UNIVERSITETET FOR MILJØ- OG BIOVITENSKAP. Smartgrid. Terje Gjengedal. The Norwegian University of Life Sciences.

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1 Smartgrid. Terje Gjengedal The Norwegian University of Life Sciences

2 The grid a key for efficient electricity utilization

3 The Power system Medium Voltage (1-36 Production Transmission distribution G Extra High Voltage (>300 kv) Import/Export 420 kv 300 kv High Voltage ( kv) G 132 kv 66 kv kv) G G Distribution G 22 kv 11 kv G Low Voltage (< 1 kv) 230 V 400 V MV/LV distribution substation G G G HV/MV (transformer ) substation

4 Some history The name Smart Grid was introduced in the 1990, but how we now understand the meaning was first discussed around 2005 in the paper "Toward A Smart Grid The EPRI IntelliGrid program which startet i 2003, focused on new ways of increasing the robustness of the grid. Triggerede by the large black-out in North- America. The vision was a more adaptiv and robust system with more automatied responces to failures and outages In recent years also the climat issues have been important drivers

5 Fundamental changes in the power system Future challenges for electricity supply Increasing demand Environmental concerns Security of supply less sourcing from sensitive regions More renewable power generation Energy efficiency Reliability of supply Ageing infrastructure Ageing workforce IT security Distributed and intermittent generation Customer pricing expected to foster demand responses Impact on grid stability and efficiency Grids of the future will be different from those of the past Open for all types and sizes of generation technologies Integrating demand side in system operation

6 August 9, 2012 Europe Drivers for Smart Grid Solution Environmental Challenges EU s to be achieved within 2020 EU s goal to achieve an integrated transmission power system throughout Europe More flexible energy production New production mix within 2020 will give new challenges and requirements to be able to deliver energy to expected peak loads Other Need to upgrade an ageing power system infrastructure Replacement of primary components and control & protection equipments Energy efficiency implementation of DSM and DFR Integration of renewable SmartGrid as an instrument for the climate solution Development of the society need for electrical energy Requirement of electrical infrastructure Micro Grids, distribution, transmission,,, Distributed generation intermittent 6

7 National Grid Strategic Plan - meet the EU 20/20/20 goals Smart Grid Solutions

8 MNOK/ Year Max. overføringskapasitet i Haslesnittet (MW) Max transfer capacity to Sweden (MW) UNIVERSITETET FOR MILJØ- OG BIOVITENSKAP The Hasle Corridor - Connection to Sweden - Increased power transfer Smart Grid solutions with System Protection - First Smart Grid Application in Norway Investment in new main grid in Norway pr year (ref 1995 currency level) & maximum transfer capacity to Sweden (Hasle-snittet) HVDC Skagerrak 1 og 2 Substations Transmision lines and cables Year Hasle-Cut HVDC Skagerrak

9 Some definitions smart grid, intelligent grid, active grid electric power system that utilizes two-way communication, information exchange and control technologies, distributed computing and associated sensors, including equipment installed on the premises of network users and other stakeholders ( )

10 Some definitions (cont.) The term smart grid refers to a modernization of the electricity delivery system so it monitors, protects and automatically optimizes the operation of its interconnected elements from the central and distributed generator through the high-voltage network and distribution system, to industrial users and building automation systems, to energy storage installations and to end-use consumers and their thermostats, electric vehicles, appliances and other household devices. ( )

11 Four simple pictures of Smart Grids A name on the future electrical energy system(anno 2020/2050) An integration of ICT in the power system A fusion beteween the power system and internet 11 A system where all components has an IP-adresse (Internet Protocol address) so they can be acccessed internett

12 Smart Grids: A name tag for the future power system where advanced and smart measurment, control systems and comminication are installed at all customer sites. 12

