INFLUENCE OF VITAMIN E ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN RABBITS ORGANS IN EXPERIMENTAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLAEMIA

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "INFLUENCE OF VITAMIN E ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN RABBITS ORGANS IN EXPERIMENTAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLAEMIA"

Transcription

1 Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy 48, 69-74, 2004 INFLUENCE OF VITAMIN E ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN RABBITS ORGANS IN EXPERIMENTAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLAEMIA BARBARA STAWIARSKA-PIĘTA, EWA SZAFLARSKA-STOJKO, EWA BIRKNER*, EWA GRUCKA-MAMCZAR*, MAGDALENA WYSZYŃSKA, RAFAŁ STOJKO, IRENA WRÓBLEWSKA-ADAMEK AND AGATA KABAŁA-DZIK Department of Pathology, Faculty of Pharmacy in Sosnowiec, *Department of General Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine in Zabrze, Silesian Medical University, Katowice, Poland Received for publication September 15, Abstract The experiment was conducted on male rabbits of the New Zealand breed divided into three groups: a control group and two experimental groups. The experimental groups were on a cholesterol diet consisting of 0.5 g of cholesterol/100 g of fodder/rabbit/24 h. In addition, rabbits from the 2 nd experimental group were receiving vitamin E in the amount of 10 mg/kg of body mass/24 h. After three months, blood was collected for biochemical analysis, and the heart, kidneys, liver and aorta were collected during postmortem examination for histopathological tests. The pathomorphological changes were assessed in paraffin sections, stained with haematoxylin and eosin, as well as in frozen sections, stained with Sudan III for neutral fats. The experiments showed that the addition of vitamin E to the cholesterol diet inhibits the development of atheromatosis in artery walls and regressive changes in the examined organs. Key words: rabbits, cholesterol, atheromatosis, vitamin E, histopathology. At the moment, atheromatosis is defined as a chronic and progressive disease of a complex pathogenesis, in which apart from cholesterol many different factors play a crucial role: externalenvironmental factors, as well as internal, geneticallybased factors (26). Lately, new theories of its development have emerged and one of them, the oxidation theory presented by Steinberg (28) is welldocumented in experimental studies. It has been proved that it is a modified form of mldl, especially oxidized, that is responsible for the initiation of changes in arteries. Oxidized LDL is toxic for the endothelium, causes an increase in its permeability and penetration of oxidized LDL into the artery tunica intima. Damage in the endothelium leads to higher adhesion and aggregation of thrombocytes, increased production of PDGF, as well as proliferation of smooth muscles cells and extracellular matrix of internal membrane (28, 32). Many studies in recent years have shown a significant role of free oxidation radicals and radicals secondarily generated by them in the development and proliferation of atheroma. Among the later ones, apart from radicals deriving from unsaturated fatty acids, there are the active compounds arising from the influence of free radicals on polyunsaturated acids - such as MDA and 4-HNE - that play an important role (22). The oxidation theory of atheromatosis development has led to a number of studies estimating the role of antioxidants in the prevention of atheromatosis. It has been assumed that the circulating LDL are to some extend protected from free radicals, thanks to the antioxidants diluted in their lipid fraction (11). Some vitamins belong to active antioxidants. They determine the correct course of life processes and along with other endogenic antioxidant substances (such as glutathione, uric acid or cysteine) protect the organism from the toxic activity of reactive forms of oxygen (10, 11). Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is a compound of special interest among the researchers of atheromatosis. This can be explained by the fact that vitamin E is the first defense line against the peroxidation of fatty acids (16, 20, 33). Vitamin E - due to its ability to sweep out free radicals - inhibits the production of cytokines, integrines, and adhesive particles ICAM-1 and VCAM. It also increases the resistance of LDL to oxidation, which as a result successfully prevents the adhesion of cells to the endothelium. Through inhibiting the activity of C protein kinase in inflammatory cells, vitamin E also significantly decreases the production of free radicals in monocytes which in turn decrease the synthesis of

2 70 inflammation mediators. It also inhibits the proliferation of smooth muscles of vessel walls (15, 24). So far the presented results are not only ambiguous, but also often controversial (3, 6, 9, 14, 17-19, 23, 25, 29, 30). The aim of this study was the morphological assessment of rabbit s organs: aorta, heart, kidney and liver in experimental atheromatosis caused by a cholesterol diet, as well as the defining of the influence of vitamin E on the atherogenesis process. Material and Methods The study was performed on 18 male rabbits of the New Zealand breed with the initial body weight of g ± 50 g. The animals came from the Central Experimental Animal Quarters of the Silesian Medical University in Katowice. Before the experiment, the animals were adapted for 2 weeks to the experimental environment. Only animals with normal lipid profiles were accepted for the experiment. The animals were divided into 3 groups, each consisting of 6 animals: - control group (K) - receiving regular GLK fodder; - experimental group I (CH) - being on a atheromatosis diet consisting of 0.5 g of cholesterol/100 g of fodder/rabbit/24h; - experimental group II (CH + vit. E) - being on a atheromatosis diet (as above) supplemented with vitamin E in the amount of 10mg/kg of body mass/24 h. The experiment lasted for three months. Animals were given water ad libitum. Every month blood was collected from their ear border vein for biochemical analysis. The concentration of LDL cholesterol in plasma was determined with the enzymatic method using the BioMerieux kit (France) and the concentration of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) was determined with the Alpha Diagnostics kit (Germany). The results were statistically analysed using the Statistica PL software. The U Manna Whitney test was used to compare differences between particular groups. Statistical significance was restricted by P During post-mortem examination the aorta, liver, heart and kidneys were collected for histopathological tests. The organs were fixed in aqueous solution of formaldehyde. The pathomorphological changes were assessed on the basis of paraffin preparations, stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H- E). The slides used for histochemical studies were obtained on a freezing microtome and stained with Sudan III for neutral fats (37). Colour microphotographs were taken with the Docuval microscope equipped with the photo device (Carl Zeiss Jena). This study was approved by the Bioethical Committee for Animal Testing of the Silesian Medical University. Results Biochemical examination. Table 1 shows changes in the lipids concentrations in plasma of rabbits belonging to both groups on a cholesterol diet. Statistically significant increase in the concentration of triglycerides (TG) is shown after the 3-month experiment when compared with the control group (P=0.004). Also, there was a significant increase when compared to the control group in the concentration of LDL cholesterol in both the CH and CH+vit.E groups after every month of the experiment (P=0.004). Table 1 Schematic presentation of different concentrations of lipids in plasma of rabbits being on the 0.5% cholesterol diet of the CH+vit. E group when compared to the K and CH groups group: CH CH + vit. E TG LDL HDL LDL/HDL compared to group: K K CH after 1 month after 2 months after 3 months after 1 month after 2 months after 3 months after 1 month after 2 months after 3 months after 1 month after 2 months after 3 months Statistically significant increase when compared to the K or CH group. No statistically significant change.

