RATIONALIZATION OF VERTICAL MILLING CENTRE FINAL ASSEMBLY PROCESS

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1 KOMISJA BUDOWY MASZYN PAN ODDZIAŁ W POZNANIU Vol. 27 nr 2 Archiwum Technologii Maszyn i Automatyzacji 2007 OLAF CISZAK*, JAN ŻUREK** RATIONALIZATION OF VERTICAL MILLING CENTRE FINAL ASSEMBLY PROCESS This paper presents the issue of rationalization of the vertical milling centre final assembly process. The task of selecting the most favorable technological assembly organizational structure from the point of view of productivity using the modern tools for modeling a simulation of production processes has been presented. The final part of the paper presents the results and conclusions from conducted analyses. Key words: rationalization, technological assembly process, graph of sequence restrictions, assembly line balancing. INTRODUCTION Rationalization (łac. rationalis) at generally, is a process of implementation new solutions which provides to improve actual used. Because the assembly process is the part and most important stage of the production process, where product's useful characteristics are formed and which is of considerable influence on product's quality. This stage also has an effect on the timeliness of execution of orders and ease of adjusting production capacity to changing market situations as far as product types and options are concerned. Increasing competition in world and local markets forces manufacturers to ceaselessly reduce production costs. One of the areas where savings can be expected and found is the assembly process. This component has a considerable share in the cost of the product and may account for more than 5% of the total cost [2, ]. Thus, it should be noted that new or actual realizing assembly process must be designed in such a way as to ensure their productivity as far as the assembly process is concerned and harmonize product's technological requirements with the production system. * Dr inż. ** Prof. dr hab. inż. Institute of Mechanical Technology, Poznan University of Technology.

2 70 O. Ciszak, J. Żurek Within the technological assembly process one of the most important tasks is determining the most favorable organizational layout and sequence of putting of putting individual elements together to create the final product. Tasks of this kind must be treated in an individual way, taking into account the special characteristics of the production layout, assembly work cells, types of manufactured products, financial and human resources as well as several other factors [2]. One of the priorities in this area is to determine such an organizational layout of assembly process as to maximize the productivity and minimize the cost and duration of the assembly process. In order to identify the most advantageous solution, it is therefore necessary to use mathematical modeling and simulation. Methodology presented in this paper is divided into two stages. At the first one the task of assembly line balancing is used to identify permissible assembly variants organizational layout [5]. At the second stage the most favorable variant is selected observing the criteria of the productivity. 2. THE HITHERTO ASSEMBLY PROCESS Final assembling of milling centre was carried out in the assembly hall. Stationary assembling was executed by specialized teams of mechanics and electricians (Fig. a, b). a) b) Fig.. Vertical milling centre: a) during final 24 hr testing technological operation, b) D CAD geometrical model of analyzed milling centre prepared in Inventor Professional R PL software Rys.. Pionowe centrum obróbkowe podczas operacji testowania: a) w czasie operacji 24 h testu końcowego, b) model geometryczny D centrum obróbkowego opracowany w Autodesk Inventor Professional R PL During the final assembly process the workers and teams performed the following main activities preparing a complete set of parts and assembling of the

