mixer, the performance and sound problems would have persisted.
15 During worship services, all of the microphones were left on. That meant that not only did the Left/ Right Speaker System create hotspots and deadspots and lower speech intelligibility, but it also degraded everything musical during worship. The open microphones degraded the efforts of the choir, the organ and congregational singing. No one believed that the open mics were such a problem until it was suggested to do a worship system with the sound system off. If your choir sounds great at rehearsal and poor during the worship service, it is most often because of the sound system, not the number of people filling the pews.
16 To compound the interference problems further, there was no delay on the second set of speakers. Adding a delay would have only meant that the number of deadspots and hotspots would be consistent to the same at the back as at the front. Again, this sound system was put together with the best of intentions.
17 If you look closely, one of the most exciting details about the worship space is it bare flat walls. This room was a clean canvas to reveal the color of sound that this church had yet to experience since the church was first built. While this room is slightly on the long side, most of the dimensions are within the ideal range of what a great recital hall or concert hall would be. As a result, just fixing the room for speech would also make it great for music and anything else the congregation would want from their church.
18 Many businesses hire consultants. Sometimes they don t take the consultants advice. This happens all too often in the church community especially when you give a prescription that seems hard to swallow. A Church is more likely to make a huge investment into audio technology than spending money that will change the look of their worship space. The problem is, a church this size can spend $50, or $200, on a new sound system and have only a marginal improvement over what they had before. Instead, this church spent a whole lot less and improved everything.
19 Pop Quiz Question: Which of these mid priced high quality speakers will do better in a side by side equal volume live oral speech test at 40 ft.? Answer: All of these speakers will be within +/-1% of each other. It would be fair to say they are all the same in speech intelligibility. Which has the best fidelity? For most it comes down to person taste.
20 Upgrading loudspeakers without changing the design of a sound system to the right design for the room regardless of the acoustical condition of the space often equals no performance gain other than better fidelity and loudness. Fidelity and loudness have nothing to do with your ability in understanding speech. The three most important features of a sound system design are: 1. intelligibility 2. sound coverage 3. system gain
21 There are three main ways to control sound. Absorption Diffusion Combination System For this project a combination system would be needed. Part of what made that determination was how the space was finished. In this case, the bare floors and no seat padding meant the room would need some absorption, but not much.
22 When starting a project like this, the hardest part of a church this high to assess to is the ceiling. As it turns out, when you have a ceiling like this, there is nothing you need to do except to enjoy what it is already doing for you. This ceiling works great. The more obstacles, the better. Sure, all of the other acoustical problems were preventing the ceiling from doing its job but that will soon change. By nature, Cathedral ceilings are natural bass traps. In this case the large windows nicely radiate the excess energy out of the room at the back of the church, although a round window would have been better.
23 The only absorptive materials in the worship space were in the stage, the choir loft and in the aisles. Walls are either concrete or plaster and lath. The ceiling is all wood in the side wings.
24 This is how the church now looks after the acoustical change. Custom ordered barrel diffusers were used to provide the changes needed in this space. There are various sizes used. Each diffuser size and combination of placement targets specific acoustical events.
25 Part of fixing a worship space is to re-sequence the sound events as they are happening. This is needed for speech, music, congregational singing, the choir and the organ. Oh, this is also needed to get the most out of a church sound system too. The patterns here looks symmetrical but it is not. The spacing between the diffusers change. Knowing the sizes and how much this spacing changes is the difference between creating new problems or achieving your goals.
26 Anything you put on the walls of a church will change the sound of the room. The challenge is to calculate a system that brings out all of the musical and spoken qualities of the space.
27 For this room the diffusers at the back helped speech, music, musicians, the organist, the pianist, the choir director and children performances.
28 If we were to have applied absorption to the back wall, then there would be less energy for the performers and the pastor to better judge the size of space they are speaking into. Often when using absorbers, bass energy seems to get louder which in turn makes your voice seem louder. When people hear themselves too loud, they tend to lower their voices. When people are lowering their voices, there comes a point where the sound system can t do anything. Using the right acoustical treatments means solving other sound system problems. Good planning is another critical part to a successful church transformation.
29 Part of the layout of an acoustical plan is from using a map of the Energy Time Curve(ETC) reflections. These reflections are based on energy and frequency. This map can be created from on site measurements or from computer modeling. There is excellent correlation between the two methods.
30 There was some absorption added to the room. All of it is hidden. Yet where it is hidden, it is also the most effective.
31 By changing the path and energy levels of the offending frequencies, you create a unformed dispersion of sound throughout the room. This allows a person in the Balcony to understand the conversation of two people in the choir loft when the room is empty. An empty room is considered the worst condition for speech communication.
