Oregon Motorcycle & Moped Manual DRIVER AND MOTOR VEHICLE SERVICES

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1 Oregon Motorcycle & Moped Manual DRIVER AND MOTOR VEHICLE SERVICES Manual Cover.indd 1 6/17/2015 9:22:44 AM

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3 Visit us at our web site Published by Oregon Department of Transportation DRIVER AND MOTOR VEHICLE SERVICES 1905 Lana Avenue NE Salem, Oregon Graphics/Layout Cover Photo: Motorcyclists on Oregon Hwy 46 by Greg Westergaard DMV Related Questions: (503) ODOT is an Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action Employer. ODOT does not discriminate on the basis of disability in admission or access to our programs, services, activities, hiring, and employment practices. To report any complaints or concerns related to discrimination, please call: (EEO-ODOT). This information can be made available in an alternative format by contacting a local DMV field office.

4 Table of Contents Section 1 Riding in Oregon Motorcycles and Mopeds How to Apply...5 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 ii Preparing to Ride Wear the Right Gear Know Your Motorcycle Special Equipment for Mopeds Know Your Responsibilities...13 Ride Within Your Abilities Basic Vehicle Control Keeping Your Distance Passing and Being Passed SIPDE Intersections See and Be Seen Crash Avoidance Handling Dangerous Surfaces Mechanical Problems Animals Flying Objects Getting Off the Road Carrying Passengers and Cargo Group Riding...40 Being in Shape to Ride Why This Information Is Important Alcohol in the Body Minimize the Risks Fatigue...45 Earning Your Endorsement Knowledge Test Sample Questions On-Cycle Skills Test...48

5 Section 1 Riding in Oregon 1.1 Motorcycles and Mopeds Motorcycles and mopeds are defined as vehicles designed to travel with not more than three wheels in contact with the ground and with a seat or saddle for use of the rider. A moped must have an independent power source that is a power drive system that functions directly or automatically and does not require clutching or shifting by the operator after the system is engaged. A moped cannot be capable of speeds of more than 30 mph on level ground AND, if the moped s power source is a combustion engine, it cannot be larger than 50 cc. Mopeds also include cycles designed as bicycles, if they are equipped with a power source meeting the legal definition. Mandatory Rider Education If you apply for a 3-wheel restricted motorcycle endorsement, you must take the motorcycle tests at DMV. TEAM OREGON does not offer training for 3-wheel motorcycles. If you apply for an unrestricted motorcycle endorsement and you do not have a valid motorcycle endorsement from another state, the District of Columbia, a United States Territory or Canadian Province, you must complete an approved motorcycle rider education course. TEAM OREGON is the only approved motorcycle rider education provider. You can find course information at Their Basic Rider Training (BRT) course is approved for riders of any age and is required for applicants under 21. A TEAM OREGON BRT course completion card waives both the motorcycle knowledge and skills tests. Their Intermediate Rider Training (IRT) course is approved for riders 21 and older. A TEAM OREGON IRT course completion card waives only the motorcycle skills test. You must take the motorcycle knowledge test at DMV. Their erider Basic and erider Intermediate courses waive only the motorcycle skills test at DMV. You must take the motorcycle knowledge test at DMV. Riders who complete an approved motorcycle rider education course may qualify for a discount on the insurance premium for their motorcycle. Riding Unendorsed Riding a motorcycle without a motorcycle endorsement is a Class A traffic violation. 1

