1 Costs of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Is it really cheaper than treatment? Barbara Braden, PhD, RN, FAAN Faculty Disclosure Dr. Braden has listed no financial interest/arrangement that would be considered a conflict of interest. 2
2 SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM Lyder, et. al. Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers: Results from the National Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS) study. J Am Geriatr Soc 60: , Retrospective analysis of MPSMS 2007 database Subjects: 51,842 randomly selected Medicare beneficiaries discharged from fee-for-service hospitals 5.8% were admitted with pressure ulcers 4.5% developed at least one new PU during hospitalization Individuals who developed HAPUs were: had a longer length of stay (4.8 vs 11.2)* more likely to die during the hospital stay (3.3% vs11.2%)* More likely to die within 30 days of discharge (4.4% vs15.3%)* more likely to be readmitted within 30 days (17.6% vs 22.6%)* * All statistically significant at p=<.001
3 Incidence by State Highest HAPU rates New York (5.2%) Missouri (5.3%) New Jersey (5.3%) Massachusetts (5.5%) Pennsylvania (5.9%) Lowest HAPU rates Wisconsin (3.1%) Alabama (3.3%) Tennessee (3.7%) Puerto Rico (3.7%) North Carolina (3.8%) Incidence by Setting or Group
4 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF PRESSURE ULCERS Various Perspectives Cost to the nation Costs to Medicare and Medicaid Costs to Hospital/Agency/Facility Costs by Stage Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of costs to standard care
5 Cost of Hospital Acquired PU U. S Federal Spending $43,180 per full-thickness pressure ulcer 257,412 cases 11 billion total No other preventable complication occurred as frequently as pressure ulcers Important to remember this was 5 years ago Health care costs have increased. The total number of elders on Medicare has increased, so even if incidence is lower, total cost is likely to have increased. Cost estimates vary By approach: Modeling vs Case Examination Length of follow-up included 50% of stage II ulcers do not heal in 8 weeks* 95% of stage III/IV ulcers do not heal in 8 weeks* By stage of ulcer Whether costs of secondary complications are included Gramulich, J.F., et al JAGS. 2003;51: Bergstrom, et. al. JAGS 2005; 53:
6 Brem, et al. (2010) High cost of stage IV pressure ulcers. Amer J of Surg. 200(4) Retrospective chart analysis of patients with stage IV PU with 29 months of follow-up 19 patients (11 hospital-acquired, 8 community acquired) were reviewed Costs associated with both treatment and secondary complications were calculated Physician charges were excluded Actual hospital costs were calculated using department - specific conversion factors Nursing time was excluded but excess LOS was included. Secondary complications included Pain Depression Local infection Osteomyelitis Anemia Sepsis Gas gangrene Necrotizing fasciitis Death
7 Results Costs for a stage IV HAPU averaged $127,185 during one hospital stay Costs for stage IV community acquired pressure ulcer averaged $124,327 Dealey, Posnett & Walker. (2012). The cost of pressure ulcer in the U.K. Journal of Wound Care, 21:6, p Measured cost of resources required for care: Skin cleanser, moisturizer, dressings, etc. Antibiotics and analgesics Nursing time for risk assessment, monitoring and repositioning Turning sheet and support surfaces Wound debridement Inpatient bed-day costs 14
8 Estimated cost of treatment in U.K. By Pressure Ulcer Severity Stage Cost per patient Stage I 1214 ($1,912) Stage II 5241 ($8,255) Stage III 9041 ($14,240) Stage IV 14,108 ($22,222) OTHER MODELING APPROACHES Are too complicated for me to understand or explain, which probably means they are the most accurate.so I will try
9 MODELING COST TO A HEALTH CARE SYSTEM Graves, Birrel and Whitby. (2005). Modeling the economic losses from pressure ulcers among hospitalized patients in Australia. Wound Rep Reg. 13: Sample All adults over 18 Minimum 1 night LOS Discharged from selected units of all Australian public hospitals in
10 Model to Simulate Cost of PU to Australian Health Care System The output ʻEconomic costs of PU to the Australian health care systemʼ is a function of A * B * C * D A = number of discharges from Australian public hospitals B = incidence rate for PU C = independent effect of PU on length of stay D = opportunity cost of a bed day to the Australian health care system Concluded there were 95,695 cases of PU in with 398,432 bed days lost & opportunity costs of AU$285 M. Can you use this simple formula? Depends.do you know: A = number of discharges per year from your facility? B = your facilityʼs incidence rate? C= independent effect of HAPU on LOS For hospitals, you could use an average of 6.4 days based on the findings of Lyder, et. al. (2012) Most methodologists use 5 days, however. D= opportunity cost of each day of LOS increase? If you are making a case to the administration, however, you can use just A*B*C to show the number of bed days you have saved. 20
11 COST EFFECTIVENESS Cost-Effectiveness Analyses Usually looks at cost of a new or more aggressive approach vs the cost of standard care Views these costs in comparison to cost of outcomes of both types of care These may be done in real situations or they may be modeled. Often look at quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), which has a societal impact but does not necessarily incentivize individual institutions.
