US Incarceration Rates in Comparison to other countries. World's Highest Prison Population Rates

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1 US Incarceration Rates in Comparison to other countries World's Highest Prison Population Rates Iran Cuba Puerto Rico S. Africa Russian Fed USA European Union Spain Brazil U.K. Mexico Chile

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10 U.S. Population Behind Bars (2002) Total MEN age Black Hispanic White 2,166, , % 7.4% 1.2%

11 US prison Rates by Race 2000 U.S. Inmates in State and Federal Prisons and local Jails (Per 100,000 adult population by race, gender, and age). Male Female Group Wht Blk Hisp Wht Blk Hisp Adults > Age ,

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15 Historical Trends, New York State Incarceration Rates Rate of Incarceration in New York State: Prisoners Incarcerated per 100,000 Population Years

16 Comparing Years of Life Lost to Rockefeller Drug Laws and World Trade Center Attack Event Number Affected Median Age YLL World Trade Center Attack Rockefeller Drug Laws ( ) , , ,000

17 Black and White Imprisonment Rates New York State ( ). Prisoners Incarcerated per 100,000 Population Years White Black

18 Drug Incarceration Rates by Race/Ethnicity: New York State, 2000 (by age and gender) MALE FEMALE Age Group White Black Hisp Other White Black Hisp Other Under Above Total

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20 Voting Disenfranchisement by Race and State STATE Total Felons Rate for Total Black Men Rate for Black Men** Alabama 241, % 105, % Delaware 20, % 8, % Iowa 42, % 4, % New Mexico 48, % 3, % Ohio 46, % 3, % Texas 610, % 156, % Washington 151, % 16, % West Virginia 6, % % Wisconsin 48, % 14, % Wyoming 14, % % U.S. Total 3,892, % 1,367, %

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22 The Community Concentration of Substance Use and Criminal Justice Involvement in Urban Families Paper Presented at The Second International Conference on Urban Health New York Academy of Medicine October, 2003 Ricardo E. Barreras, Ph.D. & Ernest Drucker, Ph.D. Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City

23 Table 2 Prevalence of Criminal Justice Involvement Among Family Members 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 47% 29% 13% 12% 1* Number of Families with Reported Criminal Justice Involvement (n=62) * Note: An incidence of 1 means that the index person is the only one in the family with a history of criminal justice involvement Bullet Point: Roughly 71% of all families have at least two members (including the index person) with a history of criminal justice involvement

24 Table 1 Prevalence of Substance Abuse Among Family Members 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 47% 18% 19% 15% 1* Number of Family Members with Reported Substance Abuse (n=62) * Note: An incidence of 1 means that the index person is the only one in the family with a history of substance abuse Bullet Point: Roughly 82% of all families have at least two members (including the index person) with a history of substance abuse (for both alcohol and illicit drugs).

25 Table 3 Prevalence of HIV and AIDS Among Family Members 60% 50% 40% 30% 52% 38% 20% 10% e 10% 0% Number of Families with Reported HIV/AIDS (n=62) Bullet Point: Slightly less than half (48%) of all families have at least one family member with HIV/AIDS

26 Table 4: The Relationship Between Prevalence of CJI and SU Among Other Family Members SU CJI SU/CJI Prevalence of SU, CJI, and Co-occurring SU and CJI (n= 560) Bullet Point: In 88% of the cases where someone had a history of CJI, they also had a history of SU.

27 1950 * Prison * Parol e * Probation Reg. Vote 1960 * Prison * Parol e * Probation Reg. Vote 1970 * Prison * Parol e * Probation Reg. Vote 1980 * Prison * Parol e * Probation Reg. Vote 1990 * Prison _ * Parol e _ *Probation * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation 1961 * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation Reg. Vote Election Year Reg. Vote 1962 * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation Electio n Year Reg. Vote * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation 1981 * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation Reg. Vote Electio n Year Reg. Vote 1982 * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation Electio n Year Reg. Vote * Prison _ * Parol e _ *Prob ation 1953 * Prison * Parol e * Probation Reg. Vote 1954 * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation Reg. Vote * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation 1973 * Prison * Parol e * Probation Reg. Vote Reg. Vote 1974 * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation Reg. Vote * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation 1993 * Prison _ * Parol e _ *Probation Reg. Vote 1994 * Prison _ * Parol e _ *Probation * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation 1965 * Prison * Parol e * Probation Reg. Vote Reg. Vote 1966 * Prison _ * Parol e _ *Probation Reg. Vote * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation 1985 * Prison * Parol e * Probation Reg. Vote Reg. Vote 1986 * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation Reg. Vote * Prison _ * Parol e _ *Probation 1957 * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation Electio n Year Reg. Vote 1958 * Prison _ * Parol e _ *Probation Reg. Vote * Prison _ * Parol e _ *Probation 1977 * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation Electio n Year Reg. Vote Reg. Vote 1978 * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation Reg. Vote * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation 1997 * Prison _ * Parol e _ *Prob ation Reg. Vote 1998 * Prison _ * Parol e _ *Probation * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation Electio n Year Reg. Vote * Prison * Parol e * Prob ation Electio n Year Reg. Vote 1999 Reg. Vote Electio n Year Reg. Vote Reg. Vote Reg. Vote Reg. Vote Electio n Year Reg. Vote Reg. Vote