6 Mandatory Insurance Oregon s insurance law requires every driver to insure their vehicle, including a motorcycle or moped, if it is operated on any highway or on premises open to the public. The minimum amount of liability insurance required is: Bodily injury and property damage liability $25,000 per person; $50,000 per accident for bodily injury to others; and $20,000 per accident for damage to property of others. Uninsured motorist coverage $25,000 per person, $50,000 per accident for bodily injury. Instruction Permits Moped there is no instruction permit available for a moped. Motorcycle you must be at least 16 years of age, have a valid Oregon driver license, pass the motorcycle knowledge test and a vision test, and pay the permit fee. A motorcycle instruction permit is valid for one year. The permit allows you to learn how to safely operate a motorcycle on public streets and highways. You should learn balance and control of the motorcycle off the street. Restrictions on a motorcycle instruction permit: Must be accompanied by, and under the supervision and visual observation of, a rider on a separate motorcycle who is at least 21 years of age and who has a valid motorcycle endorsement; Operation only during daylight hours; No passengers; and Must wear an approved helmet. Endorsements Moped no endorsement needed. You may operate a moped with any class of driver license or a moped-restricted Class C license. If you are riding a bike that has an independent power source and can go over 30 mph on level ground, unassisted, you must have a motorcycle endorsement. Motorcycle you must have a motorcycle endorsement. You must complete a TEAM OREGON motorcycle rider education course to get an unrestricted endorsement. If you apply for a three-wheel restricted motorcycle endorsement, you must take the motorcycle tests at DMV. If you have a valid motorcycle endorsement from another state, the District of Columbia, a United States Territory or Canadian Province, you may retain the endorsement by passing Oregon s motorcycle knowledge test. Please let our staff know that you want to keep your endorsement. If your driver license is issued without the endorsement and you wish to get it in the future, you must take all tests or courses required for an original endorsement. You can verify that you have the motorcycle endorsement by looking for an M on the front of your driver license under Endorsements. 2

7 Safety Instruction TEAM OREGON courses are available in many communities around the state. Riders of all ages and experience are encouraged to complete rider training. DMV will waive the motorcycle knowledge and skills tests for applicants who present a TEAM OREGON Basic Rider Training course completion card dated within two years. DMV will waive the on-cycle skills test for applicants who present a TEAM OREGON Intermediate Rider Training course completion card dated within two years or an erider Basic or erider Intermediate course completion card dated within two years. For information about the TEAM OREGON Motorcycle Safety Program or their schedule and fees, visit their website at or call Motorcycle Endorsement Tests You must take a vision screening to get a motorcycle endorsement on your license. Knowledge Test - You must take the DMV motorcycle knowledge test, have a valid or expired less than one year Oregon motorcycle instruction permit or present a TEAM OREGON Basic Rider Training course when you apply for your endorsement. The knowledge test is based on information in the Oregon Motorcycle & Moped Manual and the questions are multiple choice. If you have a valid motorcycle endorsement from another state, you are only required to take the knowledge test to transfer the motorcycle endorsement to your Oregon license. Skills Test - If you take an approved TEAM OREGON course, the motorcycle skills test will be waived at DMV. If you apply for a 3-wheel restricted motorcycle endorsement, you must take the motorcycle skills test at DMV. You must be able to identify the major equipment on your motorcycle and show your ability to perform basic maneuvers during an off-street skills test. The test is explained at the back of this manual. If you pass the motorcycle skills test at DMV on a three-wheel motorcycle, your endorsement will include a restriction for the operation of only three-wheel motorcycles. On-cycle skills tests are conducted by appointment only. To schedule an appointment or for information: Outside Portland Area...(503) Portland Area...(503) DMV Web Site...www.OregonDMV.com TDD (for hearing and speech impaired)...(503)

8 Moped Tests To get a moped-restricted driving privilege, you must be 16 years of age, pass a series of tests similar to the motorcycle tests and pay a fee. The tests consist of a vision test, a knowledge test with multiple choice questions based on information in this manual and the Oregon Driver Manual, an equipment knowledge and identification test, and an off-street skills test in which you show basic riding skills such as starting, turning and stopping. The fee for the moped knowledge test is $5.00 and the fee for the moped skills test is $9.00. NOTE: All retest fees are the same as the original test fees. Riding Mopeds Moped operators in Oregon generally obey the same rules of the road as motorcycle operators. Motorcycles and mopeds, while a little alike in appearance, differ in the way they operate. Motorcycles are heavier and more powerful. Mopeds may have a top speed, unassisted, of no more than 30 miles per hour while on a level surface. Since they are not built the same, mopeds and motorcycles should not be used for some of the same purposes. Mopeds are designed for leisure travel. They are not designed to compete with heavier vehicles or to travel long distances on the highway with high speed vehicles. Oregon law allows a moped to use bicycle lanes or paths if the moped is being pedaled. When under its own power, a moped must use regular traffic lanes. Mopeds are designed for one rider only the driver. It is unlawful to carry a passenger on a moped in Oregon. Carrying more than one person or heavy items is unsafe and can damage a moped. Mini-Motorcycles, Pocket Bikes, ATVs and Off-Road Motorcycles A mini-motorcycle, pocket bike, go-kart or all-terrain vehicle (ATV) is not legal for use on public roads in Oregon. To be legal on public roads, motorized vehicles, including motorcycles, need to meet the U.S. Department of Transportation s vehicle design safety and equipment requirements and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. Motorcycles originally manufactured for off-road use generally do not meet the emission standards for on-road use and cannot be registered for highway use in Oregon. For information about converting an off-road motorcycle to street use, visit the Transportation Safety Division s website at: TS/Veh_Equipment.shtml#motorcycles. 4

