1 A Disaggregate-Level Assessment of Changes to Michigan s Motorcycle Helmet Use Law on Motorcyclist Injury Outcomes by Timothy P. Barrette Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Wayne State University 00 Anthony Wayne Drive Detroit, MI 0 Trevor J. Kirsch Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Wayne State University 00 Anthony Wayne Drive Detroit, MI 0 Peter T. Savolainen, Ph.D., P.E. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Wayne State University 00 Anthony Wayne Drive Detroit, MI 0 (corresponding author) Brendan J. Russo Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Wayne State University 00 Anthony Wayne Drive Detroit, MI 0 Timothy J. Gates, Ph.D., P.E., P.T.O.E. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Wayne State University 00 Anthony Wayne Drive Detroit, MI 0 Words excluding Tables =, Figures: x 0 = 0; Tables: x 0 = 0 Total Words =, Date Submitted: November, 0
2 Barrette, Kirsch, Savolainen, Russo and Gates 0 ABSTRACT On April th, 0, Michigan instituted reforms to its longstanding universal helmet law, becoming the th state with a partial helmet law requiring use by only a subset of the riding population. Given continuing increases in motorcycle fatalities, helmet use remains a divisive policy issue facing state governments. The extant research literature includes several examples of before-and-after studies that have evaluated the effects of changes in motorcycle helmet laws on metrics such as helmet use and statewide motorcycle fatalities. However, there is a gap in terms of a comprehensive assessment of the effects of helmet use laws on the full range of crash injury outcomes. This study adds important evidence to inform the continuing debate as to the efficacy of universal helmet laws. A detailed, disaggregate-level study was conducted to assess the degree of injury severity sustained by crash-involved motorcyclists before and after Michigan s transition from a universal to a partial helmet law. While controlling for a variety of rider, roadway, traffic, and weather characteristics, the results show helmets to reduce the probability of fatalities by more than 0 percent. Beyond helmet use, injuries also tended to be less severe in crashes that involved deer or occurred at lower speeds or under inclement weather conditions. Conversely, injuries were more severe in high-speed collisions or when drugs and alcohol were involved in the crash. Female riders, as well as younger (ages to 0) and older (ages to 0) riders tended to be more susceptible to severe injury.
3 Barrette, Kirsch, Savolainen, Russo and Gates 0 INTRODUCTION On April th, 0, the State of Michigan amended Section of the Michigan Vehicle Code (PA 00 of ), weakening a universal motorcycle helmet law that had been in place since. The resultant partial use law allows for motorcycle operators over years of age to ride without a helmet if they have had a motorcycle endorsement for at least two years or have passed a motorcycle safety course, in addition to carrying $0,000 of insurance per person on the motorcycle. This legislative change made Michigan one of states with a partial helmet law, requiring use by only a subset of the riding population . As of August 0, there are only nineteen states with universal helmet laws and three states with no helmet laws . Figure presents a map, which illustrates helmet law types by state and shows that universal helmet laws are predominantly in effect in states along the east and west coasts. 0 Figure Motorcycle Helmet Laws by State  Helmet use laws have been an issue of considerable debate among the motorcycle community and the general public, despite the fact that helmets have been shown to be percent effective in preventing motorcycle fatalities and percent effective in preventing brain injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes . Research has also shown that riders who do not wear helmets are also more likely to require a skilled nursing facility  and various studies have shown states with universal helmet laws to experience lower fatality rates [,]. The extant research literature includes numerous studies that have examined the effects of motorcycle helmet use and universal helmet laws (UHLs). The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration estimates that, lives were saved by motorcycle helmets from to 00 while an additional, could have been saved by helmet use . In addition to saving lives, research has demonstrated that helmeted riders have lower hospitalization rates  and are.
4 Barrette, Kirsch, Savolainen, Russo and Gates times less likely to suffer a head injury . Furthermore, research has shown that upon repeal of the helmet laws, significant increases are experienced in drinking and non-helmeted fatal crashes . Extensive research has also been conducted to examine how helmet laws affect use rates as universal law states generally show rates above 0 percent, in contrast to rates as low as percent in partial law states . Collectively, these findings are consistent with those of numerous prior studies, which have shown conclusive benefits of helmet use and UHLs [0-]. In fact, it has been suggested that partial helmet laws are essentially equivalent to a full repeal due to the difficulty of enforcing violations, which are generally based upon age and experience . However, it should be noted that some studies have drawn conflicting conclusions to the efficacy of universal helmet laws. After Florida repealed their UHL in 000, a subsequent study found no significant difference in the rate of fatal brain injuries months after the repeal . This study also noted that various prior studies had failed to appropriately consider temporal trends. Other research has shown that the impacts of helmet laws may be understated if appropriate controls, such as temperature and weather, are not accounted for . Opponents of helmet use legislation frequently cite potential economic benefits that would be generated by increased tourism due to fewer riding restrictions. However, a 0 study estimated that the weakening of Michigan s helmet use law would result in increases of percent in monetary costs and percent in non-monetary costs resulting from motorcycleinvolved crashes . Initial medical costs for un-helmeted riders were found to be $,000 higher on average than helmeted riders  and, after the weakening of Florida s motorcycle helmet law, the number of motorcyclists being admitted to hospitals with head, brain, or skull injuries more than doubled from $ million to $ million .Compounding this rise was a parallel increase in treatments costs for such injuries from $, to roughly $0,000. In spite of these economic benefits, which are well supported [-], debate continues