Maryland s Motorcycle Crash Picture

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1 Maryland s Motorcycle Crash Picture Cindy Burch University of Maryland, Baltimore National Study Center for Trauma and EMS Maryland Center for Traffic Safety Analysis

2 Challenges Motorcycle safety is not just one problem, but several problems: Rider Vulnerability Rider Inexperience Driver Inattention Driver Awareness and Attitudes Rider Impairment Aggressive Riding

3 Exposure data Complex Issue Licensed riders? Registered motorcycles? Miles traveled?? Years experience?? Accurate data capture Crash reports Moving violations

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8 Outline Overview Traffic Records Data in Maryland Statistical Overview Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) Previous research studies Motorcycle type Helmet study Ongoing studies Promising practices Behavioral surveys

9 Fatality Increases and decreases Enforcement Education Training States 16 States Weather conditions Miles traveled Registrations Licenses/endorsements Economy Motorcycle Traffic Fatalities by State Dr. James Hedlund for GHSA

10 Motorcycle Traffic Fatalities by State Dr. James Hedlund for GHSA Nationwide

11 Motorcycle Traffic Fatalities by State Dr. James Hedlund for GHSA Nationwide

12 Statistical Overview of Maryland Motorcycle Crashes

13 Motorcycles Represent 2.5% of all registered motor vehicles Are involved in 15% of fatal motor vehicle collisions Motorcycle operators are 4 times more likely to be injured or die in a in a crash than other drivers 1 in 25 motorcycle crashes result in a fatality

14 Available Injury Data Sources in Maryland Driver Citations Police Crash Reports Ambulance & EMS Logs MVA Licensing ED Data Motorcycle Safety Vital Statistics Autopsy Records Toxicology Hospital Records Statewide Trauma Registry

15 Crashes, Injuries and Fatalities Motorcyclist fatalities have decreased since 2007 by close to 27%, while total traffic fatalities decreased 21% during that period. There were 3% fewer injuries and 4% fewer fatalities in 2011 compared to Motorcycle crash-related fatalities comprised 14.4% of all traffic fatalities in 2011, down slightly from 14.7% in 2010.

16 Maryland Motorcycle Data

17 Motorcycle registrations decreased by 2.5% from 2009 to 2011 As of August 2012, a total 223,525 people held some class of motorcycle license + 14% ages % ages % ages = 42.5% Maryland Trends

18 Rider Inexperience/Training 2011 Training Numbers - License Waiver Received Waiver Enrolled Completed Passed Certificate Basic Rider Course 7,928 7,138 6,663 6,340 Alternate Basic Rider Course Totals 8,697 7,891 7,383 7,035 Percentage of those Enrolled 91% 85% 81%

19 Motorcycle Operators Involved in Crashes by Age <

20 Crash Type by Operator Age 100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% 64.8% 61.2% 61.3% 57.6% 49.0% 41.5% < Age Group Single Vehicle Multiple Vehicle MAARS

21 Average Percentage of Motorcycle Operators Considered at Fault Yes No 42.2% 57.8% MAARS

22 Average Percentage of Motorcycle Crashes by Intersection-Related Yes No 28.4% 62.8% MAARS

23 Average Percentage of Motorcycle Involvement in Rear-End Crashes Motorcyclist is Striking Motorcyclist is Struck 54.8% 45.2% MAARS **In rear-end crashes, when the motorcycle sustains damage to the frontal plane they are assumed to be the striking vehicle

24 Crash Information From , there were 175 same direction, left turn crashes involving motorcycles. In those crashes, the motorcycle was moving at a constant speed, accelerating, slowing or stopping, or passing in 80% of the crashes. The motorcycle was only turning left in 7% of those crashes.

25 30% 25% Average Percentage of Motorcycle Crashes by Primary Contributing Factor 24.1% 20% 15% 10% 12.9% 11.7% 5% 0% MAARS Speeding Aggressive (includes speeding) Distracted

26 3% 2% Average Percentage of Motorcycle Crashes by Contributing Factor, % 2% 1% 0.9% 1% 0.4% 0% Debris or obstruction Ruts, holes, bumps Road under construction MAARS

27 In Maryland.. Table 1 Motorcycle Crash and Rider Characteristics Total Riders Involved in Crashes Riders Killed in Crashes N % N % Gender Male 1, Age < Helmet Use Yes 1, Unknown Total Motorcycle Crashes Fatal Motorcycle Crashes Day of Week Weekday 1, Weekend Hour of Day 12am 8am am 12pm pm 8pm 1, pm 12am

28 Hospital Admission Charge Percentile Mechanism Number Charge ($ in 1,000s) Percent (%) Hospital Charges (Percentile) 25 th Median 75 th Driver 3,132 60, ,923 5,650 14,996 Passenger 1,125 19, ,075 6,110 15,403 Motorcyclist , ,835 9,999 27,207 Pedal Cyclist 105 2, ,062 7,526 22,240 Pedestrian , ,588 9,083 25,455 Unspecified 247 5, ,281 7,066 18,201 Total 6, , ,104 6,396 17,713 Maryland CODES

29 Integrated Injury Data in Maryland Driver Citations Police Crash Reports Ambulance & EMS Logs MVA Licensing ED Data Motorcycle Safety Vital Statistics Autopsy Records Toxicology Hospital Records Statewide Trauma Registry