32 Each section of the side wall targets different frequencies and amount of sound diffusion.
33 The sound system for this worship space is lifted from the pages of human anatomy. The mechanics of the human communication system (human ear) is such that we are designed to look at what we hear.
34 With the ears on the sides of our head we can determine distance, location and even speed of an object such as a car that is moving towards or away from us. When sound arrives to both of our ears at the same time, there is no sense of direction except for whether the sound is behind or ahead of us. A single speaker or group of speakers centrally located over the stage causes us to look at what we are hearing even when the pulpit is off to one side.
35 With a single sound source in the room, there is no chance to create deadspots or hotspots unless the acoustical treatment is not done. Without the acoustical treatment, the standing waves would create sound level changes throughout the room, and no sound system design can overcome such a room condition. Standing waves happening between parallel walls and when multiple walls can store energy in the central area of a room. All room shapes will have standing waves.
36 For this project a pair of Tannoy Speakers were used. Above is the new VQ100 full range speaker. Under the main box is the Tannoy VQ-DF speaker. This is the only speaker used for the 85 ft. from the speaker to the back wall.
39 The sound level at the back of the sound system is down -4dB but the clarity more than makes up for the signal loss. The audio industry generally accepts a sound level coverage of +/-3dB. In those terms, this room is +/-4dB with or without the sound system turned on. In this room, if the power is off, or if the microphone or wireless mic should fail, the minister should be able to carry on with a slightly raised voice and complete the sermon and the hearing conditions for people who can have normal conversations at 10 ft will not change. Sure, the volume will be lower but the clarity will be the same.
40 For this project, the churches full time custodian planned and installed the diffusers. He arranged for volunteer help. The cost of the room fix was less than $4,
41 Here are the numbers: Speech Intelligibility at 40 ft changed from 74% to 94%. The RT60 changed from 1.9 seconds to 1.5 seconds The working distance for the lectern mic went for 6 inches to 32 inches with the room 40% occupied. Cost of the sound system installed Less than $25,000. Many of the churches that have gone through such a transformation grow an average of 10 to 20% a year after such a change. Only time will tell if this transformation will have the same impact.
42 Consulting for the Acoustics and Sound System Design were provided by JdB Sound Acoustics Sound System installed by Westbury International, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Copyright by Joseph De Buglio 2008
Canalis CANALIS Principles and Techniques of Speaker Placement After assembling a high-quality music system, the room becomes the limiting factor in sonic performance. There are many articles and theories
Cheat Sheet for Local Church Audio Training Sound Essentials Thank you for attending this session and supporting your church s ministry. I believe that, as a sound technician, you are a vital part of the
Acoustical Design for Concert Hall in the Science and Art Centre of Xiamen University Yuezhe Zhao, Shuoxian Wu State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Sciences, South China University of Technology,
How can Lightspeed s sound panel solutions possibly break down acoustic barriers in the classroom? There is no audio solution that throws sound. There is no solution that overcomes the laws of physics.
Where Should the House Mixing Desk Go? by Curt Taipale The issue of where to place the house mixing console often brings up an awkward debate between the church sound team, the building committee and the
8 Room and Auditorium Acoustics Acoustical properties of rooms and concert halls are mainly determined by the echo that depends on the reflection and absorption of sound by the walls. Diffraction of sound
Why Churches Buy Three Sound Systems, and How You Can Buy Only One Copyright 1998 by Jim Brown AUDIO SYSTEMS GROUP, INC. 4875 N Ravenswood Ave Chicago, IL 60640 773/728-0565 email@example.com Jim
12. INDOOR INSTALLATION 1. Introduction Previous editions of this book have focused on wide-area outdoor wireless as a means of connecting communities with each other and to the Internet. However, with
, pp.287-292 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijmue.2014.9.8.26 Doppler Effect Plug-in in Music Production and Engineering Yoemun Yun Department of Applied Music, Chungwoon University San 29, Namjang-ri, Hongseong,
2011-06-13 Acoustic design with wall acoustic solutions Introduction A suspended ceiling is by far the most common acoustical treatment in a room. In most cases this is also a sufficient solution to create
Understanding CHURCH ACOUSTICS A guide to better church acoustics What is acoustics? How to identify acoustic problems in a church? Planning and implementing an acoustic treatment by Arthur M. Noxon 4275