as to the efficacy of helmet use laws in reducing motorcycle fatalities. The principal objective of this study is to determine the impacts of the recent weakening of Michigan s universal helmet use law on motorcyclist crash injury outcomes. This is accomplished through the development of a detailed, disaggregate-level assessment of injury outcomes in motorcycle-involved crashes before and after the weakening of Michigan s helmet use law. A random effects ordered probit model is estimated to ascertain the effects of helmet use while controlling for other important factors. Collectively, the results provide important evidence to guide subsequent policy decisions in Michigan and other states. METHODS In order to assess the effects of helmet use on the degree of injury sustained as a result of motorcycle crashes in the state of Michigan, an ordered probit model is developed. The ordered probit is an appealing analytical framework in that it accounts for the ordinal nature of injury data, which can be ranked in ascending order of severity from property damage only (no injury) to fatal injury. For the ordered probit model, a latent variable, z, is specified as a linear function for each crash observation, such that z = βx + ε, () where X is a vector of variables determining the discrete ordering for each crash observation, β is a vector of estimable parameters, and ε is a disturbance term [,]. With this, observed ordinal-injury data, y, for each observed crash is defined as,
5 Barrette, Kirsch, Savolainen, Russo and Gates y = if z µ 0 y = if µ 0 <z µ y = if µ <z µ () y =. y = i if z µ i-, where the µ are estimable threshold parameters that define y, which corresponds to integer ordering and i is the highest integer ordered response. The µ are parameters that are estimated jointly with the model parameters β and, without loss of generality, µ 0 can be set to 0. The estimation problem then becomes one of determining the probability of I specific ordered responses for each crash injury, n. If the error term, ε, is assumed to be normally distributed across observations with a mean of zero and variance of one, an ordered probit model results. Setting the lower threshold, µ 0, equal to zero results in the outcome probabilities P y = i = Φ μ! βx Φ μ!!! βx, () where µ i and µ i- represent the upper and lower thresholds for injury severity i. For the purposes of this study, one potential concern in analyzing the injury severity data is that riders on the same motorcycle are likely to share common, unobserved effects. For example, the rider and pillion passenger may be exposed to the same impact forces, may be wearing similar gear, or may share other similarities that cannot be captured by the available data from the crash report form. Failure to account for this correlation can potentially result in inefficient or biased parameter estimates. To address this issue, a motorcycle-specific disturbance term, φ i, is added to account for the random, unobserved effects that are specific to each crash-involved motorcycle: z!" = βx!" + ε!" + φ!. () The random effects ordered probit model can be estimated by standard maximum likelihood methods. DATA SUMMARY Table provides summary statistics for all motorcycle crashes occurring in the state of Michigan over two time periods: from April -December, 0 and from April -December, 0. The April th date coincides with the enactment of the partial helmet law and, as such, this provides a direct comparison of changes in motorcycle crashes before and after the helmet law change. During this time period in 0, there were, motorcycle-involved crashes in the state of Michigan, which resulted in 0 motorcyclist fatalities. During the same period in 0, motorcycle crashes increased by. percent to, while fatalities increased by. percent to. Incapacitating injuries also increased by. percent (from to 0), providing general feedback that crashes have become more severe after the helmet law change. Over the duration of the 0 time period when the UHL was in place, the helmet use rate among all crashinvolved motorcyclists in the state of Michigan was. percent. During the same period in 0 under the PHL, the rate dropped to. percent. The latter rate is very close to the estimated statewide use rate of.0 percent as determined by a recent direct observation survey . Beyond helmet use and injury severity, the other variables in Table were largely consistent between the two time periods.
6 Barrette, Kirsch, Savolainen, Russo and Gates TABLE. Summary Statistics for Michigan Crash Severity Analysis Factor Number Observed Percent of Total Factor Number Observed Percent of Total Driver Motorcycle Endorsement Month Endorsed.% April.0% Not Endorsed.% May.% Unknown.% June.% Driver License State July.% Michigan 0.% August.% Other.% September.% Unknown.% October 0.% Driver Helmet Use November.0% Yes 0.% December 0.% No.% Day of Week Unknown.% Weekday 00.% Driver Age Weekend.% Younger than Age 0.% Time of Day Age to.% AM-AM.% Age 0 to 0.% AM-AM.% Age 0 plus.% AM-AM 0.% Unknown.% AM-PM.% Driver Gender PM-PM.% Male.% PM-PM.0% Female.% PM-PM.% Unknown.% PM-AM.% Driver Injury Severity Unknown 0.% Fatal (K) 0.% Weather Incapacitating (A) 000.% Clear 0.% Non-incapacitating (B) 0.% Cloudy.% Possible (C).% Other.% None (O).% Light Unknown.% Daylight.0% Driver Impairment Dark lighted 0.0% Drugs 0.% Dark unlighted.% Alcohol.% Other.% Both 0.% Unknown 0.% Niether.% Road Condition Passenger Helmet Use Dry 0.% Yes.% Wet 00.% No.% Other.% Unknown.% Speed Limit Passenger Gender <0 0.% Male.% 0-0.% Female 0.% >0.% Unknown.% Unknown 0.% Passenger Injury Severity Crash Type Fatal (K).% Single Motor vehicle.% Incapacitating (A).% Head-on.% Non-incapacitating (B).% Angle.% Possible (C).0% Rear-end.% None (O).% Sideswipe.% Unknown.% Unknown.%
7 Barrette, Kirsch, Savolainen, Russo and Gates RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table presents the results of the random effects ordered probit model that was estimated as a part of this study. These results show that a variety of motorcyclist, crash, roadway, and temporal factors were found to influence the severity of injuries sustained as a result of motorcycle crashes. Table : Parameter Estimates for Random Effects Ordered Probit Model Parameter Estimate Std. Error T-statistic P-value Constant <0.00 Helmet Use <0.00 Age to Age to Female <0.00 Alcohol use <0.00 Drug use Deer-involved <0.00 Large truck-involved <0.00 Single-vehicle collision <0.00 Rear-end collision <0.00 Same-direction sideswipe collision <0.00 Head-on collision Head-on/left-turn collision <0.00 Stop-controlled intersection Signalized intersection <0.00 Horizontal curve on non-freeway Speed limit 0- mph <0.00 Speed limit 0- mph Speed limit > mph <0.00 Rain/Snow November/December Weekend Thresholds Mu(0) <0.00 Mu(0) <0.00 Mu(0) <0.00 Std. Dev. Of Random Effect Sigma <0.00 Log-likelihood Values: Constant Only -. Ordered Probit -0. Random Effects Ordered Probit -0.0