3 71 Administration of vitamin E along with cholesterol (CH+vit. E) caused a downward tendency in the LDL concentrations when compared to the CH group. No statistically significant change in the HDL cholesterol concentration was noticed in either of the groups. Macroscopic assessment. The presence of creamy atheromatous plaques was noticed in the area of arch and abdominal part of the aorta in the CH and CH+vit. E groups. In the CH group, the plaques were large and covered the entire circumference of the vessel while in the CH+vit. E group they were of much lesser intensification. There was a colour change xanthochromia noticed in the liver of the CH rabbits. There was no such a change in the liver of the CH+vit. E rabbits; also, there were no macroscopic changes in the kidneys and heart in rabbits of either group. Microscopic assessment. Aorta. The histopathological change observed in both of CH and CH+vit. E groups was a focal hyperplasia of the intima, completely covered with laminas (CH group) or single, non-complete small atheromatous plaques (CH+vit. E group). There were numerous foam cells in the atheromatous plaques, and fat was also noticed in intercellular spaces. Figs. 1 and 2 show aorta microscopic pictures. Changes in the tunica media were noticed in the CH group its focal thickening was noticed with no signs of fibrosis as well as there was a focal proliferation of macrophages in the proximity of membrana elastica interna. Liver. There was a distinct steatosis of hepatocytes in CH rabbits. The steatosis was increased around the central veins of hepatic lobule (Fig. 3). In the hepatocytes located on the periphery of hepatic lobule, there was either no steatosis or it was minimal. In the CH+vit. E group, no steatosis in the hepatic cells was noticed (Fig. 4). Kidneys. There was little steatosis in the tubule epithelium cells noticed only in kidneys of the CH group (Fig. 5). There were also atheromatous changes in the arterial vessels of kidneys of the CH group, evidenced by hyperplasia of artery intima in the form of atheromatous plaques (Fig. 6). They were observed in lobar arteries of 4 rabbits. In the CH+vit. E group, no steatosis in the tubule epithelium cells was noticed (Fig. 7). Slight atheromatous changes in the lobar arteries were noticed in 2 rabbits of the CH+vit. E group. Heart. The changes noticed in the heart were localized in arterial vessels and consisted in focal proliferation and steatosis of the intima (atheromatous plaques). There were foam cells loaded with lipids present in the atheromatosis laminas. In the CH group the above-described changes were intense and were observed in arteries of different size (Fig. 8), while in the CH+vit. E group atheromatous plaques were found only in 2 rabbits (Fig. 9). The presence of fats in the atheromatosis laminas as well as in the renal tubule cells and hepatocytes was confirmed during histochemical studies. Fats were stained with Sudan III into yelloworange colour. Fig. 1. Group I (CH). Aorta. Atheromatous plaque. Foam cells in the intima. H-E. Fig. 2. Group II (CH+ vit.e). Aorta. Small atheromatous plaque. Foam cells in the intima. H-E. x 150. Fig. 3. Group I (CH). Liver. Steatosis of hepatocytes around the central vein. H-E. x 280.

4 72 Fig. 4. Group II (CH+vit.E). Liver. Normal appearance. H-E. x 140. Fig. 7. Group II (CH+ vit.e). Kidney. Normal appearance. H-E. x 140. Fig. 5. Group I (CH). Kidney. Steatosis of tubulus epithelium. H-E. x 160. Fig. 8. Group I (CH). Heart. Atheromatous plaque in arteriole. H-E. x 150. Fig. 6. Group I (CH). Kidney. Atheromatous plaque in the artery. H-E. x 130. Fig. 9. Group II (CH+ vit.e). Heart. Atheromatous plaque in arteriole. H-E. x 150.

5 73 Discussion The conducted studies showed that cholesterol is the main perpetrator of artery atheromatosis. It also leads to retrogressive changes, such as fatty degeneration in the liver and kidneys. There is no doubt that cholesterol is the main atherogenic factor (2, 9, 14, 17, 18, 30, 31, 36). The lipid profile depends not only on the amount of fat in the diet, but also on its autosomal metabolism. The biochemical tests showed a statistically significant increase in the concentration of its most atherogenic fraction the LDL cholesterol. Recent studies show that the oxidative modification of LDL facilitates the accumulation of lipids in tissues and causes atherogenesis (29). The conducted study showed the preventive influence of the well-know antioxidant, i.e. vitamin E, on atherogenesis. Vitamin E reduced the development of atheromatosis changes (small plaques in aorta walls as well as in the heart and kidney arteries). The biochemical tests in vitamin E-treated group showed only the downward tendency in the concentration of LDL cholesterol in plasma when compared to the CH group. No change in the concentration of the HDL fraction was observed. An increase in TG was shown which along with the LDL cholesterol intensifies the oxidative stress and disturbs the regular functioning of the epithelium (8). Also, Birkner (2) noticed - in the biochemical studies of animals being on a 0.5% cholesterol diet with the supplement of vitamin E a statistically significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma when compared to the control group after 3 months of experiment. In the biochemical tests, as in the presented study, the concentration of MDA (the oxidation stress marker) was determined (21). There was an increase in its concentration in the group receiving the 0.5% cholesterol diet, while the addition of the antioxidant vitamin E to the diet caused a decrease in the MDA concentration to that of the control group (2). Therefore, the preventive action of vitamin E resulted in this case most likely from the prevention of epithelium dysfunction (1). The results showing the positive influence of vitamin E on the rate of oxidation processes point to its anti-atherogenetic activity and correlate with the presented results of pathomorphological assessment. The results obtained correspond to the findings of many previous experimental and clinical studies showing the positive anti-atherogenetic activity of vitamin E (9, 17, 18, 25, 28). Numerous studies point to the effectiveness of combined therapy (administration of a few antioxidants together). Usually, vitamin E is administered along with selenium, methionine and/or vitamin C (34, 35). Although some clinical studies did not show a significant benefit of using vitamin E in the development of atherogenesis changes (7, 19, 27). There have also been reports pointing to the prooxidative properties of vitamin E (3, 29, 30). It is necessary to notice that the influence of vitamin E on atherogenesis changes depends on the degree of their progression. Early changes in the vessels are reversible and we may assume that even low doses of vitamin E can successfully reverse them. Advanced changes are practically irreversible and therefore safe doses of vitamin E can be ineffective. It is also necessary to remember that uncontrolled use of antioxidants in patients with heart ischemia receiving other medicaments may lower their effectiveness (19). Hepatocyte steatosis in rabbits liver showed in this experiment suggests dysfunction in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in the liver of animals loaded with cholesterol. Since the synthesis processes in the hepatocytes are mostly intensified around the central veins of the lobules and metabolism and degradation are most active in the periphery, the early fatty degeneration changes take place in the central part of the lobule (4). Liver steatosis may be accompanied by the steatosis of renal loop epithelium cells and collective tubuless, which is connected with the disordered metabolism of lipids of the liver (13). The presence of degenerative changes in hepatocytes as well as in the renal tubule epithelium cells may lead to necrosis of these cells and very serious consequences, such as hepatic cirrhosis or kidney fibrosis (12). To sum up, in the accomplished research it was proved that vitamin E administered together with the atherogenic diet restrains atheromatosis changes in aorta, heart and kidney arteries and steatosis in the liver and kidneys. References 1. Anderson T.J., Meredith I.T., Yeung A.C., Frei B., Selwyn A.P., Ganz P.: The effect of cholesterollowering and antioxidant therapy on endothelium dependent coronary vasomotion. N. Engl. J. Med., 1995, 332, Birkner E.: Wpływ czynników przeciwutleniających oraz fluoru i selenu na rozwój doświadczalnej hipercholesterolemii. Dissertation. Ann. Acad. Med. Siles. Suppl., 2002, 44, Brasen J., Koenig K., Bach H., Kontush A., Heine H., Witting P.K., Yla- Herttuala S., Stocker R., Beisiegiel U.: Comparison of the effects of alphatocopherol, ubiquinone-10 and probucol at therapeutic doses on atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits. Atherosclerosis, 2002, 163, Cichocki T., Litwin J.A., Mirecka J.: Kompedium Histologii. Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Kraków, 1998, pp Cox D., Cohen M.: Effects of oxidised low-density lipoprotein on vascular contraction and relaxation: Clinical and pharmalogical implications in atherosclerosis. Pharmacol. Rev., 1996, 48, Djahansouzi S., Braesen J.H., Koenik K., Beisiegel U., Kontush A.: The effect of pharmacological doses of different antioxidants on oxidation parameters and atherogenesis in hyperlipidaemic rabbits. Atherosclerosis, 2001, 154, GISSI - Prevenzione Investigators (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Spravvivenza dell Infarto