E SERIES ENTASYS 200 VERSATILE TWO-WAY COLUMN POINT SOURCE SYSTEMS Application Guide Part 2: Case Studies 1 ENTASYS 200 Case Studies INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION AND FEATURES ENTASYS 200 column
Project Number: JD2 IQP MU89 Audio Technology in Musical Theater An Interactive Qualifying Project Report submitted to the Faculty of WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE in partial fulfillment of the requirements
SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY and Fire Alarm Voice Communication Systems WILLIAM KUFFNER, M.A. Sc., P.Eng, PMP Senior Fire Protection Engineer Director Fire Protection Engineering October 30, 2013 Code Reference
UB1 P R O F E S S I O N A L M I C R O P H O N E S Table of Contents Introduction........................... 1 UB1 Features............................2 Installing the UB1......................3-6 Operating
Acoustic design according to room shape The shape of the room defines the movement of the sound waves within the room. Placement of acoustic materials should be determined by the way the sound moves in
On a new, on/off broadband absorber system for music schools and other multipurpose facilities Niels W. Adelman-Larsen Flex Acoustics, Diplomvej 377, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark, firstname.lastname@example.org Jens Jørgen
SMALL WONDER. S I Z E A L T U A C THE OMNISAT MICRO. OMNIPOLAR SOUND. COMPACT DESIGN. S O U N D E X P E R I E N C E MIRAGE AUDIO HISTORY : PLAY 1972 Audio Products International Corp., manufacturers of
EQUIPMENT Physics of Music PHY103 Lab Manual Lab #6 Room Acoustics Tape measures Noise making devices (pieces of wood for clappers). Microphones, stands, preamps connected to computers. Extra XLR microphone
How does Architecture Affect the Acoustics of a Space Grade Level This lesson plan was developed for a 9 th grade Physical Science Class. Objectives To develop aural senses of spatial awareness To understand
DESIGN CRITERIA FOR ACOUSTIC ENHANCEMENT SYSTEMS Ben Kok, Wim Prinssen Systems for Improved Acoustic Performance Uden, The Netherlands ABSTRACT Acoustic Enhancement Systems have evolved significantly -
If you re hiring a marquee the chances are it s for an important special event. This guide has been put together to help you get a hassle free audio experience at your special event whether it be a wedding,
MUSC 1327 Audio Engineering I Syllabus Addendum McLennan Community College, Waco, TX Instructor Brian Konzelman Office PAC 124 Phone 299-8231 WHAT IS THIS COURSE? AUDIO ENGINEERING I is the first semester
Trinity Sound System Upgrade Proposal ANDREW RIXON V2.2 28 AUGUST 2013 Background There has been an intention to upgrade the Trinity Church Sound System for a number of years Some money has been donated
Sound System Buying Guide The Guide format is like an FAQ (frequently asked questions), with the answers taken together forming a great basis for picking your favorite components. With this information,
Voice Alarm Design & Installation Guide This guide is aimed at supporting designers on Voice Alarm (VA) and Public Address (PA) systems and their use in conjunction with advanced fire detection systems.
How to Evaluate Your Church Property By Bob Metcalf for LifeWay.com Imagine you have just moved into your community. You are looking for a new church home and are visiting this church for the first time.
The Importance of Room Acoustics for a Quality Sound System by Curt Taipale Sponsored by Bose Professional Systems Division Bose Corporation commissioned professional audio consultant Curt Taipale to prepare
Construction Technology Update No. 51 Acoustical Design of Rooms for Speech by J.S. Bradley This Update explains the acoustical requirements conducive to relaxed and accurate speech communication in rooms
SYSTEM DESIGN AND THE IMPORTANCE OF ACOUSTICS n Will your communication or emergency notification system broadcast intelligible speech messages in addition to alarm tones? n Will your system include multiple
Optimal audio for Conference Rooms May 2007 2007 ClearOne Communications, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form or by any means without written permission from
Conference Phone Buyer s Guide Conference Phones are essential in most organizations. Almost every business, large or small, uses their conference phone regularly. Such regular use means choosing one is
Acoustics of indoor sports halls and gymnasia Robert Conetta 1, Bridget Shield 1, Trevor Cox 2, Charlie Mydlarz 2, Julie Dockrell 3, Daniel Connolly 3 1 London South Bank University 2 University of Salford
CARMEN R in the Norwich Theatre Royal, UK C. Rougier a, I. Schmich a, P. Chervin a and P. Gillieron b a CSTB, 24, Rue Joseph Fourier, 38400 Saint Martin D Hères, France b Paul Gillieron Acoustic Design,
Magneplanar.7 Instruction Manual Quick Set-Up Instructions Remove the steel magnetic strip from the front of the speakers. If the fabric sticks to the diaphragm, use a high tack tape to gently pull the
Preventing Hearing Loss in University Schools of Music By: Jennifer Stewart Walter, Assistant Professor of Music Education, Sandra Mace, Program Coordinator, Music Research Institute, and Susan L. Phillips,