9 1.2 How To Apply You must hold an Oregon driver license to get a motorcycle endorsement. If you hold a driver license and are renewing or replacing it when you apply, you will need to present proof of legal presence, full legal name, identity and date of birth as well as provide your Social Security Number on the application. For more information go to You must also: Complete an application Present proof of your current residence address (see the Oregon Driver Manual or go to for acceptable proof) Present a TEAM OREGON completion card issued within the past two years or test at DMV. See Mandatory Rider Education section on page 1. Pass a vision test Pay applicable fees; and If you are under 18 years old, comply with any provisional licensing requirements Voter Registration If you are 17 years of age or older, you may register or re-register to vote when you are issued a driver license or permit. DMV will forward your voter registration application to the registrar in your county of residence. Veteran Designation If you are a veteran you may request that DMV add a veteran designation on your driver license or permit. You must present a Certification of Release or Discharge from Active Duty (Form DD214) or a Correction to DD214 (Form DD215) as proof that you are a veteran. The documentation must show that you were discharged under honorable conditions. If you were discharged before 1950, a separation document issued by a branch or department of the US Armed Services is acceptable. You may add the veteran designation for no additional cost anytime you apply for an original, renewal or replacement. 5

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11 Section 2 Preparing to Ride What you do before you start a trip goes a long way toward determining whether or not you ll get where you want to go safely. Before taking off on any trip, a safe rider makes a point to: Wear the right gear. Become familiar with the motorcycle. Check the motorcycle equipment. Be a responsible rider. 2.1 Wear the Right Gear When you ride, your gear is right if it protects you. You have a far better chance of avoiding serious injury in a crash if you wear: A DOT approved helmet. Face and eye protection. Protective clothing. Helmet Use Oregon law requires you to wear an approved motorcycle helmet whenever you ride a motorcycle or moped, as either a driver or passenger. Helmets must have a label on them saying they meet U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) standards. Crashes can occur particularly among untrained, beginning riders. And one out of every five motorcycle crashes result in head or neck injuries. Head injuries are just as severe as neck injuries and far more common. Crash analyses show that head and neck injuries account for a majority of serious and fatal injuries to motorcyclists. Research also shows that, with few exceptions, head and neck injuries are reduced by properly wearing an approved helmet. Here are some facts to consider: An approved helmet lets you see as far to the sides as necessary. A study of more than 900 motorcycle crashes, where 40% of the riders wore helmets, did not find even one case in which a helmet kept a rider from spotting danger. Most crashes happen on short trips (less than five miles long), just a few minutes after starting out. Most riders are riding slower than 30 mph when a crash occurs. At these speeds, helmets can cut both the number and the severity of head injuries by half. No matter what the speed, helmeted riders are three times more likely to survive head injuries than those not wearing helmets at the time of the crash. 7