6 74 miocardico): Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: result of the GISSI- Prevenzione trial. Lancet, 1999, 354, Henning B., Chung B.H., Watkins B.A., Alvardo A.: Disruption of endothelial barrier function by lipolytic remnants of triglyceride rich lipoproteins. Atherosclerosis, 1992, 95, Ismail N.M., Abdul-Ghafar N., Jaarin K., Khine J.H., Top G.M.: Vitamin E and factors affecting atherosclerosis in rabbit fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Int. J. Food. Sci. Nutr., 2000, 51, Kłosiewicz-Latoszek L., Szostak W.: Witaminy w profilaktyce miaŝdŝycy. Medycyna po Dyplomie, 2000, March-April, pp Kośmicki M.: Rola antyoksydantów w leczeniu stabilnej dławicy piersiowej. Przew. Lek., 2001, 10, Kruś S., Skrzypek-Fakhoura E.: Patomorfologia kliniczna. PZWL, Warszawa, 1996, pp Kruś S.: Patomorfologia nerek. PZWL, Warszawa, 1986, p Mahfouz M.M., Kawano H., Kummerow F.A.: Effect of cholesterol-rich diets with and without added vitamins E and C on the severity of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1997, 66, Meydani M., Meisler J.G.: Dokładniejsze spojrzenie na witaminę E. Medycyna po Dyplomie, 1999, 8, Murray R.K., Granner D.K., Mayes P.A., Rodwell V.W.: Biochemia Harpera. PZWL, Warszawa, 1996, pp Ozer N.K., Azzi A.: Effect of vitamin E on development of atherosclerosis. Toxicology, 2000, 148, Ozer N.K., Sirikci O., Taha S., San T., Moser U., Azzi A.: Effect of vitamin E and probucol on dietary cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 1998, 24, Paź A., Rewerski W.: Witamina E a choroby układu krąŝenia czas na podsumowanie. Medycyna po Dyplomie, 2002, 11, Rutkowski M., Grzegorczyk K.: Witaminy o działaniu antyoksydacyjnym ogólna charakterystyka. Witamina E. Farm. Pol., 1998, 54, Schwenke D.C.: Antioxidants and atherogenesis. J. Nutr. Biochem., 1998, 9, Schneider Z.: Molekularne aspekty miaŝdŝycy. Post. Biol. Kom., 1998, 25, Stephens N.G., Parsons A., Schofield P.M., Kelly F., Cheeseman K., Mitchinson M.: Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet, 1996, 347, Suchocka Z.: Nowe spojrzenie na rolę i metabolizm witaminy E. Farm. Pol., 2001, 57, Suzukawa M., Ayaori M., Shige H., Hisada T., Ishikawa T., Nakamura H.: Effect of supplementation with vitamin E on LDL oxidizability and prevention of atherosclerosis. Biofactors, 1998, 7, Tatoń J.: MiaŜdŜyca. Zapobieganie w praktyce lekarskiej, PZWL, Warszawa, The alpha-tocopherol, beta carotene cancer prevention study group: The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N. Eng. J. Med., 1994, 330, Tkaczewski K.: Infekcyjna teoria miaŝdŝycy Złudzenie czy rzeczywistość? Lekarz Wojskowy, 1998, 1-2, Upston J.M., Terentis A.C., Morris K., Keaney J.F., Stocker R.: Oxidized lipid accumulates in the presence of alpha-tocopherol in atherosclerosis. Biochem. J., 2002, 363, Upston J.M., Witting P.K., Brown A.J., Stocker R., Keaney J.F. Jr.: Effect of vitamin E on aortic lipid oxidation and intimal proliferation after arterial injury in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 2001, 31, Vesselinovitch D.: Animal models and the study of atherosclerosis. Arch. Path. Lab. Med., 1988, 112, Von der Wall A.C., Das P.K., Tigges A.J., Becker A.E.: Adhesion molecules on the endothelium and mononuclear cells in human atherosclerotic lesions. Am. J. Pathol., 1992, 141, Wojciechowska C., Tomasik A., Tarnawski R.: Biochemiczne podstawy stosowania witaminy E w zapobieganiu miaŝdŝycy. Kardiol. Pol., 1999, 50, Wójcicki J., RóŜewicka L., Barcew-Wiszniewska B., Samochowiec Ł., Jóźwiak S., Kadłubowska D., Tustanowski S., Juzyszyn Z.: Effects of selenium and vitamin E on the development of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis, 1991, 87, Wójcicki J., RóŜewicka L., Barcew-Wiszniewska B., Samochowiec Ł., Jóźwiak S., Kadłubowska D., Tustanowski S., Juzyszyn Z.: Effects of selenium and vitamin E on blood selenium levels, tissue glutathione peroxidase activities and white muscle disease in sheep fed purified or hay diets. J. Nutr., 1991, 107, Yoshida N., Murase H., Kunieda T., Toyokuni S., Tanaka T. Terao J., Naito Y., Tanigawa T., T., Yoshikawa T.: Inhibitory effect of novel watersoluble vitamin E derivative on atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis, 2002, 162, Zawistowski S.: Technika histologiczna, histologia oraz podstawy histopatologii. PZWL, Warszawa, 1986, pp