8 Barrette, Kirsch, Savolainen, Russo and Gates 0 0 In interpreting the model results from Table, a positive coefficient implies that as that variable is changed from zero to one, the probability of a fatal injury increases while the probability of the motorcyclist sustaining no injury decreases (and vice versa for negative coefficients). Interpretation of changes on interior injury categories is not intuitive, instead requiring the calculation of elasticities. Elasticities, as presented in Table, indicate the percentage change in the probability of each injury outcome as each variable is increased from 0 to. In practical terms, these values represent the percent change in the probability of a specific severity level due to the effects of a specific indicator variable. For example, the results indicate that the probability that a crash results in property damage only (O) increases by. percent when a rider is wearing a helmet (as compared to not wearing a helmet). Similarly, the probability of a possible (C) injury increases by 0. percent when a helmet is used. Conversely, the likelihood of non-incapacitating (B), incapacitating (A), and fatal (K) injuries decrease by.,., and. percent, respectively. Collectively, these findings provide further evidence to demonstrate that helmet use leads to consistent and pronounced reductions in injury severity. Table : Elasticities for Random Effects Ordered Probit Model Percent Change in Probability of Injury Outcome Variable O C B A K Helmet Use.% 0.% -.% -.% -.% Age to 0 -.% -.0%.0%.%.% Age to 0 -.% -.%.%.% 0.% Female -.0% -.%.%.%.% Alcohol use -.% -.%.%.%.% Drug use -.% -.%.%.%.% Deer-involved.%.% -.% -0.% -.% Large truck-involved -0.% -.%.%.% 0.% Single-vehicle collision 0.% 0.% -.% -.0% -.% Rear-end collision.%.% -.% -.0% -.% Same-direction sideswipe collision.%.% -0.0% -.% -.0% Head-on collision -.0% -.0%.%.0% 0.% Head-on/left-turn collision -.% -0.%.%.% 0.% Stop-controlled intersection.%.% -.% -.% -.% Signalized intersection.%.% -0.% -.% -.% Horizontal curve on non-freeway -.0% -.%.%.%.% Speed limit 0- mph -.% -.%.%.%.% Speed limit 0- mph -0.% -.%.%.%.% Speed limit > mph -.% -.%.%.%.% Rain/Snow.%.% -.% -.% -.% November/December.%.% -.% -.% -.0% Weekend -.% -.%.%.%.0% Including helmet use, a total of explanatory variables were found to significantly affect the injury severity outcomes of motorcyclists involved in a crash. Age is shown to have a significant infeluence on the severity of injuries sustained by motorcyclists. The model showed
9 Barrette, Kirsch, Savolainen, Russo and Gates motorcycle riders between the ages of -0 and -0 had similar injury outcome characteristics and were more likely to experience severe crash related injuries. Motorcycle riders between the ages of -0 may be inherently riskier drivers and engage in reckless behavior while riding and the finding that they are at greater risk for injury is consistent with past studies. . Older drivers may be at greater risk for injury or fatality due to the effects of aging such as reduced reaction times or frailty, and this result is also consistent with past findings. . In addition to age, gender was found to have an effect on injury outcomes as females were found to be at greater risk for severe or fatal injury. Both alcohol use and drug use were found to significantly increase the likelihood of a motorcyclist sustaining a fatal injury (by.% and % for alcohol and drug use, respectively). These results are not surprising as alcohol and drug use can affect cognitive abilities in a multitude of ways such as slowed reaction time, poor judgment, and false sense of confidence. These findings are consistent with previous studies  and strengthen the argument for continuing education and enforcement campaigns aimed at reducing impaired riding. Those riders involved in collisions with a deer were found to be less likely to experience fatal injuries and more likely to experience no injury, a finding most likely related to the smaller mass of a deer as compared to a collision with another motor vehicle. Motorcyclists involved in collisions with large trucks were 0.% more likely to experience a fatal injury. This result is not surprising simply due to the sheer size and mass differential between a motorcycle and a large truck. Crash type was also found to significantly affect injury severity levels of crash involved motorcyclists. Those riders involved in single-vehicle, rear-end, or same direction sideswipe crashes were less likely to experience severe injuries, while those riders involved in head-on or left-turn head-on collisions were more likely to experience severe injuries. These results are consistent with past studies  and are simply related to the speed differential and crash-force characteristics associated with each crash type. Riders who crashed at an intersection (either stop controlled or signalized) were less likely to experience sever injuries. This finding may be related to the speed at which a cyclist is moving when the crash occurred. Motorcyclists stopped or moving slowly at or near intersections may be less likely to be injured than riders travelling at full speed, especially on a freeway. Crashes occurring at horizontal curves on non-freeway roads tended to result in increased injury severities. This finding is consistent with past studies . and is most likely due to restricted sight distances associated with curved road segments. Higher speed limits were also associated with more severe injury outcomes for motorcyclists. Crashes occurring on roads with speeds greater than mph (freeways) resulted in a.% increase in likelihood of a fatal injury, a finding that was not surprising. Interestingly, crashes occurring in the rain or snow tented to result in less severe injuries. This finding is consistent with past studies .and is most likely due to slower travel speeds and more cautious riding in poor weather conditions. Similarly, crashes occurring in the months of November or December tended to result in less severe injuries. This finding is most likely due to the winter weather conditions Michigan experiences during these months that would result in slower travel speeds and more cautious riding. Finally, crashes occurring on a weekend tended to result in slightly more severe injury outcomes as compared with crashes occurring on a weekday. This may be due to riskier driving behavior exhibit during weekend riding as compared with daily commuting travel during the standard Monday to Friday work week.