12 Helmet Selection There are two primary types of helmets, providing two different levels of coverage: three-quarter and full-face. Full-face helmets provide the most protection. Whichever style you choose, make sure that the helmet: Is designed to meet U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) standards. Fits snugly, all the way around. Full-Face Three-Quarter Helmets Has no obvious defects such as cracks, loose padding or frayed straps. Securely fasten your helmet on your head every time you ride. Otherwise, if you are involved in a crash, it s likely to fly off your head before it gets a chance to protect you. Eye and Face Protection A shatter-resistant faceshield can help protect your whole face from wind, dust, dirt, rain, insects, and pebbles thrown up from vehicles ahead of you. These problems are distracting and can be painful. If you have to deal with them, you can t devote your full attention to the road. Goggles protect your eyes, though they won t protect the rest of your face like a faceshield does. A windshield is not a substitute for a faceshield or goggles. Most windshields will not protect your eyes from the wind and neither will eyeglasses or sunglasses. Glasses won t keep your eyes from watering, and they might blow off when you turn your head while riding. To be effective, eye and/or face protection must: Be free of scratches. Be shatter resistant. Give a clear view to either side. Fasten securely, so it does not blow off. Permit air to pass through, to reduce fogging. Permit enough room for eyeglasses or sunglasses, if needed. Tinted eye protection should not be worn at night or any other time there are low-light conditions. Clothing The right clothing protects you in a crash. It also provides comfort as well as protection from heat, cold, debris, and hot and moving parts of the motorcycle. The right clothing can also make you more visible to others. Choose riding gear that is brightly colored and with retro-reflective material to keep you visible to other traffic, both day and night. 8

13 Jacket and pants should cover arms and legs completely. They should fit snugly enough to keep from flapping in the wind, yet loosely enough to move freely. Leather and sturdy synthetic materials offer the best protection. Wear a jacket to prevent dehydration, even in warm weather. Many are designed to protect without getting you overheated, even on summer days. Boots or shoes should be high and sturdy enough to cover your ankles and give them support. Soles should be made of hard, durable slip-resistant material. Keep heels short so they do not catch on foot pegs or rough surfaces. Tuck laces in so they won t catch on your motorcycle. Gloves allow a better grip and help protect your hands in a crash. Your gloves should be made of leather or similar durable material. In cold or wet weather, your clothes should keep you warm and dry, as well as protect you from injury. You cannot control a motorcycle well if you are numb. Riding for long periods in cold weather can cause severe chill and fatigue. A winter jacket should resist wind and fit snugly at the neck, wrists, and waist. Good-quality rain suits that are designed for motorcycle riding resist tearing apart or ballooning up at high speeds. TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE 1. A full-face helmet with a shatter-resistant face shield: A. Is not necessary if you have a windshield. B. Only protects your eyes. C. Helps protect your whole face. D. Does not protect your face as well as goggles. Answer page Know Your Motorcycle There are plenty of things on the highway that can cause you trouble and create hazards. Your motorcycle should not be one of them. To make sure that your motorcycle won t let you down: Read the owner s manual first. Start with the right motorcycle for you. Be familiar with the motorcycle controls. Check the motorcycle before every ride. Keep it in safe riding condition between rides. Avoid add-ons and modifications that make your motorcycle more difficult to handle. 9

14 The Right Motorcycle for You Make sure your motorcycle is right for you. It should fit you. Your feet should reach the ground flat-footed while you are seated on the motorcycle. Required Motorcycle Equipment All motorcycles and mopeds must have: At least one but not more than three, white headlights. Modulating headlights are allowed during daylight hours. Oregon law requires that the headlight be on at all times. At least one red taillight. One white license plate light. At least one red brake light. Amber turn signal lights if the motorcycle was built after A red reflector on the rear. At least one rear view mirror. One horn. Fenders on all wheels. At least one brake operated by hand or foot. An exhaust system in good working order and in constant operation (or, in the case of mopeds, when the engine is running), which prevents the vehicle from discharging any visible emissions and keeps exhaust noise levels at or below standards set by the Department of Environmental Quality. All lighting must be DOT compliant. Motorcycles designed for Off-Road Use Only may not be able to be made street legal, even by purchasing a street kit from a motorcycle dealership or parts house. Off-road use only motorcycle engines may not meet federal Department of Environmental Quality standards for street use. Check with the motorcycle manufacturer for this information. Borrowing and Lending Borrowers and lenders of motorcycles, beware. Crashes are fairly common among beginning riders especially in the first months of riding. More than half of all crashes involve riders with less than five months of experience on their motorcycle. Riding an unfamiliar motorcycle adds to the problem. If you borrow a motorcycle, get familiar with it in a controlled area. And if you lend your motorcycle to friends, make sure they are licensed and know how to ride before allowing them out into traffic. No matter how experienced you may be, ride extra carefully on any motorcycle that s new or unfamiliar to you. It takes time to adjust, so give yourself a cushion of space to allow more time to react and more space to maneuver. 10