30 Motorcyclist Citations Average of 10,000+ per year 1.1 million total traffic citations issued annually Citation type Impaired 12% Helmet 3% Improper license 7% Reckless/Negligent 11% Suspended/Revoked 8% Speeding 48%

31 In 2011: 1,972 motorcycle operators were involved in crashes 1,488 (76%) were reported to have a MD license on the crash report Licensure 24% of operators missing code or identified as out-of-state 1,513 linked to MVA licensure files 893 (59%) had an M license on record However, only 270 (18%) had an M in the class field on the crash report

32 Previous Research Studies

33 Motorcycle Body Type

34 Motorcycle Class Information 11 character (de-identified) VIN numbers from Motor Vehicle Administration (MVA) registration file provided to Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) IIHS returned motorcycle class name information for each VIN number Cruiser (35%) Sport ( 9%) Sport Touring ( 1%) Super Sport (34%) Touring (14%) Other (chopper, dual purpose, off road, scooter, sidecar, standard, unclad sport)

35 Motorcycle Class Information Class name data merged back to Maryland motorcycle registration data from MVA In 2008 data file, 74% of registered motorcycles in MD have a class name It is speculated that the remaining 26% could not be categorized for a variety of reasons (modifications, specialized models, old registrations, etc.)

36 Crash Data The updated MVA registration file (with class name ) was merged with 14 years of police crash report data ( ) The files were merged by VIN number 50% match It is speculated that the remaining 50% could not be matched for a variety of reasons (recent VIN patterns, missing fields, poor VIN capture, etc.) The following slides include information based on the records that matched (50%) of all motorcycles in crashes and their operator

37 Crash Characteristics Of all motorcycles reported to be speeding in a crash 20.7% cruiser; 13.6% sport; 0.5% sport touring; 52.1% super sport; 6.5% touring Of all motorcycles reported to be aggressive in a crash 16.0% cruiser; 12.7% sport; 0.5% sport touring; 59.6% super sport; 4.7% touring Of all operators reported to be impaired (alcohol and/or drugs) in a crash 49.8% cruiser; 6.7% sport; 0.2% sport touring; 23.9% super sport; 13.4% touring Cruiser (35%) Super Sport (34%) Touring (14%)

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39 How well do helmets work to prevent deaths? Very well can't prevent all deaths Reduce the chances of a traumatic brain injury Some helmets are not certified & will not provide protection

40 Estimated effectiveness of helmets 37%-41% effective at reducing fatal injuries (NHTSA, 2011) Estimated 1,829 lives saved in 2010

41 Motorcycle Helmet Study

42 Characteristics of Motorcycle Operators (n=189) 94% men 76% white Education 21%<12 th grade 27% High School, GED 23% Some College 22% College Graduate or higher

43 Characteristics of Motorcycle Operators Motorcycle ridden most often 36% Harley Davidson 18% Suzuki 10% Yamaha 16% Honda 8% Kawasaki Motorcycle Type 40% Sport 33% Cruiser 10% Touring Ownership 93% owner 37% owned <1 year

44 Characteristics of Motorcycle Operators Crash Type 31% impact with object 24% laid the bike down 15% multiple vehicle intersection 17% multiple vehicle not at intersection Road Type 26% county road/rural area 29% suburban 22% interstate 14% city street/urban area

45 Characteristics of Motorcycle Operators Training 60% motorcycle safety course 48% basic 10% intermediate 8% experienced Licensing 89% valid motorcycle endorsement 77% under the age of 21 when they began riding

46 STC Helmet Photos (n=242) Type 55% full face 10% three-quarter 35% half-shell Compliant 80% FMVSS compliant Helmet Type

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50 AIS Medical Terminology Abbreviated Injury Scale Range 1 to 6 (0 = no injury) 1 minor injury (bruises, lacerations) 3 moderate injury (brain contusion, fractured femur) 5 severe injury (multiple massive brain contusions, heart laceration) 6 unsurvivable injury

51 Mean Age = 38 yrs Mean ISS = 14.9 Injured Body Regions (AIS>1) All Motorcyclists admitted to Shock Trauma Center (July 2007-June 2009)

52 Head MAIS all patients (MC identification by trauma registry, n=995, CY )

53 Head MAIS by helmet type

54 Head injuries Compliant Non-compliant Fracture Base of skull 6.7% (13/194) 16.3% (8/49) Fracture Vault of skull 1.0% (2/194) 8.2% (4/49) Traumatic brain injury 53.6% (104/194) 77.6% (38/49)

55 Next steps. Promising Practices Analyze new exposure data (odometer readings = new measure of miles traveled) Analyze new baseline data (motorcycle safety training course test scores and reported riding histories) Behavioral Surveys Quantify and analyze knowledge, attitudes and behaviors Motorcycle operators/riders Motor vehicle drivers

56 Next steps. Reconstruction studies Biomechanics of injury Effectiveness of safety equipment (all gear)

57 Recommended Strategies Increase helmet use Reduce alcohol impairment Reduce speeding Train all motorcycle operators Share the road campaigns

58 Contacts Tim Kerns Cindy Burch Maryland Center for Traffic Safety Analysis National Study Center for Trauma & EMS

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