12 COST-EFFECTIVENESS IN HOSPITALS Padula, et al. (2011). Improving the quality of pressure ulcer care with prevention: A cost-effectiveness analysis. Medical care. 49(4): Estimated Daily Costs for Prevention of HAPUs (* items include nursing time) Intervention Total cost (2009 $) Risk Assessment* 2.50 Support Surfaces 0.69 Chair cushion 0.17 Nutrition 1.10 Reposition* Moisture/incontinence* Unforeseen cost Total 54.66
13 Estimated Daily Cost of treatment for HAPU stage I/II Intervention Total Cost (2009 $) Support Surface Moisture/incontinence* Repositioning* Chair cushion 0.17 Nutrition 1.10 Risk Assessment* 2.55 Topical antibiotics Inpatient costs 1, Unforeseen costs Total costs 2, Estimated cost of a Stage III/IV Gross-costed based on 8 day LOS at $44, Per day costs estimated at $5, ($ $ )
14 Per Hospitalization Preventive care vs Standard care Modeled using probabilities and odds ratios from CDC reports, systematic reviews and large national studies of prevalence Discounted expected results of the cost-effectiveness analysis comparing prevention to standard care per hospitalization Intervention Cost Effectiveness Mortality Probability of discharge Prevention $7, QALYs 15.1% 84.9% Standard care 10, QALYs 29.5% 70.5% COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF PREVENTION IN NURSING HOMES
15 Pham, et.al (2011) Preventing pressure ulcers in LTC: A costeffectiveness analysis. Arch Intern Med. 171(20): Evaluated cost-effectiveness of four evidence-based preventive strategies Pressure redistribution mattresses for all residents Oral nutritional supplements for high-risk residents with recent weight loss Skin emollients for high-risk residents with dry skin Foam cleansing for high-risk residents requiring incontinence care. Compared evidence-based strategies to standard practice Pressure redistribution foam (cubed foam, visco-elastic foam, high-density foams) compared to standard hospital mattress Oral nutritional supplements (daily drinks of 237 ml with 2kcal/ml) + standard diet compared to standard hospital diet only Hyperoxygenated fatty acid regimen for skin dryness, applied twice daily to sacrum, trochanter and heels compared to matched greasy placebo. Foam cleanser combining an emollient, a water repellent barrier and a water-repellent deoderant compared to soap and water for incontinence care
16 Inputs Patient data from 89 of 613 facilities in Ontario Costs of nursing and personal care, supplies, programming and accommodations from linked administrative database for province. Costs of staff time included or subtracted (if strategy saved staff time). Predicated on 2.6% incidence of stage II-IV Cost of care for stage II of $106/wk Cost of care for stages III/IV of $128/wk Costs per strategy Pressure redistribution surfaces for all residents would decrease lifetime costs by $115 per resident Use of foam cleansers on high risk incontinent residents would decrease lifetime cost by $179 Nutritional supplementation increased lifetime costs by $731 per resident Use of skin emollient on patients with dry skin increased lifetime costs by $24 per resident.
17 An Applied Study of Costs in a SNF Tippet, A.W. (2009) Reducing the incidence of pressure ulcers in nursing home residents: A prospective 6 year evaluation. Ostomy-Wound Management. 55(11): bed SNF Established pre-initiative facility-acquired rate ( ). Post-initiative data collection took place from Nov Nov Both phases involved resident census, wound type and size data collected weekly.
18 Clinical process Formed interdisciplinary team with strong leadership. Provided intensive mandatory training for all staff on fundamentals: Braden Scale Simple prevention protocols Wound assessment Wound treatment Results Average pre-initiative incidence was 5.19%. Average post-initiative incidence was 0.73% Incidence in fourth year post-initative was 0.06% An 86% reduction overall and a 99% reduction in the fourth year.
