PAS: A Packet Accounting System to Limit the Effects of DoS & DDoS. Debish Fesehaye & Klara Naherstedt University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign

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1 PAS: A Packet Accountng System to Lmt the Effects of DoS & DDoS Debsh Fesehaye & Klara Naherstedt Unversty of Illnos-Urbana Champagn

2 DoS and DDoS DDoS attacks are ncreasng threats to our dgtal world. Exstng mtgaton technques Capablty approach: to let a recever explctly authorze the traffc t wants to receve Example: TVA (Traffc Valdaton Archtecture) computatonal, storage and traffc volume overheads many sender and recever nodes can collude routes may change forcng routers to drop legt flows they do not know Flter approach: to let a recever nstall dynamc network flters that block the traffc t does not desre to receve. DDoS may target core lnks where recevers can't see

3 PAS Desgn Man Idea If every packet s accounted or pad for, then the DoS and DDoS problem reduces nto a congeston control and farness problem. It can then be dealt wth by fndng better routes or adjustng the sendng rates. PAS Desgn Desgn 1: PAS uses per flow nformaton from all routers or router-lke boxes (Mostly clean-slate). Desgn 2: Acheves Desgn 1 by a clever approaches usng only ngress routers (Can be done n the current Internet).

4 PAS Desgn1 Each Autonomous System (AS) mantans a PAS as shown n Fgure 1 below. The PAS setup can be herarchcal, cloud or dstrbuted for better resource management

5 PAS Desgn1 Each router (router-lke box) of the AS reports a packet count w j per round for each flow j to ts PAS. The PAS calculates the rate R and per packet prce p on the behalf of each of ts router as shown next. The PAS keeps the ID of each ngress router and a lst of the flow IDs the ngress router receves. The PAS also receves the rate Rj and the prce P j d from each of ts egress routers for each of the flows t sends to each downstream AS.

6 PAS Desgn1 cont'd The PAS calculates the local path, path rate R and cost of each path P for each of ts ngress routers as The path wth the maxmum of the mnmum R of each path The cost s the sum of the p of each router n the selected path The PAS can also obtan the best local path, path rate R j and prce P j for each flow j on the behalf of each ngress router acceptng flow j and caches these values as The mnmum R j of the rates of ts local AS and that of the downstream AS for each flow The sum P j of the prces of the lnks P j L traversed by flow j n ts local AS and prce P j d of the downstream AS for flow j where P j L = w j x sum of the p n the local AS path of flow j These two steps can also be done by the ngress routers.

7 PAS Desgn1 cont'd The PAS then forwards the path, the path rate and the path cost of each flow j path to the correspondng ngress router acceptng flow j. The ngress router serves flow j n the selected path at R j and sends the R j and P j to the egress router of the upstream AS from whch t receves flow j. The ngress router then flters packets of flow j based on the response t gets from the upstream AS from whch t receves flow j as follows: If flow j sends at rate hgher than R, ts packets are sent to a lower prorty j queue at the ngress router. If the AS whch generates flow j doesn't pay (account) for the packets of flow j, flow j s blocked. If t makes partal payment (accountablty), packets of flow j are served n the correspondng lower rate. An Offlne Analyser (OA) can also be attached to the Ingress router or to the PAS to do offlne hstorc analyss of flow traffc and recommend strateges to the ngress routers and the ISP operators.

8 Computaton of far rate Notatons: C, Q, N and d are the capacty, the queue length, number of flows and control nterval at router. The far rate at router s then The far packet count (cwnd) at router s w = R d and w p s the w of the prevous round (control nterval d ). But some flows may not have enough data to send to utlze ther share of the bandwdth. Ths may result n lnk under-utlzaton whle other legtmate flows whch have more data to send could use the bandwdth. So count some flows as less than one flow as follows:

9 Computaton of far rate The we have Where n j s a flow ndcator and A s the actual flow count The rate s then and

10 Computaton of packet prce The per packet prce p s a functon of the far rate R. If R ncreases there s less demand and hence cheaper prce. To capture ths we use current rate R and prce p and prevous round values R p and p p and calculate the current per packet prce as Other more sophstcated prcng functons can be used The total flow prce of flow j at lnk n a gven round s w j p. Dfferent R values can also be obtaned for each flow based on some prortes (weghts).

11 PAS Desgn2 Each ngress router sends the current packet count w j of flow j n the current control nterval to ts PAS. The PAS aggregates these values from each ngress router and fnds the rate R and p on the behalf of router of ts AS as follows: For each ngress router For each flow of the ngress router For each lnk crossed by the flow Obtan A for the R calculaton as the sum of all actual flow counts A k of each ngress router k For each ngress router n the network Obtan R Fnd the best path for each flow of of each ngress The rest of the desgn s the same as Desgn1.

12 PAS Cloud Computng To gan on processng speed the PAS Desgn2 rate computaton for each lnk can be done usng map-reduce cloud computng framework. A maper can be used for each ngress router and A reducer aggregates the A k of ngress router k to lnk After all A k are added, R and p of lnk are computed and the max-mn algorthm s run to fnd the best path and rate for each flow j along wth the total prce P j to be sent to the egress router at the upstream AS. A map-reduce framework can also be used for the max-mn path and rate computaton as shown n the next slde.

13 Cloud computng to fnd the best path Cloud computng may be used to fnd the max-mn or shortest path n a graph and ts weght (rate) Gven a source s wth degree (number of outgong lnks) n and destnaton d n a graph G, A mapper can be assocated wth each neghbor of s to fnd the max-mn or shortest path to d A reducer can then choose the path wth the max-mn or shortest of each of ts outgong lnks A herarchcal map-reduce framework may be assocated wth the neghbors of the neghbors of a node. The best path computaton for each ngress router can also be computed n parallel usng a cloud compute node.

14 Numercal Results: Budget Exceeded Block Gamers Polcy1: As the prce reported by downstream PAS exceeds the budget of the AS, the AS sends block gamers sgnal and hence ncreases the throughput of ts other legt flow. Polcy2: All flows are allowed and hence the gamers reduce the throughput of the other legt flow

15 Numercal Results: Wth Colludng Attackers Top fgure: 50% colludng Bottom Fgure: 1/3 colludng Both fgures show that PAS can outperform TVA, a well known DoS mtgaton approach.

16 Numercal Results: Wth Route Changes h As shown n both tables PAS can outperform TVA nterms of download tmes of legtmate traffc when route of packets changes

17 Summary We have presented a noble packet accountng system (PAS) to deal wth DoS and DDoS PAS can also serve as a congeston control and routng scheme wth packet prcng. Our scheme (Desgn2) can be mplemented n the current Internet wth few addtonal features to the current network nfrastructure. Prelmnary numercal NS2 smulaton results show that our scheme can outperform TVA. We are workng on real mplementaton of PAS n lnux.

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