15 Get Familiar With The Motorcycle Controls Make sure you are completely familiar with the motorcycle before you take it out on the street. Be sure to review the owner s manual. This is particularly important if you are riding a borrowed motorcycle. Know where everything is, particularly the turn signals, horn, headlight switch, fuel-control valve and engine cut-off switch. Find and operate these items without having to look for them. Know the gear pattern. Work the throttle, clutch, and brakes a few times before you start riding. All controls react a little differently. Ride very cautiously and be aware of your surroundings. Accelerate gently, take turns more slowly, and leave extra room for stopping. Make all the checks you would on your own motorcycle if you borrow a bike. Motorcycle Controls Check Your Motorcycle A motorcycle needs more frequent attention than a car. A minor technical failure in a car seldom leads to anything more than an inconvenience for the driver. If something is wrong with the motorcycle, you ll want to find out about it before you get in traffic. Make a complete check of your motorcycle before every ride. Before getting on the motorcycle make the following checks: Tires Check the air pressure, general wear and tread. The tires may look okay even when they are badly under-inflated. Use a tire gauge to check the pressure often. Proper inflation is very important for stability, control and safety. Fluids Oil and fluid levels. At a minimum, check hydraulic fluids and coolants weekly. Look under the motorcycle for signs of an oil or gas leak. Headlight and taillight Check them both. Test your switch to make sure both high and low beams are working. Turn signals Turn on both right and left turn signals. Make sure all lights are working properly. Brake light Try both brake controls and make sure each one turns on the brake light. 11

16 After you get on the motorcycle, complete the following checks before starting out: Clutch and throttle Make sure they work smoothly. The throttle should snap back when you let go. This is one of the most important controls. Twist the throttle toward you to speed up and away from you to slow down. The clutch should feel tight and smooth. Mirrors Clean and adjust both mirrors before starting. It s difficult to ride with one hand while you try to adjust a mirror. Adjust each mirror so you can see the lane behind and as much as possible of the lane next to you. When properly adjusted, a mirror may show the edge of your arm or shoulder but it s the road behind and to the side that s most important. Brakes Try the front and rear brake controls one at a time. Make sure each one feels firm and holds the motorcycle when the brake is fully applied. Horn Try the horn. Make sure it works. In addition to the checks you should make before every trip, check the following items at least once a week: Wheels, cables, fasteners, and fluids. Follow your owner s manual recommendations. 2.3 Special Equipment for Mopeds Although mopeds and motorcycles have some of the same equipment, there are major differences. Here are the moped controls you should be familiar with: Fuel valve This control regulates the flow of fuel from the gas tank to the carburetor. Engine cut-off switch This control is intended for emergency use when you have to switch the engine off quickly. The location of this switch may vary. Spokes Loose spokes also affect stability and control. Be sure the spokes on your moped are tight. When tapped with a screwdriver, a tight spoke will ring and a loose one will thud. Have loose spokes tightened by a qualified mechanic. 2. If you borrow a motorcycle: TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE A. Don t worry about checking the tire pressure. B. It will always handle the same as your own bike. C. The person you borrow it from will make sure the brakes work. D. Give yourself an extra cushion of space to allow more time to react. Answer page 50 12

17 2.4 Know Your Responsibilities Accident implies an unforeseen event that occurs without anyone s fault or negligence. Most often, in traffic, that is not the case. In fact, most people involved in a crash can usually claim some responsibility for what takes place. Consider a situation where someone decides to try to squeeze through an intersection on a yellow light turning red. Your light turns green. You pull into the intersection without checking for possible latecomers. That is all it takes for the two of you to tangle. It was the driver s responsibility to stop. And it was your responsibility to look before pulling out. Neither of you held up your end of the deal. Just because someone else starts the chain of events leading to a crash, doesn t leave any of us free of responsibility. As a rider you can t be sure that other operators will see you or yield the right of way. To lessen your chances of a crash occurring: Be visible wear bright-colored clothing, use your headlight, ride in the best lane position to see and be seen. Communicate your intentions use the proper signals, brake light, and lane position. Maintain an adequate space cushion following, being followed, lane sharing, passing and being passed (review pages 23 and 24). Scan your path of travel 12 seconds ahead. Be prepared to act remain alert and know how to carry out proper crashavoidance skills. Blame doesn t matter when someone is injured in a crash. There is rarely a single cause of any crash. The ability to ride aware, make critical decisions, and carry them out separates responsible riders from all the rest. Remember, it is up to you to keep from being the cause of, or an unprepared participant in, any crash. 13