10 Barrette, Kirsch, Savolainen, Russo and Gates CONCLUSIONS This study adds further evidence to inform the continuing debate as to the efficacy of universal helmet laws (UHLs). On April th, 0, the State of Michigan repealed its UHL in lieu of a partial helmet law (PHL), which requires use only for inexperienced or uninsured riders. Following enactment of the PHL, helmet use rates have fallen from over percent to approximately percent . To understand the broader impacts of this helmet use policy, a detailed, disaggregatelevel study was conducted that assessed the degree of injury severity sustained by crash-involved motorcyclists before and after Michigan s transition from a UHL to a PHL. While controlling for a variety of rider, roadway, traffic, and weather characteristics, the results show helmets to reduce the probability of fatalities by more than 0 percent. Beyond helmet use, injuries also tended to be less severe in crashes that occurred at intersections, at low speeds, and under inclement weather conditions. Conversely, injuries were more severe in high-speed collisions or when drugs and alcohol were involved in the crash. Female riders, as well as younger (age to 0) and older (age to 0) riders tended to be more susceptible to injury. Ultimately, the study results provide further support for universal helmet laws. Detractors of UHLs often posit that riders should be free to choose whether to wear a helmet and that safety advocates should instead focus on furthering education to encourage helmet use without mandating it by law. Despite the evidence to support the use of a UHL, a survey conducted in Florida in 0 found that the vast majority of riders were in favor of the state s mandatory training law but were less supportive of a mandatory helmet law . However, sound arguments have been presented that argue UHLs are necessary to protect individuals against their own poor choices . A recent analysis found that while other measures could produce positive results in helmet use rates and injury reductions, UHLs are the most effective at promoting safety and mitigating the economic impacts of injuries and fatalities . These findings are echoed by a 00 study that suggests legislation may be a more effective and efficient means to increase helmet use than educational programs . Helmet use rates in states with UHLs are around percent while compliance rates in states without UHLs are around 0 percent . This fact, coupled with the overwhelming body of evidence from the research literature [-], as well as the compelling evidence on the effectiveness of helmets as shown in this study, show that it i imperative that states carefully consider moving further toward universal helmet laws. REFERENCES. Insurance Institute For Highway Safety. Motorcycle and bicycle helmet use laws. Accessed June, 0.. Johnson, S., J. Walker, and D. Utter. Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) Project Safety Belt and Helmet Analyses. USDOT NHTSA Research Note, February,.. Hooten, K. G. and G. J. A. Murad. Helmeted vs Nonhelmeted: A Retrospective Review of Outcomes From -Wheeled Vehicle Accidents at a Level Trauma Center. Clinical Neurosurgery, Vol., 0, pp Houston, D. J., and L. E. Richardson. Motorcyclist fatality rates and mandatory helmet-use laws. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 0, 00, pp Morris, C. C. Generalized linear regression analysis of association of universal helmet laws with motorcyclist fatality rates. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol., 00, pp. -.