Antioxidants and Heart Disease

Antioxidants and Heart Disease Antioxidants and Heart Disease Antioxidants help protect every cell and membrane in the body against the ravages of everyday living, and thus may help prevent diseases that result from accumulated damage

More information

Your Life Your Health Cariodmetabolic Risk Syndrome Part VII Inflammation chronic, low-grade By James L. Holly, MD The Examiner January 25, 2007

Your Life Your Health Cariodmetabolic Risk Syndrome Part VII Inflammation chronic, low-grade By James L. Holly, MD The Examiner January 25, 2007 Your Life Your Health Cariodmetabolic Risk Syndrome Part VII Inflammation chronic, low-grade By James L. Holly, MD The Examiner January 25, 2007 The cardiometabolic risk syndrome is increasingly recognized

More information

Anti-Atheroscrerotic Drugs

Anti-Atheroscrerotic Drugs Anti-Atheroscrerotic Drugs Masuko Ushio-Fukai, PhD, FAHA Dept. of Pharmacology University of Illinois at Chicago Anti-Atherogenic Drugs: Treatment of Hyperlipidemias Knowledge Objectives: 1) Know the mechanism

More information

EFFECT OF WATER-EXTRACTED PROPOLIS ON THE ACCUMULATION OF CHOLESTEROL INDUCED BY HIGH-CHOLESTEROL DIET IN THE RAT

EFFECT OF WATER-EXTRACTED PROPOLIS ON THE ACCUMULATION OF CHOLESTEROL INDUCED BY HIGH-CHOLESTEROL DIET IN THE RAT EFFECT OF WATER-EXTRACTED PROPOLIS ON THE ACCUMULATION OF CHOLESTEROL INDUCED BY HIGH-CHOLESTEROL DIET IN THE RAT M.S. KWON*, Z.Z. HAN*, S.Y. PARK*, Y.S. CHOI*, H. LIM*, S.D. KIM 2, H.C. KIM 1 1 Neurotoxicology

More information

Ischemia and Infarction

Ischemia and Infarction Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.035: Principle and Practice of Human Pathology Dr. Badizadegan Ischemia and Infarction HST.035 Spring 2003 In the US: ~50% of deaths are due to

More information

Pantesin Effective support for heart healthy cholesterol levels*

Pantesin Effective support for heart healthy cholesterol levels* Pantesin Effective support for heart healthy cholesterol levels* { Pantesin Effective support for heart healthy cholesterol levels* Many health-conscious adults keeping a watchful eye on their cholesterol

More information

Role of Body Weight Reduction in Obesity-Associated Co-Morbidities

Role of Body Weight Reduction in Obesity-Associated Co-Morbidities Obesity Role of Body Weight Reduction in JMAJ 48(1): 47 1, 2 Hideaki BUJO Professor, Department of Genome Research and Clinical Application (M6) Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University Abstract:

More information

Body Composition & Longevity. Ohan Karatoprak, MD, AAFP Clinical Assistant Professor, UMDNJ

Body Composition & Longevity. Ohan Karatoprak, MD, AAFP Clinical Assistant Professor, UMDNJ Body Composition & Longevity Ohan Karatoprak, MD, AAFP Clinical Assistant Professor, UMDNJ LONGEVITY Genetic 25% Environmental Lifestyle Stress 75% BMI >30 OBESE 25-30 OVERWEIGHT 18-25 NORMAL WEIGHT 18

More information

Cardiovascular Disease and the Endothelium

Cardiovascular Disease and the Endothelium Cardiovascular Disease and the Endothelium by Jeffrey Porro A series of articles for general audiences This series of essays was developed as part of FASEB s efforts to educate the general public, and

More information

Free radicals - Enemies of health, beauty and youth

Free radicals - Enemies of health, beauty and youth Free radicals - Enemies of health, beauty and youth Free radicals (FR) are natural molecules produced in the body following biochemical reactions related to the behaviour of singlet oxygen. The human body

More information

Outline Introduction Oidti Oxidative damage Antioxidants properties Antioxidants and antiaging interventions Hormonal therapy Benefits of DHEA, testos

Outline Introduction Oidti Oxidative damage Antioxidants properties Antioxidants and antiaging interventions Hormonal therapy Benefits of DHEA, testos Anti-Aging Aging g Medications What is the Evidence? Sixth Annual Family Medicine Conference Crown Plaza November 11, 2007 Presented by : Jad J. Sakr, Pharm.D. Outline Introduction Oidti Oxidative damage

More information

Can Common Blood Pressure Medications Cause Diabetes?

Can Common Blood Pressure Medications Cause Diabetes? Can Common Blood Pressure Medications Cause Diabetes? By Nieske Zabriskie, ND High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In the United States, approximately

More information

THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM AS A THERAPEUTIC TARGET FOR LIVER DISEASES. Key Points

THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM AS A THERAPEUTIC TARGET FOR LIVER DISEASES. Key Points December 2008 (Vol. 1, Issue 3, pages 36-40) THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM AS A THERAPEUTIC TARGET FOR LIVER DISEASES By Sophie Lotersztajn, PhD, Ariane Mallat, MD, PhD Inserm U841, Hôpital Henri Mondor,

More information

Cell Injury, Adaptation and Death

Cell Injury, Adaptation and Death Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.035: Principle and Practice of Human Pathology Dr. Badizadegan Cell Injury, Adaptation and Death HST.035 Spring 2003 Overview of Cell Injury Cells

More information

Vitamin E and Cardiovascular Disease

Vitamin E and Cardiovascular Disease Vitamin E and Cardiovascular Disease Observational Studies J. MICHAEL GAZIANO Divisions of Aging and Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School,

More information

WHEY PROTEIN IMPORTANCE. Dan Phillips

WHEY PROTEIN IMPORTANCE. Dan Phillips WHEY PROTEIN IMPORTANCE Dan Phillips Studies on whey demonstrate it's an even better protein supplement than previously thought. Although whey protein's health benefits have only recently been elucidated,

More information

Executive Summary Report

Executive Summary Report Glucose 65-99 mg/dl Glucose measures the amount of sugar in your blood. Glucose is the primary energy source in your body. Insulin (a natural hormone produced by the pancreas) controls how glucose is used

More information

Glutathione and Oxidative Stress - Part I

Glutathione and Oxidative Stress - Part I Glutathione and Oxidative Stress - Part I By: James L. Holly, MD Oxidative Stress refers to effects from endogenous (produced in the body) toxins (free radicals) produced in the body by normal metabolism

More information

Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition

Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition Chapter Objectives INTRODUCTION 1. Generalize the way in which nutrients are processed through the three major metabolic fates in order to perform various energetic