3 Rationalization of vertical milling centre final assembly process 7 drive axes X, Y, Z, the drive of tool magazine, the main milling spindle, the systems and control panel, the pneumatic, hydraulic installations and lubricate system, the internal land external covers also assembling and connecting the electrical installation, turning and testing, determining the machine tool geometry and finishing operation and preparing for the shipping. Individual and group, random timekeeping was used to measure duration of repetitive, identifiable elements of the assembly process. The main objective of conducted research was to determine labour consumption of each operation of the assembly process with the precision making it possible to determine time required for its execution, keeping in mind the organizational and technological conditions and the verification of hitherto standards. Time measurements of each workstation were carried out by checking duration of all operations on the assembly line with a stopwatch. The measurements were carried out three times and their arithmetic mean was calculated. By assigning duration of each operation to a particular worker at a given workstation it was possible to determine duration of assembling operations (Tab. ). Time keeping measurements for the final assembly of machine tool Pomiar chronometrażowy finalnego montażu obrabiarki Table Operation No. Duration [hr] Operation No. Duration [hr] ,64,95,4,7 5,,76,76 2, Total assembly time: 67,25 hr. Serial layout of 0 assembly station; arithmetic mean of line cycle: 20,2 hr ,6 4, 2,,4 2,4,5. ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING The task of assembly line balancing was first formulated by Salveson in 955 [4]. Assembly line balancing consists of appropriate assigning of all operations (actions), belonging to a given set (process), to specific assembly stands. The technological assembly process at individual assembly stations must be organized in such a way as to make the duration of operation one t equal to the duration of operation two t 2 and equal to the durations of the following operations t n, i.e. equal to the cycle of the line t k.

4 72 O. Ciszak, J. Żurek Practically, for technological and organizational reasons the identity of durations of individual operations can be only approximated. In practice, the minimum duration of the assembly line pace (i.e. the time between completion of two subsequent products) is limited by the duration of the longest assembly operation, which constitutes the so called bottleneck of the line. Assembly line balancing consists of the optimum assignment of all operations (tasks) from a given set (process) to individual workstations of the assembly line, which ensures that [, 6]: the sequence resulting from the precedence constraint graph is observed, the duration of tasks performed at any workstation is shorter or equal to the assigned duration of the line cycle, operations performed at a given station belong to the same the so called zone. 4. MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF THE ASSEMBLY PROCESS The team performed sixteen main operations to assemble the milling centre. The calculated durations of each operation were assigned to one or a team of assembly line workers and then to a specified stand. One should stress that these durations are not (and cannot be) the same (due to a turnover of employees, i.e. shift work). Each assembly line worker has his own speed of execution of each operation (which is quite natural) and this factor should be taken into consideration to maintain high quality of assembly (the calculated durations have a 0% margin of error). As it has been already said, the main task of assembly line balancing is the optimum assignment of operations to specific stands [6]. Therefore, while developing the algorithm it was assumed, that the following data are supplied as input: pace and number of assembly line stands as well as the set and durations of operations with their sequential relation a graph of sequence restrictions (Fig. 2). Start End Fig. 2. Precedence constraint graph for the vertical milling centre [] Rys. 2. Graf ograniczeń kolejnościowych montażu pionowego centrum obróbkowego [] Development of a graph of sequence restrictions calls for a detailed analysis of each operation, taking into account the sequence and place where each com-

5 Rationalization of vertical milling centre final assembly process 7 ponent is assembled. In the case under consideration the objective was to minimize the number of stations on the assembly line. The analytical approach to the problem in question was conducted on the basis of the heuristic algorithm of assembly line balancing detail disciussed in works [,, 5]. The model can be used only for assembly lines where assembled products do not come back to workstations they have already visited. Results of the conducted analysis using the LINGO v9 software for computer aided modelling and simulations for chosen configuration of assembly stations are presented in Tab. 2. Also the model of assembly line for the most favorable configuration for 5 serialparallel assembly workstations 6R-0R was prepared and tested using the ShowFlow software (Fig. ). The results are presented in tab. and Fig. 4. Table 2 Listing of results of simulation for various configuration of the final assembly line Zestawienie wyników symulacji montażu końcowego pionowego centrum obróbkowego dla wybranych układów stanowisk montażowych Signify of assembly line model Productive of assembly line (arrangemen t assembly workstations) [units per 2 shifts] 5 linear 2,46 6 linear 4,9 7 linear 4,95 linear 4,7 9 linear 6,6 0 linear 6,67 2 serial-parallel workstations R2-R2 2,26 serial-parallel workstations R2-R2-R2 2,07 2 serial-parallel workstations R2-R2-R2 27,40 5 serial-parallel workstations 6R-0R 40/60 6 serial-parallel workstations 6R-R 40/60 Table Assignment of operations to assembly stations using the heuristic algorithm Przydział operacji do stanowisk montażowych po zastosowaniu algorytmu heurystycznego Number of assembly Number of stations per Total duration cell Assign operations cell per station [hr] 6, ,7, 4, 5 6, , , , 0 6,52, 2 6,4 9 5, , 6 6,2 Serial-parallel layout of assembly stations (total 5 cells). Production level: 40 units per month; Arithmetic mean of line cycle: 6,45 hr.