11 Barrette, Kirsch, Savolainen, Russo and Gates Motorcycle Helmet Use Laws. NHTSA Traffic Safety Facts Laws, DOT HS 0 W, 00.. Rutledge, R. and J. Stutts. The Association of Helmet Use with the Outcome of Motorcycle Crash Injury when controlling for Crash/Injury Severity. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol., No.,, pp. -.. Gabella, B., K. L. Reiner, R. E. Hoffman, M. Cook, and L. Stallones. Relationship of Helmet Use and Head Injuries among Motorcycle Crash Victims in El Paso County, Colorado, -0*. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol., No.,, pp. -. Bledsoe, G. H., and G. Li. Trends in Arkansas Motorcycle Trauma after Helmet Law Repeal. Southern Medical Association, 00, pp Liu, B.C., R. Ivers, R. Norton, S. Boufous, S. Blows, and S.K. Lo. Helmets for preventing injury in motorcycle riders (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 00, No... Muller, A. Florida s Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal and Fatality Rates. Research and Practice, Vol., No., 00, pp. -.. Deutermann, W. V. Calculating Lives Saved by Motorcycle Helmets. NHTSA Traffic Safety Facts Research Note, DOT HS 0, August 00.. Branas, C. C., and M. M. Knudson. Helmet Laws and Motorcycle Rider Death Rates. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol., 00, pp. -.. Cummings, P., F. P. Rivara, C. M. Olson, and K. M. Smith. Changes in traffic crash mortality rates attributed to use of alchol, or lack of a seat belt, air bag, motorcycle helmet, or bicycle helmet, United States, -00. Injury Prevention, Vol., 00, pp. -.. Houston, D. J. Are helmet laws protecting young motorcyclists? Journal of Safety Research, Vol., 00, pp. -.. Mayrose, J. The effects of a mandatory motorcycle helment law on helmet use and injury patterns among motorcyclist fatalities. Journal of Safety Research, Vol., 00, pp. -.. Mertz, K. J., and H. B. Weiss. Changes in Motorcycle-Related Head Injury Deaths, Hospitalizations, and Hospital Charges Following Repeal of Pennsylvania s Mandatory Motorcycle Helmet Law. Research and Practice, Vol., No., 00, pp. -.. Houston, D. J. The Case for Universal Motorcycle Helmet Laws. Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 0, No., 00, pp. -.. Weiss, H., Y. Agimi, and C. Steiner. Youth Motorcycle-Related Brain Injury by State Helmet Law Type: United States, Pediatrics, Vol., No., 00, pp Eustace, D., V. K. Indupuru, and P. Hovey. Identification of Risk Factors Associated with Motorcycle-Related Fatalities in Ohio. Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol., 0, pp French, M. T., G. Gumus, and J. F. Homer. Motorcycle fatalities among out-of-state riders and the role of universal helmet laws. Social Science and Medicine, Vol., 0, pp. -.. Fagnant, D. J., B. G. Nichols, K. M. Kockelman. Who Rides and Who Pays: A Comprehensive Assessment of the Costs and Benefits of Motorcycling in the United States. Transportation Research Record, In Press.
12 Barrette, Kirsch, Savolainen, Russo and Gates Stolzenberg, L., and S. J. D Alessio. Born to be Wild: The Effect of the Repeal of Florida s Mandatory Motorcycle Helmet-Use Law on Serious Injury and Fatality Rates. Evaluation Review, Vol., No., 00, pp University of Michigan Transportation Research Institue. The Safety and Economic Costs of Repealing Michigan s Helmet Law. Mar0-repeal-analysis.pdf Acessed June, 0.. Karlson, T. A. and C. A. Quade. Head injuries associated with motorcycle use-wisconsin,. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol., No.,, pp. -.. IIHS. More deaths follow weakening of Florida s motorcycle helmet law. Status Report, Vol. 0, No., 00, pp. -.. McKnight, A. J. and A. S. McKnight. The Effects of Motorcycle Helmets upon Seeing and Hearing. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol., No.,, pp Johnson, S., J. Walker, and D. Utter. Further Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness Using CODES Linked Data. USDOT NHTSA Research Note, January,.. Eastridge, B. J., S. Shafi, J. P. Minei, D. Culica, C. McConnel, and L. Gentilello. Economic Impact of Motorcycle Helmets: From Impact to Discharge. The Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, Vol. 0, No., 00, pp Brown, C. V. R., K. Hejl, E. Bui, G. Tips, and B. Coopwood. Risk Factors for Riding and Crashing a Motorcycle Unhelmeted. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol., No., 0, pp. -.. Donnelly, E. F. Motorcycle Injuries in Rhode Island. Medecine and Health/Rhode Island, Vol., No., 00, pp. -.. Naumann, R. B., and R. A. Shults. Helmet Use Among Motorcyclists Who Died in Crashes and Economic Cost Savings Associated with State Motorcycle Helmet Laws-United States, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol.. No., 0, pp. -.. Savolainen, P., Mannering, F., Lord, D., Quddus, M., 0. The statistical analysis of crashinjury severities: A review and assessment of methodological alternatives. Accident Analysis and Prevention (), -.. Washington, S., Karlaftis, M., Mannering, F., 00, 0. Statistical and econometric methods for transportation data analysis. Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, FL, Second edition pages, 0.. Morden, J., Savolainen, P.T., and T.J. Gates, 0. Examining the Decrease in Helmet Use Following Michigan s Transition from a Universal to Partial Helmet Law, working paper.. Savolainen, P. T., and F. Mannering. Probabilistic models of motorcyclists injury severities in single- and multi-vehicle crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol.. No., 00, pp. -.. Lee, C., J. Pino, and K. Choi. Lessons Learned from Motorcyclist Surveys: Rider s Attitudes and Behaviors in Florida. Transportation Research Record, In Press.. Jones, M. M. and R. Bayer. Paternalism and Its Discontents. American Journal of Public Health, Vol., No., 00, pp Derrick, A. J., and L. D. Faucher. Motorcycle helmets and rider safety: A legislative crisis. Journal of Public Health Policy, Vol. 0, No., 00, pp Ranney, M. L., M. J. Mello, J. B. Baird, P. R. Chai, and M. A. Clark. Correlates of motorcycle helmet use among recent graduates of a motorcycle training course. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol., 00, pp. 0-0.