More information

Strokes and High Blood Pressure

Strokes and High Blood Pressure Strokes and High Blood Pressure Quick Review from last Week: What is a Stroke Stroke: blood supply to the brain is severely limited or cut off With no blood to carry oxygen to them, brain cells will die

More information

NCD for Lipids Testing

NCD for Lipids Testing Applicable CPT Code(s): NCD for Lipids Testing 80061 Lipid panel 82465 Cholesterol, serum or whole blood, total 83700 Lipoprotein, blood; electrophoretic separation and quantitation 83701 Lipoprotein blood;

More information

1. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

1. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF METABOLIC SYNDROME 1. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF METABOLIC SYNDROME Izet Aganović, Tina Dušek Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Croatia 1 Introduction The metabolic syndrome

More information

Cardiovascular disease physiology. Linda Lowe-Krentz Bioscience in the 21 st Century October 14, 2011

Cardiovascular disease physiology. Linda Lowe-Krentz Bioscience in the 21 st Century October 14, 2011 Cardiovascular disease physiology Linda Lowe-Krentz Bioscience in the 21 st Century October 14, 2011 Content Introduction The number 1 killer in America Some statistics Recommendations The disease process

More information

PROTANDIM SEVEN PEER-REVIEWED SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL ABSTRACTS SINCE 2006. A Fundamentally New Approach to Antioxidant Therapy

PROTANDIM SEVEN PEER-REVIEWED SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL ABSTRACTS SINCE 2006. A Fundamentally New Approach to Antioxidant Therapy PROTANDIM SEVEN PEER-REVIEWED SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL ABSTRACTS SINCE 2006 A Fundamentally New Approach to Antioxidant Therapy Free Radical Biology & Medicine 40 (2006) 341 347 Original Contribution The induction

More information

4/4/2013. Mike Rizo, Pharm D, MBA, ABAAHP THE PHARMACIST OF THE FUTURE? METABOLIC SYNDROME AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH

4/4/2013. Mike Rizo, Pharm D, MBA, ABAAHP THE PHARMACIST OF THE FUTURE? METABOLIC SYNDROME AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH METABOLIC SYNDROME AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH AN OPPORTUNITY FOR PHARMACISTS TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE Mike Rizo, Pharm D, MBA, ABAAHP THE EVOLUTION OF THE PHARMACIST 1920s 1960s 2000s THE PHARMACIST OF THE FUTURE?

More information

Cardiovascular diseases. pathology

Cardiovascular diseases. pathology Cardiovascular diseases pathology Atherosclerosis Vascular diseases A disease that results in arterial wall thickens as a result of build- up of fatty materials such cholesterol, resulting in acute and

More information

1 The diagram shows blood as seen under a microscope. Which identifies parts P, Q, R and S of the blood?

1 The diagram shows blood as seen under a microscope. Which identifies parts P, Q, R and S of the blood? 1 1 The diagram shows blood as seen under a microscope. Which identifies parts P, Q, R and S of the blood? 2 The plan shows the blood system of a mammal. What does the part labelled X represent? A heart

More information

Male Health. The three major issues are: Cardiovascular Health Prostate Health Fertility & Sexual Performance

Male Health. The three major issues are: Cardiovascular Health Prostate Health Fertility & Sexual Performance Male Health Do Men Value Their Health? The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates once said, A wise man ought to realise that his health is his most valuable possession. It is believed that Hippocrates lived

More information

The Physiology of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy. Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species. I. Introduction Definition, Source, function and Purpose

The Physiology of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy. Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species. I. Introduction Definition, Source, function and Purpose The Physiology of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species I. Introduction Definition, Source, function and Purpose A. Definition of free radicals and reactive oxygen species

More information

I The THREE types of LIPIDS

I The THREE types of LIPIDS LECTURE OUTLINE Chapter 5 The Lipids: Fats, Oils, Phospholipids and Sterols I The THREE types of LIPIDS A. Triglycerides (fats & oils)- the MAJOR type of lipid in food and humans. 1. 2 parts of triglyceridesa)

More information

High Blood Cholesterol

High Blood Cholesterol National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III Guidelines At-A-Glance Quick Desk Reference 1 Step 1 2 Step 2 3 Step 3 Determine lipoprotein levels obtain complete lipoprotein profile after 9- to 12-hour

More information

LCL-GRAFT TM - Innovative Large and Small Caliber Vascular Grafts for Coronary Bypass and Peripheral Vascular Surgery.

LCL-GRAFT TM - Innovative Large and Small Caliber Vascular Grafts for Coronary Bypass and Peripheral Vascular Surgery. LCL-GRAFT TM - Innovative Large and Small Caliber Vascular Grafts for Coronary Bypass and Peripheral Vascular Surgery. A. Perets 1, M. Li 1, P. Uttayarat 1, P. Pimton 1, A. Wu 2, R. J. Levy 3, R. J. Composto

More information

Your healthcare provider has ordered a Boston Heart Cardiac Risk Assessment

Your healthcare provider has ordered a Boston Heart Cardiac Risk Assessment Your healthcare provider has ordered a Boston Heart Cardiac Risk Assessment What does that mean for you? Your healthcare provider has determined that you may be at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

More information

Education. Panel. Triglycerides & HDL-C

Education. Panel. Triglycerides & HDL-C Triglycerides & HDL-C Thomas Dayspring, MD, ACP Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Attending in Medicine: St Joseph s s Hospital, Paterson, NJ Certified

More information

Antioxidant response in patients with chronic hepatitis B or C.

Antioxidant response in patients with chronic hepatitis B or C. Antioxidant response in patients with chronic hepatitis B or C. Kamila Wójcik, Anna Piekarska, Elżbieta Jabłonowska Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland

More information

Getting Off the Chronic Disease Merry-Go-Round: What s the Weight of the Research?