19 Ancillary benefit Unexpected and unplanned benefit of a 37% reduction in falls A monthly savings of $10,187 per month An annual savings greater than $122,000. LITIGATION AVOIDED NOT INCLUDED IN ANALYSIS OF COST-SAVINGS OF PREVENTION
20 Studdert, et al Relationship between Quality of Care and Negligence Litigation in Nursing Homes. NEJM. 364 (13): Historically, rates of litigation against nursing homes was low until the mid to late 1990ʼs This study linked information on 4716 tort claims brought against 1465 nursing homes between 1998 and 2006 to 10 quality indicators On average, each nursing home received one claim every 2 years Most prevalent types of harm alleged were Falls (26.6% of claims) Pressure ulcers (15.9% of claims) 61% of claims resulted in payment, averaging $199,794 per claim (2006 dollars). Odds of being sued Odds were significantly higher among nursing homes with more deficiencies and those with serious deficiencies relative to the state average for deficiencies. Odds were positively associated with the incidence of pressure ulcers and weight loss. Odds were significantly lower among nursing homes with more nurse aide hours per resident. Overall, NH with best deficiency records had a 40 % annual risk of being sued, while those with the worst deficiency record had a 47% chance of being sued.
21 Goebel, R.H. & Goebel, M.R. (1999). Clinical Practice Guidelines for pressure ulcer prevention can prevent lawsuits in older patients. JWOCN. 26(4) In a study of the impact of compliance on medical malpractice awards: 35 plaintiffs were awarded $14,418,770 Had health care defendants followed guidelines, $11,389,989 might have been saved in 20 lawsuits Round about way of saying that, in 15 of these cases, the guidelines on pressure ulcer prevention were followed and the damages awarded were very, very low in these cases. Take Away Message Risk of litigation may not be substantially smaller in high quality nursing homes It appears that awards are much lower if guidelines are followed. When cost of claims are considered, the cost of prevention is substantially lower than standard care.
22 EXPANDING PREVENTION Operating room and Emergency Dept. Pham, B., et al. Support surfaces for intraoperative prevention of pressure ulcers in patients undergoing surgery: a cost effectiveness analysis. Surgery:2011; 150: Used a Markov simulation model to evaluated the costeffectiveness of using a dry viscoelastic polymer overlay to prevent intraoperative pressure ulcers over a 1 year period of time. Compared it to use of a standard OR table mattress without additional overlay Simulations were performed for patients undergoing scheduled surgeries in either supine or lithotomy position that lasted 90 minutes or more, but projected incidence was based on surgical duration of 4.6 hours. Included hospital costs and post-discharge home care costs (assumes perspective of national payor).
23 Results in 2009 Canadian Dollars Strategy of using a dry, viscoelastic polymer overlay was estimated to decrease the intraoperative incidence of pressure ulcers by 0.51%. Average cost per patient of using the overlay was $1.66 Average cost savings was $46 per patient, ranging from $13 to $166 with various surgical populations (hospital + community). The average cost savings for hospital care was $44 per patient Intraoperative prevention was 99% likely to be more costeffective than current practice. Pham, B., et al Early prevention of pressure ulcers among elderly patients admitted to the emergency departments: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2011: 58(5) Examined cost-effectiveness of prevention vs standard care in ER Standard care Thickness Cost Canadian stretchers 3 $300 beds 5 $300 Preventive care Stretchers 5 $780 beds 8 $500
24 Results Projected incidence of PU was 1.90 with current practice and 1.48 with preventive practice Average cost of upgrading to pressure redistribution surface was $0.30 per patient. Cost savings for health care system was $32 per patient and cost savings for hospital was $30 At the maximum cost for upgrading, the net benefit of prevention was $19 per patient Emergency Room Visits in U.S % of all ER visits were age 65 or older Of those admitted to the hospital from the ER, 43.3% were age 65 or over About 7.4 million patients 65 or older were admitted to the hospital from the ER. 7.4 million x $19 = 140 million dollars could be saved by upgrading all ER surfaces in the U.S. 48
25 For your own hospital A*B*C*D = E Where A = number of ER admissions per year B = 29.6 (the likely percent age 65 or older) C = 43.3 (likely percent of those being admitted to hospital) D = $19 E = likely savings from upgrading ER surfaces 49 So is Prevention Really Cheaper Than Treatment? 50
26 A Lot Cheaper! 51 But so much more! Decreases age-adjusted mortality rates Decreases fall rates Decreases rate of complications Increases probability of discharge Decreases probability of death within 30 days of discharge Decreases the probability of readmission Increases QALYS 52
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