13 Barrette, Kirsch, Savolainen, Russo and Gates. McCartt, A. T., L. Blanar, E. R. Teoh, and L. M. Strouse. Overview of Motorcycling in the United States: A national telephone survey. Journal of Safety Research, Vol., 0, pp. -.
EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MANDATED MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE IN TAIWAN Li-Yen CHANG Assistant Professor Graduate Institute of Transportation and Logistics National Chia-Yi University 300 University
Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System HEALTH AND COST OUTCOMES RESULTING FROM TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CAUSED BY NOT WEARING A HELMET, FOR MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN WISCONSIN, 2011 Wayne Bigelow Center for Health
MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Data Analysis: 2005-2010 FINAL REPORT Prepared by: T.Y. Lin International and Western Michigan University 4/3/2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS List
Department of Legislative Services Maryland General Assembly 2006 Session SB 163 FISCAL AND POLICY NOTE Senate Bill 163 Judicial Proceedings (Senator Hafer, et al.) Vehicle Laws - Protective Headgear Requirement
Characteristics of Motorcycle Crashes in the U.S. Jeya Padmanaban, M.S. JP Research Inc., USA. 7 West El Camino Real, Suite 2 Mountain View, CA, 944 email@example.com Vitaly Eyges, PhD., JP Research,
UMTRI-2014-35 NOVEMBER 2014 ANALYSIS OF MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN MICHIGAN 2009-2013 CAROL A.C. FLANNAGAN PATRICK J. BOWMAN Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. UMTRI-2014-35 2. Government Accession
Bulletin Vol. 30, No. 9 : April 2013 The effects of Michigan s weakened motorcycle helmet use law on insurance losses In April of 2012 the state of Michigan changed its motorcycle helmet law. The change
Motorcycle Safety Program Initiatives: Achievement and Challenges Mehdi Nassirpour Illinois Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Safety Objectives 1. General Statistics on Motorcycles
The spectrum of motorcycle research in Maryland Cynthia Burch MPH, Timothy Kerns MS National Study Center for Trauma & EMS, University of Maryland School of Medicine Abstract Motorcycle riders experience
Tennessee Motorcycle Helmet Law THOMAS O LYNNGER, M D VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY M EDICAL CENTER Outline Legislation in Tennessee Helmet laws in the news Statistics Arguments against helmet laws Repealing universal
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2012 Data DOT HS 812 035 June 2014 Motorcycles In 2012, 4,957 motorcyclists were killed in motor vehicle traffic crashes an increase of 7 percent from the 4,630 motorcyclists killed
FACT SHEETS This page left intentionally blank GENERAL FACTS The driver, the roadway, and the motor vehicle contribute in some measure to every crash. A preponderance of evidence, however, points to driver
Motorcycle Safety & Laws Stewart Milner Chief Judge, City of Arlington 1 1. Safety What percentage of Riders involved in fatal Motorcycle crashes are over 40 years old? A. 25% B. 10% C. 33% D. 47% 2 2.
Statement before the Maryland House Environmental Matters Committee Motorcycle Helmet Laws Michael Fagin The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety is a nonprofit research and communications organization
Maryland s Motorcycle Crash Picture Cindy Burch University of Maryland, Baltimore National Study Center for Trauma and EMS Maryland Center for Traffic Safety Analysis Challenges Motorcycle safety is not
Motorcycle Safety A Trauma Surgeon s Perspective Sean A. Nix, D.O. Disclosure I have nothing to disclose No political or financial attachments I do take care of injured patients Motorcycle Safety Injury
SENATE STAFF ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT (This document is based only on the provisions contained in the legislation as of the latest date listed below.) BILL: SB 126 SPONSOR: SUBJECT: Senator
Large increases in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital charges following the repeal of Pennsylvania s mandatory motorcycle helmet law Word count abstract: 80 Word count
Relation of Speed and Speed Limits to Crashes National Forum on Speeding Washington, D.C., June 15, 2005 Susan Ferguson, Ph.D. Overview Relation of speeds to crashes Relation of speed to crash severity
Malyshkina and Mannering 1 Paper 08-0056 Analysis of the Effect of Speed Limit Increases on Accident-Injury Severities by Nataliya V. Malyshkina Research Assistant, School of Civil Engineering 550 Stadium
Highway Loss Data Institute Bulletin Helmet Use Laws and Medical Payment Injury Risk for Motorcyclists with Collision Claims VOL. 26, NO. 13 DECEMBER 29 INTRODUCTION According to the National Highway Traffic
http://www.iii.org/media/hottopics/insurance/motorcycle/ Motorcycle Crashes THE TOPIC APRIL 2009 Motorcycle riding has become more popular in recent years, appealing to a new group of enthusiasts consisting
Measuring the Use of Motorcycle Helmets: Observational Survey of Motorcyclists in Florida *Chanyoung Lee, Ph.D., AICP, PTP Center for Urban Transportation Research University of South Florida 4202 East
SENATE STAFF ANALYSIS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT STATEMENT (This document is based only on the provisions contained in the legislation as of the latest date listed below.) BILL: CS/SB 958 SPONSOR: SUBJECT: Banking
Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1 Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009 Of all types of injury, traumatic brain injuries () are among the most likely to cause death or permanent
This publication is distributed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in the interest of information exchange. The opinions, findings, and conclusions
Traffic Safety Facts 2013 Data December 2014 DOT HS 812 102 Alcohol-Impaired Driving Key Findings There were 10,076 fatalities in 2013 in crashes involving a driver with a BAC of.08 or higher; this was
Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2009 Data Alcohol-Impaired Driving DOT HS 811 385 In 2009, there were 10,839 fatalities in crashes involving a driver with a BAC of.08 or higher 32 percent of total traffic fatalities
Motor Vehicle Collisions in Eastern Ontario Supplement to the Eastern Ontario Health Unit Injury Report September 8, 2009 For more information: Eastern Ontario Health Unit www.eohu.ca Bureau de santé de
Cyclists CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 212 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport CRASH FACTSHEET November 213 Cyclists have a number of risk factors that do not affect car drivers. The
Drunk Driving Accident Statistics Drunk Driving Legal Resources Drunk Driving Laws by State Video - Rights of Injured Drivers Defective Car Products & Parts Steps to Take After a Car Crash Auto Accident
Traffic Safety Facts 2008 Data Alcohol-Impaired Driving DOT HS 811 155 In 2008, there were 11,773 fatalities in crashes involving a driver with a BAC of.08 or higher 32 percent of total traffic fatalities
1 Traffic Safety Facts Research Note DOT HS 811 218 November 2009 Fatal Crashes Involving Summary Fatalities from crashes involving young drivers have accounted for just under one-fifth of all fatalities
Collaboration to Preserve North Carolina s Universal Motorcycle Helmet Law Alan Dellapenna, Branch Head Injury and Violence Prevention Branch NC Division of Public Health Partners Agency Bill Review Resolutions
Tangible Result Driver Leanna Depue, Highway Safety Director MoDOT works closely with other safety advocates to make our roads and work zones safer. The department supports educational programs that encourage
A DESCRIPTION OF MOTORCYCLE CRASH INJURIES AND HELMET USE IN A SAMPLE OF MARYLAND TRAUMA PATIENTS Timothy J. Kerns, MS, Cynthia A. Burch, MPH, Patricia C. Dischinger, PhD University of Maryland National
Characteristics of High Injury Crashes on 80 110 km/h Rural Roads in South Australia, J. R. R. Centre for Automotive Safety Research, University of Adelaide, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 5005 email: firstname.lastname@example.org
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2012 Data DOT HS 811 870 December 2013 Alcohol-Impaired Driving Drivers are considered to be alcohol-impaired when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is.08 grams per deciliter
Analysis of Patients with Severe Trauma Caused by Motorcycle Accidents 1 1 You In-Gyu, 2 Lim Chung Hwan, 3 Shim Jae Goo 1, First Author Dept of Health Care, Hanseo University, email@example.com *2,Corresponding
Motorcycle Related Crash Victims (What the Statistics Say) Mehdi Nassirpour Illinois Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Safety Illinois Highway Safety Program Areas Occupant Protection
Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,
TECHNICAL REPORT Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness Revisited Motorcycle flips Stops ONE FOOT short of rider Rider comes to rest Unconscious Third bounce Left side Second bounce Motorcycle upside down Misses
ALCOHOL, 2013 JUNE 2014 ISSUE 14-C08 HIGHLIGHTS During 2013, there were 114 fatal alcohol-impaired collisions in the state (16 percent of all fatal collisions). Alcohol-impaired fatal collisions decreased
Speeding CRASH FACTSHEET 2012 CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2011 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport In this fact sheet speeding is defined as driving too fast for the conditions. The
Chanyoung Lee, Ph.D., AICP, PTP Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) University of South Florida May 2012 Reasons for changes in motorcyclist fatalities States in which motorcyclist fatalities
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2012 Data DOT HS 812 016 Overview Motor vehicle travel is the primary means of transportation in the United States, providing an unprecedented degree of mobility. Yet for all its advantages,
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS Research Note DOT HS 812 101 December 2014 2013 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview After an increase in motor vehicle crash fatalities in 2012, fatalities on U.S. roadways in 2013 resumed
Utah Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice Utah Justice Research Brief October 2004 Child Endangerment and Driving Under the Influence Mike Haddon, Julie Christenson & Jace Garfield House Bill 128,
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2011 Data DOT HS 811 700 December 2012 Alcohol-Impaired Driving Drivers are considered to be alcohol-impaired when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is.08 grams per deciliter
EXPLORING SINGLE VEHICLE CRASH SEVERITY ON RURAL, TWO-LANE HIGHWAYS WITH CRASH-LEVEL AND OCCUPANT-LEVEL MULTINOMIAL LOGIT MODELS by Yunqi Zhang A thesis submitted to the faculty of The University of Utah
Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,
2010 MISSOURI TRAFFIC SAFETY COMPENDIUM MISSOURI STATE HIGHWAY PATROL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS CENTER 1510 East Elm Jefferson City, Missouri 65101 (573) 751-9000 CONTENTS PAGE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION...1
BACKGROUND National Developing public policies and legislation is an important component of injury and violence prevention. Implementing and enforcing regulations and laws can help reduce injuries, reduce
MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN MICHIGAN An Overall Analysis SERGEANT STEVEN J. SPINK MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF STATE POLICE TRAFFIC SERVICES SECTION FIELD SUPPORT UNIT APRIL 2006 2 CONTENTS Page Introduction...9 A
This publication is distributed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in the interest of information exchange. The opinions, findings and conclusions