Getting Off the Chronic Disease Merry-Go-Round: What s the Weight of the Research? Getting Off the Chronic Disease Merry-Go-Round: What s the Weight of the Research? Jody Dushay, MD MMSc Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Boston, MA Session 445 No disclosures Disclosure Jody Dushay,

More information

NASH: It is not JUST a Fatty Liver. Karen F. Murray, M.D. Director of Hepatobiliary Program Children s Hospital and Regional Medical Center

NASH: It is not JUST a Fatty Liver. Karen F. Murray, M.D. Director of Hepatobiliary Program Children s Hospital and Regional Medical Center NASH: It is not JUST a Fatty Liver Karen F. Murray, M.D. Director of Hepatobiliary Program Children s Hospital and Regional Medical Center Stages of Fatty Liver Disorders Fatty Liver 16-35% of Western

More information

Introduction. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes

Introduction. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2dm) is the most prevalent form of diabetes worldwide. It is characterised by high fasting and high postprandial blood glucose concentrations (hyperglycemia). Chronic

More information

Oxidative stress markers

Oxidative stress markers Oxidative stress markers Oxidative stress represents an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular mechanisms for detoxifying the reactive intermediates or for repairing the resulting

More information

Methyl groups, like vitamins, are

Methyl groups, like vitamins, are Methyl groups are essential for the body to function properly and must be obtained from the diet The need for methyl groups increases under stress Chapter 11 Betaine a new B vitamin Methyl groups reduce

More information

Antioxidant Products. A comprehensive range of. Antioxidants

Antioxidant Products. A comprehensive range of. Antioxidants Antioxidant Products A comprehensive range of ALB BIL FERR GR Ransel Ransod antioxidant TAS testing TIBC kits TF BIL FERR GR Ransel Ransod TAS TIBC TF UA A FERR GR Ransel Ransod TAS TIBC TF UA ALB GR Ransel

More information

Human Anatomy and Physiology II Laboratory

Human Anatomy and Physiology II Laboratory Human Anatomy and Physiology II Laboratory The Circulation (Two Weeks) 1 This lab involves two weeks work studying the vasculature of the human body. Both weeks involve the exercise in the lab manual entitled

More information

Robert Krysiak, Anna Gdula-Dymek, Bogus³aw Okopieñ

Robert Krysiak, Anna Gdula-Dymek, Bogus³aw Okopieñ Pharmacological Reports 2013, 65, 429 434 ISSN 1734-1140 Copyright 2013 by Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences Lymphocyte-suppressing, endothelial-protective and systemic anti-inflammatory

More information

Multiple comorbidities: additive and predictive of cardiovascular risk. Peter M. Nilsson Lund University University Hospital Malmö, Sweden

Multiple comorbidities: additive and predictive of cardiovascular risk. Peter M. Nilsson Lund University University Hospital Malmö, Sweden Multiple comorbidities: additive and predictive of cardiovascular risk Peter M. Nilsson Lund University University Hospital Malmö, Sweden Clinical outcomes: major complications of CVD Heart Attack/ACS

More information

ROLE OF LDL CHOLESTEROL, HDL CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES IN THE PREVENTION OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND STROKE

ROLE OF LDL CHOLESTEROL, HDL CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES IN THE PREVENTION OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND STROKE ROLE OF LDL CHOLESTEROL, HDL CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES IN THE PREVENTION OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND STROKE I- BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease and stoke are the major killers in the United States.

More information

LIPID PANEL CHOLESTEROL LIPOPROTEIN, ELECTROPHORETIC SEPARATION LIPOPROTEIN, DIRECT MEASUREMENT (HDL) LDL DIRECT TRIGLYCERIDES

LIPID PANEL CHOLESTEROL LIPOPROTEIN, ELECTROPHORETIC SEPARATION LIPOPROTEIN, DIRECT MEASUREMENT (HDL) LDL DIRECT TRIGLYCERIDES Test Code Test Name CPT CHOL Cholesterol, Serum 82465 HDL HDL, (High Density Lipoprotein) 83718 TRIG Triglycerides, Serum 84478 FTRIG Triglycerides (Fluid) 84478 LIPID Lipid Panel 80061 LDL LDL (Low Density

More information

Lipids. Benjamin Caballero, MD, PhD Johns Hopkins University

Lipids. Benjamin Caballero, MD, PhD Johns Hopkins University This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

NO More Heart Disease

NO More Heart Disease NO More Heart Disease Nitric Oxide Information NO is one of the simplest molecules in biology, comprised of just two atoms one atom of nitrogen (N) and one of oxygen (O). Through NO s structure is simple,

More information

Prescribing Information

Prescribing Information The format of this leaflet was determined by the Ministry of Health and its content was checked and approved by it. Omacor Prescribing Information 1 NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT OMACOR, 1000 mg, soft

More information

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Prognosis and Treatment

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Prognosis and Treatment Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Prognosis and Treatment Zachary Henry, M.D. Assistant Professor UVA Gastroenterology & Hepatology October 28, 2015 Overview Case Presentation Prognosis Effects of fibrosis

More information

Primary Care Guidance Program: Non-Alcohol related Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Guidance on Management in Primary Care

Primary Care Guidance Program: Non-Alcohol related Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Guidance on Management in Primary Care Primary Care Guidance Program: Non-Alcohol related Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Guidance on Management in Primary Care This advice has been developed to help GPs with shared care of patients with Non- Alcohol

More information

Liver Function Essay

Liver Function Essay Liver Function Essay Name: Quindoline Ntui Date: April 20, 2009 Professor: Dr. Danil Hammoudi Class: Anatomy and Physiology 2 Liver function The human body consist of many highly organize part working

More information

Blood clot in atheroma. help make vitamin D and hormones, like oestrogen and testosterone, in your body.

Blood clot in atheroma. help make vitamin D and hormones, like oestrogen and testosterone, in your body. CHOLESTEROL This factsheet explains what cholesterol is and why too much cholesterol in your blood is harmful. It also provides information regarding cholesterol testing and tips to help reduce your blood

More information

The digestive system eliminated waste from the digestive tract. But we also need a way to eliminate waste from the rest of the body.

The digestive system eliminated waste from the digestive tract. But we also need a way to eliminate waste from the rest of the body. Outline Urinary System Urinary System and Excretion Bio105 Lecture 20 Chapter 16 I. Function II. Organs of the urinary system A. Kidneys 1. Function 2. Structure III. Disorders of the urinary system 1

More information

25-hydroxyvitamin D: from bone and mineral to general health marker

25-hydroxyvitamin D: from bone and mineral to general health marker DIABETES 25 OH Vitamin D TOTAL Assay 25-hydroxyvitamin D: from bone and mineral to general health marker FOR OUTSIDE THE US AND CANADA ONLY Vitamin D Receptors Brain Heart Breast Colon Pancreas Prostate

More information

The Canadian Association of Cardiac

The Canadian Association of Cardiac Reinventing Cardiac Rehabilitation Outside of acute care institutions, cardiovascular disease is a chronic, inflammatory process; the reduction or elimination of recurrent acute coronary syndromes is a

More information

Diabetes and Stroke. Understanding the connection between diabetes and the increased risk of stroke

Diabetes and Stroke. Understanding the connection between diabetes and the increased risk of stroke Diabetes and Stroke Understanding the connection between diabetes and the increased risk of stroke Make the Connection Almost 26 million people in the U.S. roughly 8 percent of the population have diabetes.