Required Functions: PA MATTHEWS AUDIO NSW STATE HIGH SCHOOL PA SYSTEMS WHITE PAPER - Separate sounds for Evacuate, Lock Down, Lock out. Sounds able to be changed i.e. MP3 files - Period Bell as a changeable
TEL: +44 (0) 1295 266277 FAX: +44 (0) 1295 268199 Sales@msdist.co.uk UNIT G165 Cherwell Business Village BANBURY Oxfordshire OX16 2SP United Kingdom Using Leaky Feeder We ve been selling Times Microwave
Auckland Christchurch Kuala Lumpur Melbourne Sydney Wellington www.marshallday.com ACOUSTIC DESIGN - ROOMS FOR SPEECH EVER BEEN AT A LECTURE OR CONFERENCE AND FOUND IT DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND WHAT IS BEING
Polycom Solutions Architecture Typical Applications for Vortex Products with Other Installed A/V Equipment Application Note Polycom Installed Voice Business April 2005 Polycom Solutions Architecture This
WHAT IS SO SPECIAL ABOUT SHOEBOX HALLS? ENVELOPMENT, ENVELOPMENT, ENVELOPMENT Marshall Long Marshall Long Acoustics 13636 Riverside Drive Sherman Oaks, California 91423 I n spite of many attempts to surpass
setup guide Life Is Calling Meet Your New CaptionCall Phone We d like to introduce you to CaptionCall. Your new CaptionCall phone looks and works pretty much like an ordinary telephone, but with one big
Guidelines for video conferencing room acoustics D14377.01 September 2010 Video conferencing room acoustics Does the audio quality fail to meet your expectations? Do you feel tired when spending longer
University Presbyterian Church 2203 San Antonio, Austin, TX 78705 PH: 512-476-5321 FAX: 512-492-9420 WEDDING POLICY For Non-Members A Christian wedding is a service of worship and a public acknowledgment
Creating a sporting habit for life Appendix 5 Acoustics (To be read in conjunction with the main document) Speech Intelligibility with 40dBA Ambient Noise (BB93 Compliant) Affordable Sports Halls August
CEPro Advantage Series Diagrammatic Guide to In-Ceiling Speaker Placement for Home Theater, Multiroom Audio Diagrammic Guide to In-Ceiling Speaker Placement for Home Theater Multiroom Audio 2013 EH Publishing
according to room type The purpose of the room is decisive for the acoustic environment to be created. In rooms for speech, such as classrooms and auditoriums, it is important to ensure a good level of
Vari-directional Array The smart route to acoustical perfection 2 Vari-directional Array by Bosch The ultimate sound performance for acoustically challenging environments Unmatched sound quality and speech
12 RECORDING AND CAPTURING SOUND 12.1 INTRODUCTION Recording and capturing sound is a complex process with a lot of considerations to be made prior to the recording itself. For example, there is the need
Killam 1 THE ACOUSTICS OF ROOMS Josiah Killam PHYS 193: The Physics of Music Prof. Steven Errede University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Killam 2 For my project for The Physics of Music, I decided to
akutek www.akutek.info PRESENTS Learning Modern Acoustical Design from Traditional Choir Venues by John O Keefe ABSTRACT Since the birth of modern acoustical science at the beginning of the 20th century,
APPLICATION GUIDE Subwoofer- Systems Using Control SB-210 & SB-2 Subwoofers System #5 in Stereo SPL (at 20 Feet): 94 db Continuous (peaks of 104 db) Stereo / Mono Selector: Stereo 4-Ohm / 8-Ohm Selector:
SPECIAL FEATURE Get in the Loop! Why Hearing Loops Make a Difference FEATURING: How to Install a Hearing Loop System, Understanding Hearing Loss, Questions Every HoW Should ask About Hearing Loops, Top
Polycom 1K0-001 Polycom Certified Videoconferencing Engineer (PCVE) TYPE: DEMO http://www.examskey.com/1k0-001.html Examskey Polycom 1K0-001 exam demo product is here for you to test the quality of the
1 Lecture Hall or Music Hall: Acoustic Properties of Foellinger Auditorium PHYS 406 Acoustical Physics of Music Student Project By Will Steinhauser and Yuta Nakamura 2 1. History Foellinger Auditorium,
Improving the Acoustics in a Historic Building Using Axiomatic Design and TRIZ Andrew Kankey email@example.com Department of Acoustics Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16801 Abstract Madara
Fundamentals of Acoustics & Practical HVAC Design Considerations Demir Doken Acoustic Engineer What is sound? Sound is a mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through some medium
Introduction : Over the past few years, I have become very aware of the baffle step response phenomenon associated with drivers mounted in rectangular shaped baffles. My first quarter wavelength designs
1 Design concepts and understanding a stereo surround audio system for the Science On the Sphere. By David Eltzroth Science on the sphere is a powerful teaching and presentation medium. The sphere is unique
Four Critical Factors to Consider 1 The rush of the wind outside the cockpit. Sound is a critical part of the flying experience. That s why choosing a headset is so important. You want one that provides
hearing products and acoustic regulations in school 1+1 could equal 3, if a classroom is acoustically regulated when using hearing systems By Anna K Lejon, November 2014 Anna Karlsson Lejon has a master's
Dolby Atmos Enabled Speaker Technology April 2015 How to get Dolby Atmos sound with Dolby Atmos enabled speakers Many leading Hollywood movies, including Academy Award winners, are presented in Dolby Atmos.