Motor Vehicle Deaths Updated: Motor vehicle death rates rise rapidly during the teen years and remain very high into early adulthood. The rate for teens, however, has followed a downward trend for most
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS Research Note DOT HS 811 856 November 2013 2012 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview Motor vehicle crashes and fatalities increased in 2012 after six consecutive years of declining fatalities
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2012 Data DOT HS 812 018 April 2014 Bicyclists and Other Cyclists In 2012, 726 pedalcyclists were killed and an additional 49,000 were injured in motor vehicle traffic crashes. Pedalcyclist
ANALYSIS OF HOLIDAY CRASHES IN ALBERTA Sabreena Anowar, Graduate student Shamsunnahar Yasmin, Graduate Student Richard Tay, AMA Chair in Road Safety Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2011 Data DOT HS 811 743 April 2013 Bicyclists and Other Cyclists In 2011, 677 pedalcyclists were killed and an additional 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle traffic crashes. Pedalcyclist
National Conference of State Legislatures Transportation Review Motorcycle Safety by Anne Teigen December 2007 Overview The popularity of motorcycling has increased in the last few years; more than 1.1
Motor Vehicle Fatalities in British Columbia: Statistics 27 to 211 October 212 RAD 212-16 Web www.pssg.gov.bc.ca/osmv/ Twitter http://twitter.com/roadsafetybc You Tube www.youtube.com/roadsafetybcgov Contents
OHIO T r a f f i c C r a s h F a c t s 01/01/2012 to 12/31/2012 for the County(s) All Counties John R. Kasich, Governor John Born, Director Bureau of Motor Vehicles Emergency Management Agency Emergency
Traffic Safety Facts Research Note DOT HS 811 016 August 2008 2007 Traffic Safety Annual Assessment Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities Summary n In 2007, an estimated 12,998 people were killed in alcohol-impaired
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2012 Data DOT HS 811 888 April 2014 Pedestrians In 2012, 4,743 pedestrians were killed and an estimated 76,000 were injured in traffic crashes in the United States (Tables 1 and 3).
Alaska Crash Outcomes Pilot Project: Data Linkage Project Funded by Section 408 Highway Safety Funds Alice Rarig, MA, MPH, PhD Planner IV, Health Planning & Systems Development Section Division of Health
The characteristics of fatal road accidents during the end of year festive period 1994-2003 March 2004 Traffic Management and Road Safety Unit Ministry of Public Infrastructure, Land Transport and Shipping
MN WI MI IL IN OH USDOT Region V Regional University Transportation Center Final Report NEXTRANS Project No 015WY01 Investigation of Emergency Vehicle Crashes in the State of Michigan By Peter T. Savolainen,
University of Massachusetts Traffic Safety Research Program www.ecs.umass.edu/umasssafe Evaluation of Frequency and Injury Outcomes of Lane Departure Crashes Marta Benavente, Heather Rothenberg, Michael
TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN FINLAND AND THE U.S.A.: A CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISON OF ASSOCIATED FACTORS Juha Luoma and Michael Sivak The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Ann Arbor, Michigan
Saving lives through research and education Motor Vehicle Crashes, Injuries, and Deaths in Relation to Weather Conditions, United States, 2010-2014 January 2016 607 14th Street, NW, Suite 201 Washington,
June 2006 Dear Traffic Safety Partners: The Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Safety is pleased to provide you with a copy of the 2003 Wisconsin Alcohol Traffic Facts book.
REPEAL OF MICHIGAN S UNIVERSAL HELMET LAW: THE COST OF FREEDOM TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 1 II. ACTIONS AND ARGUMENTS LEADING UP TO THE PARTIAL HELMET LAW... 2 A. Michigan s Legislative Action...
Injury Risk of Traffic Accidents Involving Emergency Vehicles in Alberta Shamsunnahar Yasmin, Graduate student Sabreena Anowar, Graduate student Richard Tay, AMA Chair in Road Safety Department of Civil
Evaluation of the Reinstatement of the Universal Motorcycle Helmet Law In Louisiana This publication is distributed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration,
OHIO T r a f f i c C r a s h F a c t s 01/01/2011 to 12/31/2011 for the County(s) All Counties Ohio Department of Public Safety Traffic Crash Facts List of Tables Chapter 1 - General Statistics Table 1.01
September 2012 KEY FINDINGS Observational Surveys 15% of the drivers observed in 2012 were engaged in some type of distracted driving behavior, down from in 2007. 4. of the drivers observed in the 2012
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS Research Note DOT HS 811 523 August 2011 Time of Day and Demographic Perspective Of Fatal Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Crashes Alcohol-impaired driving continues to be one of the major
Young drivers where and when are they unsafe: analysis of road accidents in Great Britain 2000 2006 Original research by Email: firstname.lastname@example.org August 2008 Copyright the IAM Motoring Trust Extracts
BICYCLE TRENDS IN CAMBRIDGE Cambridge promotes bicycling as a healthy, environmentally friendly way of getting around as an important part of the City's efforts to improve mobility and protect our environment.
ARIZONA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Comparative Analysis of Motor Vehicle Crashes on American Indian Reservations in Arizona with Findings in the Arizona Strategic Highway Safety Plan Final Report Prepared
General facts regarding the driver: Talking Points About Roadway Users Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in the U.S. for people ages 6-33. They annually account for more than 1 million
Report #13 - Motorcycle Accidents and Injuries Some quick tips on motorcycle safety: $ Ride assuming that you and your motorcycle are totally invisible to motorists. $ Leave plenty of space in front and