More information

Tocopherol (Vitamin E) in Health and disease

Tocopherol (Vitamin E) in Health and disease The Virtual Free Radical School Tocopherol (Vitamin E) in Health and disease by VERIS What is Veris? VERIS = Vitamin E Research and Information Service The worldwide VERIS Research Information Service

More information

Version 1 2015. Module guide. Preliminary document. International Master Program Cardiovascular Science University of Göttingen

Version 1 2015. Module guide. Preliminary document. International Master Program Cardiovascular Science University of Göttingen Version 1 2015 Module guide International Master Program Cardiovascular Science University of Göttingen Part 1 Theoretical modules Synopsis The Master program Cardiovascular Science contains four theoretical

More information

The Body s Transport System

The Body s Transport System Circulation Name Date Class The Body s Transport System This section describes how the heart, blood vessels, and blood work together to carry materials throughout the body. Use Target Reading Skills As

More information

DISCLOSURES RISK ASSESSMENT. Stroke and Heart Disease -Is there a Link Beyond Risk Factors? Daniel Lackland, MD

DISCLOSURES RISK ASSESSMENT. Stroke and Heart Disease -Is there a Link Beyond Risk Factors? Daniel Lackland, MD STROKE AND HEART DISEASE IS THERE A LINK BEYOND RISK FACTORS? D AN IE L T. L AC K L AN D DISCLOSURES Member of NHLBI Risk Assessment Workgroup RISK ASSESSMENT Count major risk factors For patients with

More information

IS VITAMIN E SAFE TO USE?

IS VITAMIN E SAFE TO USE? Vitamin E & Fatty Liver IS VITAMIN E SAFE TO USE? Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) & Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Prevalence: 5.7-16.5% 57 5 in US Usually diagnosed in 40-60 y/o s Non-significant

More information

Metabolic Syndrome Overview: Easy Living, Bitter Harvest. Sabrina Gill MD MPH FRCPC Caroline Stigant MD FRCPC BC Nephrology Days, October 2007

Metabolic Syndrome Overview: Easy Living, Bitter Harvest. Sabrina Gill MD MPH FRCPC Caroline Stigant MD FRCPC BC Nephrology Days, October 2007 Metabolic Syndrome Overview: Easy Living, Bitter Harvest Sabrina Gill MD MPH FRCPC Caroline Stigant MD FRCPC BC Nephrology Days, October 2007 Evolution of Metabolic Syndrome 1923: Kylin describes clustering

More information

Mechanisms and dose response relationship for radiation-induced cardiovascular damage. Fiona A. Stewart The Netherlands Cancer Institute

Mechanisms and dose response relationship for radiation-induced cardiovascular damage. Fiona A. Stewart The Netherlands Cancer Institute Mechanisms and dose response relationship for radiation-induced cardiovascular damage Fiona A. Stewart The Netherlands Cancer Institute Epidemiological evidence and dose response relationships from irradiated

More information

Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back

Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back to the left atria from the left ventricle, blood is pumped

More information

CAN PSORIASIS TREATMENT BE AIDED BY OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS? Brittney Urban

CAN PSORIASIS TREATMENT BE AIDED BY OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS? Brittney Urban CAN PSORIASIS TREATMENT BE AIDED BY OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS? Brittney Urban Psoriasis Chronic skin disease Cell life cycle build up Can be disabling Symptoms: Red patches with silvery scales Dry, cracked skin

More information

EPA/DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and the Modification of Risk Factors

EPA/DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and the Modification of Risk Factors EPA/DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and the Modification of Risk Factors Author: Bruce Holub, Ph.D. University Professor Emeritus (University of

More information

Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Children with Diabetes

Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Children with Diabetes Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Children with Diabetes Stephen R. Daniels, MD, PhD Department of Pediatrics University of Colorado School of Medicine The Children s Hospital Anschutz Medical Campus

More information

Support Program for Improving Graduate School Education Advanced Education Program for Integrated Clinical, Basic and Social Medicine

Support Program for Improving Graduate School Education Advanced Education Program for Integrated Clinical, Basic and Social Medicine Support Program for Improving Graduate School Education Advanced Education Program for Integrated Clinical, Basic and Social Medicine January 27, 2009 Dear Professors (representative) of departments, Subject:

More information

Supplements, Vitamin D, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Co-Enzyme Q10: What Really Works?

Supplements, Vitamin D, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Co-Enzyme Q10: What Really Works? Supplements, Vitamin D, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Co-Enzyme Q10: What Really Works? DAVID P. GOWMAN, D.O. S E C T I O N CHIEF, CARDIOLOGY P R O G R A M D I R E C T O R, CARDIOLOGY F E L L O W S H I P B

More information

Cell Membranes Part 1: Review of Membrane Structure and Changes with Aging By Dan Carter, ND

Cell Membranes Part 1: Review of Membrane Structure and Changes with Aging By Dan Carter, ND Introduction Does cell membrane physiology degrade over time? Can the physiologic function of cell membranes be improved? If cell membrane functionality can be improved, is there clinical benefit to patients?

More information

Vascular Effects of Caffeine

Vascular Effects of Caffeine Vascular Effects of Caffeine John P. Higgins MD, MBA, MPHIL, FACC, FACP, FAHA, FACSM, FASNC, FSGC Director of Exercise Physiology Memorial Hermann Sports Medicine Institute Chief of Cardiology, Lyndon

More information

Elevated Cholesterol and Homocysteine

Elevated Cholesterol and Homocysteine Elevated Cholesterol and Homocysteine The evidence linking inflammation of the blood vessels and heart disease/hardening of the arteries is well documented. There is considerable debate about the role

More information

33.1 The Circulatory System

33.1 The Circulatory System 33.1 The Circulatory System Lesson Objectives Identify the functions of the human circulatory system. Describe the structure of the heart and explain how it pumps blood through the body. Name three types

More information

An International Atherosclerosis Society Position Paper: Global Recommendations for the Management of Dyslipidemia

An International Atherosclerosis Society Position Paper: Global Recommendations for the Management of Dyslipidemia An International Atherosclerosis Society Position Paper: Global Recommendations for the Management of Dyslipidemia Introduction Executive Summary The International Atherosclerosis Society (IAS) here updates

More information

Cholesterol made simple!