6 74 O. Ciszak, J. Żurek Fig.. Simulation model 6R-0R final assembly line of vertical milling centre prepared at Show- Flow software Rys.. Model symulacyjny 6R-0R linii montażu końcowego pionowego centrum obróbkowego opracowany w programie ShowFlow 6,2 0 a Assigin operations to the st ,2 5,5 6,4 6,52 6,7 6,57 2 6,7 6, Duration of operations [hr] 0 Fig. 4. Graphic representation of duration of vertical milling centre assembling operations for layout 6R-0R Rys. 4. Wykres sumarycznego czasu trwania operacji montażowych dla pionowego centrum obróbkowego i układu 6R-0R

7 Rationalization of vertical milling centre final assembly process SUMMARY The developped heuristic algorithm implemented in LINGO v9 makes possible quick calculation the most advantageous number of stands, including the minimum number of work cells. Once these numbers are determined, it becomes possible to calculate the optimum pace duration. This will assist the management of assembly department, as in case of changing orders (number of assembled milling centres), the number of workers on the assembly line can be changed easily. One can say that nowadays with competition and economic factors becoming increasingly important, reduction of the total assembly cycle (as many as 4,7 hr using the serial-parallel layout of assembly stations) is a considerable achievement. The authors are convinced that the method guarantees full flexibility in adjusting assembly lines to demand reflected by incoming orders of number of machine tools heuristic algorithmization of assembly line balancing of milling centre will become more and more common and popular method of rationalization of production processes in everyday manufacturing practice. REFERENCES [] Ciszak O., Żurek J., Balancing of vertical milling centre final assembly line, Archives of Mechanical Technology and Automation, 2006, vol. 26, nr 2, p [2] Ciszak O., Żurek J., Modelling and simulation of assembly sequence of machine parts and sets, Advances in Manufacturing Science and Technology, 2002, vol. 26, no, p [] Ciszak O., Żurek J., Rose W., Balancing of a car assembly line by means of a heuristic algorithm, Archives of Mechanical Technology and Automation, 200, vol. 2, nr 2, p [4] Kowalowski M., Automatyzacja dyskretnych procesów przemysłowych, Warszawa, WNT 94. [5] Sawik T., Planowanie i sterowanie produkcji w elastycznych systemach produkcyjnych, Warszawa, WNT 996. [6] Żurek J., Pastwa M., Heurystyczny program balansowania linii montażowej, Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Rzeszowskiej, Mechanika, 992, z., s Praca wpłynęła do Redakcji: Recenzent: prof. dr hab. inż. Jerzy Łunarski

8 76 O. Ciszak, J. Żurek RACJONALIZACJA MONTAŻU KOŃCOWEGO PIONOWEGO CENTRUM OBRÓBKOWEGO Streszczenie W artykule przedstawiono zadanie racjonalizacji montażu końcowego pionowego centrum obróbkowego. Omówiono zadanie wyboru najkorzystniejszej struktury organizacyjnej montażu z punktu widzenia wydajności procesu z wykorzystaniem współczesnych narzędzi do modelowania i symulacji procesów produkcyjnych. W końcowej części przedstawiono wyniki oraz wnioski z analiz. Słowa kluczowe: racjonalizacja, proces technologiczny montażu, graf ograniczeń kolejno- ściowych, wyrównoważenie linii montażowej

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