13 SMART GRID integration of Power systems ICT Measurement- and sensor technology Cybernetics 13

14 The SMART GRID conscept 14

15 The concept 15

16 Drivers in Norway as seen from a climate and energy perspective Not a large potential for reductions from the power system itself NORDEN 2007 Denmark Finland Noway Sweden Sum Population (mill.) Total el. consumption(gwh/year) Hydropower(GWh/year (54 %) Nuclear(GWh/year (22 %) 16 Other thermal (GWh/year) (22 %) Wind power(gwh/year) ( 2 %) Total generation GWh/year

17 Total losses in the grid are of interest Energylosses in Norwa (ca 10%)

18 Drivers in Norway seen from a climate-and energy perspective 18 Source: Klimakur 2020

19 The largest emissions are from Transport Industry Petroleum 19 Developments for reducing green house gas emissions in these sectors will impact the power system and hence will be a motivator for Smart Grid

20 Two main drivers for the grid companies Drivers related to the roles/objectives of the grid companies, where you seek to optimize the assets via incentive control, revenue control etc Drivers related to improvements in e.g. quality, cost reductions, improved operations 20

21 21 Tecnology development will also be a driver New and cheaper solutions for communication and ICT in general 90 % of all houses have intenet access Use of Smart phones will increase Increased use of wire less technologies Smart measurement units for measuring power, energy, remote reading price info, communication with smart house functions, load control etc New sensor and control technolgies (e.g. PMU phasor measurement units) New technologies for energy storage (e.g.. supercapacitor) New grid components and solutions nettkomponenter og løsninger (DC for low voltagett, FACTS-technologyi, voltage boosters etc)

22 DSO+TSO Increased observability of the electric system for more efficient network interactions The integration of Demand Side Management in TSO operations Further integration of decentralized generation and storage Improved defence and restoration plans 22

23 Step 1 Demo Steinkjer (in red)

24 Demo Steinkjer - step 1 Customer groups Number kwh/year Housholds Cabins etc farmers Small businesses Large businesses Load shedding units Power plants 1 Totalt

25 Smart grid in Statnett: POM - Power Oscillation Monitoring - Smart monitoring a basis for decision making in on-line operation How to extract the information from the measurements..to this? Signalization

26

27 From WAMS to WACS.. - A demanding step

28 Wide Area Monitoring System GUI for on-line and off-line analysis WAMS pilot at Statnett - First version Prototype Fault recorders TDMS Labview Analysis Application UDW Low resolution Developed by Statnett/Indec In operation IEEE 1344 SCADA Extension RSP (1-sec data) In operation In operation PDC w. POM IEEE 1344 Statnett responsibility Data exchange with Fingrid PSGuard installation ABB responsibility PDC Fingrid In operation IEEE 1344 Wide Area Plattform PMU 1 PMU 1 PMU 1 PMU 1 Four PMUs in operation

29 P[MW] Q[MVAr] UNIVERSITETET FOR MILJØ- OG BIOVITENSKAP Results from a Nordic simulation model (PSS/E) POWR 1011 TO CKT '1 ' With WA POD VARS BUS 1155 MACH '1 ' With WA POD Without POD Without POD Time [s] Active Power transfer: Norway Sweden (Halden-Skogsäter) Time [s] Reactive power transfer: SVC Sylling

30 Status Several PMU's installed Three Phasor Data Concentrators (PDC) in operation Data streaming between PDC's in Norway and Finland via Electronic Highway NO SE FI Sweden data streaming to SvK preparing for data streaming DK installed PMU planned PMU

31 Possible barriers Revenue control Competence Who benefits and who pays the bill 31

32 Help reaching the climate goals Increase the consumer participation and the grid operation and market Include all generation and storage sources New products and services willl be developed Improve the quaity of service and sequrity of supply Improve the efficiency in the grid Forecast and prevent outages (self-heal) Increase the robustnes Integrate more electrical vehicles Contribute to a changce in the energy consumption in buildings Contribute to and support energy efficiency

33 SMART GRIDS a longterm involvement 33

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