Cholesterol made simple! Cholesterol made simple! Cholesterol is the biggest risk factor for heart disease and also increases your risk of stroke and circulatory disease - Heart UK The Cholesterol Charity What is Cholesterol and

More information

Chapter 16: Circulation

Chapter 16: Circulation Section 1 (The Body s Transport System) Chapter 16: Circulation 7 th Grade Cardiovascular system (the circulatory system) includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood carries needed substances to the cells

More information

Acne vulgaris, mental health and omega-3 fatty acids. Lipids in Health and Disease. October 13, 2008

Acne vulgaris, mental health and omega-3 fatty acids. Lipids in Health and Disease. October 13, 2008 Acne vulgaris, mental health and omega-3 fatty acids 1 Lipids in Health and Disease October 13, 2008 Mark G Rubin, Katherine Kim, Alan C Logan FROM ABSTRACT Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition, one

More information

Sinclair Community College, Division of Allied Health Technologies

Sinclair Community College, Division of Allied Health Technologies Sinclair Community College, Division of Allied Health Technologies Health Promotion for Community Health Workers Cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer Class #5 High Blood Cholesterol (date) Course

More information

YOUR GUIDE TO. Managing and Understanding Your Cholesterol Levels

YOUR GUIDE TO. Managing and Understanding Your Cholesterol Levels YOUR GUIDE TO Managing and Understanding Your Cholesterol Levels Our goal at the Mercy Health Heart Institute is to help you be well. Our experienced team includes cardiologists, cardiovascular surgeons,

More information

Altered Platelet Activating Factor Metabolism in Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Altered Platelet Activating Factor Metabolism in Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Altered Platelet Activating Factor Metabolism in Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Pages with reference to book, From 122 To 125 Riaz A. Memon, Sheikh A. Saeed, Anwar H. Gilani, Saira Saleem ( Departments

More information

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Risk factors are traits and life-style habits that increase a person's chances of having coronary artery and vascular disease. Some risk factors cannot be changed or

More information

GT-020 Phase 1 Clinical Trial: Results of Second Cohort

GT-020 Phase 1 Clinical Trial: Results of Second Cohort GT-020 Phase 1 Clinical Trial: Results of Second Cohort July 29, 2014 NASDAQ: GALT www.galectintherapeutics.com 2014 Galectin Therapeutics inc. Forward-Looking Statement This presentation contains, in

More information

MY TYPE 2 DIABETES NUMBERS

MY TYPE 2 DIABETES NUMBERS BLOOD SUGAR MANAGEMENT GUIDE MY TYPE 2 DIABETES NUMBERS Understanding and Tracking the ABCs of Type 2 Diabetes 1 BLOOD MY TYPE SUGAR 2 DIABETES MANAGEMENT ABC NUMBERS GUIDE When you have type 2 diabetes,

More information

Small artery tone under control of the endothelium

Small artery tone under control of the endothelium Small artery tone under control of the endothelium On the importance of EDHF and myogenic tone in organ (dys)function Simone K. Gschwend Publication of this thesis was supported by generous contributions

More information

Dark chocolate as a functional food

Dark chocolate as a functional food Dark chocolate as a functional food Roger Corder William Harvey Research Institute Barts & the London Queen Mary s School of Medicine & Dentistry (r.corder@qmul.ac.uk) William Harvey Research Institute

More information

Primary Care Management of Women with Hyperlipidemia. Julie Marfell, DNP, BC, FNP, Chairperson, Department of Family Nursing

Primary Care Management of Women with Hyperlipidemia. Julie Marfell, DNP, BC, FNP, Chairperson, Department of Family Nursing Primary Care Management of Women with Hyperlipidemia Julie Marfell, DNP, BC, FNP, Chairperson, Department of Family Nursing Objectives: Define dyslipidemia in women Discuss the investigation process leading

More information

Prevention of and the Screening for Diabetes Part I Insulin Resistance By James L. Holly, MD Your Life Your Health The Examiner January 19, 2012

Prevention of and the Screening for Diabetes Part I Insulin Resistance By James L. Holly, MD Your Life Your Health The Examiner January 19, 2012 Prevention of and the Screening for Diabetes Part I Insulin Resistance By James L. Holly, MD Your Life Your Health The Examiner January 19, 2012 In 2002, SETMA began a relationship with Joslin Diabetes

More information

Prevention Of Atheromatous Heart Disease

Prevention Of Atheromatous Heart Disease Prevention Of Atheromatous Heart Disease By O.P. Agarwal, M.D., F.I.C.A. Angiology, Vol 36, Number 8, August 1985 Presented at the 31st Annual Meeting, American College of Angiology and 26th Annual Meeting,International

More information

REACH Risk Evaluation to Achieve Cardiovascular Health

REACH Risk Evaluation to Achieve Cardiovascular Health Dyslipidemia and obesity History: A 13-year-old girl is seen for a routine clinic follow-up visit. She has been previously healthy, but her growth curve shows increasing body mass index (BMI) percentiles

More information

Compartmentalization of the Cell. Objectives. Recommended Reading. Professor Alfred Cuschieri. Department of Anatomy University of Malta

Compartmentalization of the Cell. Objectives. Recommended Reading. Professor Alfred Cuschieri. Department of Anatomy University of Malta Compartmentalization of the Cell Professor Alfred Cuschieri Department of Anatomy University of Malta Objectives By the end of this session the student should be able to: 1. Identify the different organelles

More information

Effects of macronutrients on insulin resistance and insulin requirements

Effects of macronutrients on insulin resistance and insulin requirements Effects of macronutrients on insulin resistance and insulin requirements Dr Duane Mellor RD Assistant Professor in Dietetics, The University of Nottingham, UK Outline of Discussion Issues of determining

More information

4 Week Body Contour / Lipo Light Program

4 Week Body Contour / Lipo Light Program Natural Health Solutions 14698 Galaxie Ave. Apple Valley, MN 55124 (952) 891-22225 4 Week Body Contour / Lipo Light Program Welcome and Congratulations! This is an important decision towards improving

More information

Effects of High Cholesterol and Saturated Fat Diet on the Aortic Wall Structure of New Zealand White Male Rabbits

Effects of High Cholesterol and Saturated Fat Diet on the Aortic Wall Structure of New Zealand White Male Rabbits Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 14 (2) 227-236 December, 2007 ISSN 1319-562 X The Official Journal of the Saudi Biological Society htt:www.saudibiosoc.com Effects of High Cholesterol and Saturated

More information

1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because:

1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because: Section 10 Multiple Choice 1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because: A) acyl-carnitines readily cross the mitochondrial inner membrane, but

More information

Health Maintenance: Controlling Cholesterol

Health Maintenance: Controlling Cholesterol Sacramento Heart & Vascular Medical Associates February 18, 2012 500 University Ave. Sacramento, CA 95825 Page 1 What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatty substance. It has both good and bad effects

More information

A Problem-Based Learning Approach to Incorporating Nutrition into the Medical Curriculum

A Problem-Based Learning Approach to Incorporating Nutrition into the Medical Curriculum A Problem-Based Learning Approach to Incorporating Nutrition into the Medical Curriculum Marilyn S. Edwards, Ph.D., R.D. * and Gary C. Rosenfeld, Ph.D. * Department of Internal Medicine and Department

More information

Acquired Heart Disease: Prevention and Treatment

Acquired Heart Disease: Prevention and Treatment Acquired Heart Disease: Prevention and Treatment Prevention and Treatment Sharon L. Roble, MD Assistant Professor Adult Congenital Heart Program The Ohio State University/Nationwide Children s Hospital

More information

Immune-Mediated Diseases. In a Nutshell

Immune-Mediated Diseases. In a Nutshell Immune-Mediated Diseases In a Nutshell Objectives Describe the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis and pathologic changes of autoimmune diseases, including lupus erythematosis, rheumatoid

More information