3 rd Annual Stockholder s Banquet January 12, 2013 Stockholder s Portfolio Dear Friends, Thank you so much for coming to be a part of our 3 rd Annual Stockholder s Banquet. I look forward to this night
WHITE PAPER DECT Wireless Technology and DECT Density INDEX Introduction 3 About DECT 3 Advantages 4 Density 4 Considerations 4 How to increase DECT density? 7 2 Introduction a summary of DECT DECT technology
Understanding the DriveRack PA The diagram below shows the DriveRack PA in the signal chain of a typical sound system. The diagram below shows all the pieces within a sound system that the DriveRack PA
BOSE PROFESSIONAL SYSTEMS DIVISION SUCCESS STORY - LINKÖPING CATHEDRAL The venue One of Sweden s largest and best-loved church buildings, the medieval Cathedral at Linköping measures 110 metres in length.
Audio Engineering Society Conference Paper Presented at the 21st Conference 22 June 1 3 St. Petersburg, Russia Casa da Musica, a new concert hall for Porto, Portugal Van Luxemburg, L.C.J 1,2, Hak, C.C.J.M
Applicable Rating Systems >> Requirements >> Submittals >> Additional Questions >> Background Information >> Changes >> Applicable Rating Systems This credit is available for pilot testing by the following
The Conference is Calling A guide to getting the most out of your conference calls The Conference is Calling Why use a conference phone? Most phones today have a speakerphone button but there are in fact
0 Contents 1 Abstract... 2 2 What Exactly Are Call Center Headsets?... 3 3 How to Select a Call Center Headset... 4 3.1 Standard Features of Call Center Headsets... 4 3.2 Definitions... 4 3.3 Headset Models...
Wireless that works How to interview potential suppliers Vantage Point Network Systems How to use this document If you re implementing a wireless network, chances are you will interview more than one supplier
TV hearing aid BL-8008A BL-8008B Manual A. Product instruction 1. What is TV hearing aid 2. Theory 3. Features 4. Functions 4.1 TV hearing aid function 4.2 Normal hearing aid function 4.3 Wired hearing
cellularbooster.com THINGS YOU MUST KNOW BEFORE YOU 7BUY AND INSTALL A CELLULAR BOOSTER We have created this ebook for people who need some help understanding cellular phone boosters. As most people are
ELECTRONIC SOUND ENHANCEMENT SYSTEM IN THE MULTIFUNCTIONAL HALL TÓNBERG IN AKRANES, ICELAND Stefán Guðjohnsen Mannvit hf. Acoustical department Grensásvegi 11, 108 Reykjavík, Iceland firstname.lastname@example.org Gunnar
White Paper Effective Audio For Video Conferencing January 2013 S. Ann Earon, Ph.D. President, Telemanagement Resources International Inc. 2013 ClearOne Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this document
CASE STUDY Sarakasi Theatre Nairobi, Kenya Room Acoustical Measurements and Modelling Africa Room Acoustics DIRAC and ODEON In November 2008, room acoustical measurements were performed inside the Sarakasi
CEDIA Electronic Lifestyles Awards Program Home Technology Professional Categories Technical Criteria for Judging Home Theater, Media Room, Media Room Under $25,000 Layout (15pts) o Considering the space
STRING TELEPHONES KELVIN Stock #6587 DESIGN IT! ENGINEERING IN AFTER SCHOOL PROGRAMS Education Development Center, Inc. DESIGN IT! Engineering in After School Programs Table of Contents Overview...3...
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.