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19 Section 3 Ride Within Your Abilities This manual cannot teach you how to control direction, speed, or balance. That s something you can learn only through training and practice. Control begins with knowing your abilities and riding within them, along with knowing and obeying the rules of the road. 3.1 Basic Vehicle Control Body Position To control a motorcycle well: Posture Sit so you can use your hands and arms to control the motorcycle rather than to hold yourself up. Seat Sit far enough forward so that your arms are slightly bent and relaxed when you hold the handgrips. Hands Hold the handgrips firmly to keep your grip over rough surfaces. Keep your right wrist flat. This will help you keep from accidentally using too much throttle. Also, adjust the handlebars so your hands are even with or below your elbows. This permits you to use the proper muscles for precision steering. Knees Keep your knees against the gas tank to help you keep your balance. Feet Keep your feet firmly on the foot pegs to maintain balance. Don t drag your feet. If your foot catches on something, you can be injured and it could affect your control of the motorcycle. Keep your feet near the controls so you can get to them fast if needed. Also, don t let your toes point downward they may get caught between the road and the foot pegs. Holding Handgrips Shifting Gears There is more to shifting gears than simply getting the motorcycle to pick up speed smoothly. Learning to use the gears properly when downshifting, turning, or starting on hills is important for safe motorcycle operation. Shift down through the gears as you slow or stop. Remain in first gear while you are stopped so that you can move out quickly if you need to. Make certain you are riding slowly enough when you shift into a lower gear. If not, the motorcycle will lurch, and the rear wheel may skid. When riding downhill or shifting into first gear you may need to use the brakes to slow enough 15

20 before downshifting safely. Work toward a smooth, even clutch release, especially when downshifting. It is best to change gears before entering a turn. However, sometimes shifting while in the turn is necessary. If so, remember to do so smoothly. A sudden change in power to the rear wheel can cause a skid. Braking Your motorcycle has two brakes: one each for the front and rear wheel. Use both of them at the same time. The front brake is more powerful and can provide at least three-quarters of your total stopping power. It is important to use the front brake properly. Remember: Use both brakes every time you slow or stop. Using both brakes for even normal stops will permit you to develop the habit and skill of using both brakes properly in an emergency. Squeeze the front brake lever and press down on the rear brake control. Grabbing the front brake or jamming down on the rear brake can cause the brakes to lock. If the brakes lock, you could lose control and crash. Using both brakes in a turn is possible, although it should be done very carefully. When leaning the motorcycle, some of the traction is used for cornering, leaving less traction available for braking. A skid can occur if you apply too much brake or apply the brake with abrupt force. Also, using the brakes incorrectly on a slippery surface may be hazardous if the brakes are applied with abrupt force. Use caution and squeeze the front brake lever and use light pressure on the rear brake control. Some motorcycles have integrated braking systems that link the front and rear brakes together by applying a single brake control. (Consult the owner s manual for information on the use of these systems.) Turning Riders often try to enter curves or turns too fast. When they can t hold the turn, they end up crossing into another lane of traffic or going off the road. Or, they overreact and brake too hard, causing a skid and crash. Approach turns and curves with caution. Use four steps for better control: SLOW Reduce speed before the turn by closing the throttle and, if necessary, applying both brakes. LOOK Turn your head to look through the turn. Look as far as possible to where the turn leads. Keep your eyes level with the horizon. 16 In normal turns, the rider and the motorcycle should lean together at the same angle. Normal Turning In slow tight turns, counterbalance by leaning the motorcycle only and keeping your body straight. Slow Turning

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