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29 The Intersection of Corrections Services and Shelter Use: Findings from New York City Stephen Métraux, Ph.D. Health Policy Program University of the Sciences in Philadelphia Dennis Culhane, Ph.D. Center for Mental Health Policy and Services Research University of Pennsylvania

30 Shelter Use Among Prison Release Cohorts: % 12.0% 10.5% 11.6% 11.9% 12.8% 10.0% 8.0% 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% n=48, Year of Prison Release

31 Persons in NYC Single Adult Shelters on 12/1/97: Most Serious Charge Accompanying Most Recent Incarceration (within previous 2 years) 40.0% 35.0% 35.4% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 11.2% 9.2% 7.5% 7.5% 6.9% 5.5% 15.6% 0.0% Drugs Theft Assault Burglary Larceny Robbery Public Order Other

32 Risk Factors for Shelter Use Among Released Prisoners History of shelter use prior to incarceration + 6.6% of released prisoners had shelter history prior to prison stay (shelter hx) 45.1% of this group had post-release shelter stay 9.0% of others had post-release shelter stay those w/ shelter hx had 4.9 times the risk for post-release shelter stay 26.3% of people with a post-release shelter stay had a previous shelter hx

33 Conclusions Substantial overlap between CJ & shelter systems Time of highest vulnerability to shelter use is immediately following release Housing instability is best indicator of risk for shelter use Sheltered ex-offenders have heterogeneous criminal histories Shelter use is associated with increased risk for prison return These results raise more questions than answers

34 Crime: Top 100 Total crimes (per capita) Country Description Amount 1. Dominica per 1000 people 2. New Zealand per 1000 people 3. Finland per 1000 people 4. Denmark per 1000 people 5. Chile per 1000 people 6. Montserrat per 1000 people 7. United Kingdom 86.5 per 1000 people 8. United States per 1000 people 9. Netherlands per 1000 people 10. South Africa per 1000 people 11. Canada per 1000 people 12. Germany per 1000 people 13. Norway per 1000 people 14. France per 1000 people 15. Seychelles per 1000 people 16. Hungary per 1000 people 17. Estonia per 1000 people 18. Italy per 1000 people 19. Czech Republic per 1000 people 20. Switzerland per 1000 people 21. Portugal per 1000 people 22. Slovenia per 1000 people 23. Poland 32.8 per 1000 people 24. Korea, South per 1000 people 25. Zimbabwe per 1000 people

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41 AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS IMPRISONMENT RATES: 2003 * 1,888 prisoners per 100,000 adult Indigenous population (a 5% increase on the 2002 rate), * The highest Indigenous imprisonment rate of 2,744 prisoners per 100,000 adult Indigenous population was recorded in Western Australia. This is 14% higher than the 2002 rate of 2,414 * Indigenous persons were 16 times more likely than non-indigenous persons to be in prison (15 times more likely in 2002). Source: ABS CATALOGUE NO PRISONERS IN AUSTRALIA 30 JUNE 2003

42 Table 2: US prison Rates by Race 2000 U.S. Inmates in State and Federal Prisons and local Jails (Per 100,000 adu lt population by race, gender, and age) Male Female Group Wht Blk Hisp Wht Blk Hisp Adults > Age , [Source; U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Prison Statistics April 2002, NCJ p. 11].

43 Table 4: Comparing Years of Life Lost (YLL) Event World Trade Center Attack Rockefeller Drug Laws Number Affected Median Age YLL , , ,000

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