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2 2 the secret diaries of hitler s doctor This edition ISBN Publishers of the various editions of The Secret Diaries of Hitler s Doctor included Britain: Sidgwick & Jackson, Ltd.; Grafton; Panther Germany: Der Stern; Goldmann Verlag (Bertelsmann AG); Heyne Taschenbuchverlag France: Editions Acropole United States: William Morrow Inc. First Printing 1983 Second Printing 1990 Electronic Edition 2001 Focal Point Edition 2005 Parforce UK Ltd An Adobe pdf (Portable Document Format) edition of this book is uploaded onto the FPP website at as a tool for students and academics. It can be downloaded for reading and study purposes only, and is not to be commercially distributed in any form. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be commercially reproduced, copied, or transmitted save with written permission of the author in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright Act 1956 (as amended). Any person who does any unauthorised act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and to civil claims for damages. Readers are invited to submit any typographical errors to David Irving by mail at the address below, or via at Informed comments and corrections on historical points are also welcomed. Focal Point Publications London W1J 7SE

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4 4 the secret diaries of hitler s doctor David Irving is the son of a Royal Navy commander. Incompletely educated at Imperial College of Science & Technology and at University College London, he subsequently spent a year in Germany working in a steel mill and perfecting his fluency in the German language. Among his thirty books, the best-known include Hitler s War; The Trail of the Fox: The Life of Field-Marshal Rommel; Accident, the Death of General Sikorski; The Destruction of Dresden; The Mare s Nest; The German Atomic Bomb; The Destruction of Convoy PQ17; The Rise and Fall of the Luftwaffe; Göring: a Biography, and Nuremberg, the Last Battle. He has translated several works by other authors including Field- Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, Reinhard Gehlen, and Nikki Lauda. He lives in Mayfair, London, and has raised five daughters.

5 5 David Irving THE SECRET DIARIES OF HITLER S DOCTOR Annotated and edited, with all relevant medical charts and documents from Dr Theodor Morell s file on Adolf Hitler F FOCAL POINT

6 6 the secret diaries of hitler s doctor

7 7 Contents Introduction 10 The Relationship 16 Theodor Morell 26 I Was Never Ill. 31 Patient A 39 Outcast 49 Worried Sick 55 The Treatment 67 Morell s Business Empire 76 Barbarossa and the Leeches 80 Brain Fever 93 The Second Electrocardiogram 101 I Give Him What He Needs 109 The Credit goes to Morell 114 Forte 123 Hungary 131 Worried about the Invasion 136 The Wolf Returns to his Lair 141 Unscathed 145 The Dams Burst 152 Frustrations 157 Jaundice 163 The Doctors Plot 169 A Change in Staff 178 Throat, Heart, and Other Problems 181 The Singer s Nodule 194 The Battle of the Bulge 202 The Patient Has Become Pensive 208 Morell in Captivity 221

8 8 the secret diaries of hitler s doctor Appendix I: Tests and Check-ups, January 9, 1940 (Blood Test) 230 January 10, 1940 (Glandular secretions) 231 January 15, 1940 (Routine VD tests) 233 December 28, 1940 (Fæcal analysis) 234 August 8, 1941 (Discussion of a fæcal analysis) 236 August 14, 1941 (Electrocardiogram) 238 August 20, 1941 (Interpretation of above) 239 May 11, 1943 (Electrocardiogram) 240 May 13, 1943 (Morell asks for advice) 241 May 17, 1943 (The cardiologist s reply) 243 June 5, 1943 (Fæcal analysis) 245 June 1o, 1943 (Fæcal analysis, second opinion) 247 January 11, 1944 (Analysis of liquor) 248 January 12, 1944 (Laboratory reply) 249 March 2, 1944 (Re eye examination) 250 March 2, 1944 (Report on an Eye Examination) 252 September 24, 1944 (Electrocardiogram interpreted) 255 September 24, 1944 (Electrocardiogram interpreted) 256 October 1o, 1944 (Urinalysis) 257 November 24, 1944 (Blood sedimentation) 258 November 24, 1944 (Blood count) 259 December 2, 1944 (Morell asks cardiologist s advice) 260 December 4, 1944 (Cardiologist s reply) 262 April 7, 1945 (Eye examination) 264 Appendix II: The Medicines 266 Bibliography and Sources 277 Index 285

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10 10 the secret diaries of hitler s doctor Introduction Obviously he had once been a corpulent and imposing figure, this elderly man lying on a stretcher in an empty room of the Red Cross facility at Munich railroad station. But now his hair was awry, his face was pale; he was sobbing quietly to himself, the figure which had once been clad in a magnificent uniform was kitted out in a cast-off American battledress, American socks, and a GI shirt several sizes too small for him. These were the clothes he had been allowed to take when thrown out of American civilian internment camp No. 29, better known as Dachau concentration camp. It was June 30, The Americans had no further use for prisoner number 21,672 he himself had been cleared of war crimes charges, and the Doctors Trial at Nuremberg had ended without his giving evidence. So they had driven him to this railroad station, stuffed his discharge papers into his pocket and left him for the Red Cross to find. Two hours passed before a nurse, Eva Meier, spotted the pathetic figure. She arranged for an ambulance to take him to the auxiliary district hospital Alpenhof at Tegernsee. At the hospital his papers and possessions were listed. His passport showed him to be Professor Theo Morell, doctor of medicine, sixty years old. He looked much older. A discharge report drawn up by Dachau camp hospital on the previous day stated that he had serious cardiac trouble, that he was unable to work and was suffering from aphasic speech disorders. 10

11 introduction 11 The papers also showed the reason for his internment: Hitler s personal physician. morell never left that hospital. He died at 4.10 a.m. on May 26, 1948, without revealing what he knew. His personal papers had been looted by the Americans. His widow had only his letters from internment. How often I have thought back to that fiftieth birthday, he reflected in one letter, written on July 1, How swiftly the years have gone, and how sorry I am that I could not devote myself more to you. I ve often wished I was standing at that turning point in our lives again. Now, forty years later, his entire secret Hitler dossier has come into this author s hands. it has been a long search. By 1974, when I finished writing Hitler s War, I had collected most of the other papers of Professor Theo Morell and all of the interrogation reports prepared on him at the war s end. In September 1981, while working in the National Archives in Washington, I came across a cardboard box containing Morell s treatment diaries and the dossier he had kept on Hitler evidently fearing that if something befell his top patient he would need to provide the Gestapo with detailed records. Historians will want to know that these diaries are authentic. Their history, so far as the author can reconstruct it, is this: in 1945 they were carried in an officer s personal trunk out of Berlin to the supposed safety of a Bad Reichenhall institute in Southern Germany where they were buried in a bunker. A Dr Riedel ran this institute for Morell. Riedel confirmed in a deposition dated December 3, 1968 that Morell s driver Stelzer had arrived from Berlin with several crates containing precious carpets and other goods, and that these had been stacked inside the bunker. On April 10, two trucks had arrived

12 12 the secret diaries of hitler s doctor from Morell s Olmütz-based firm, Hamma Inc., carrying seventy crates of glandular secretions that Morell s pharmaceutical processes needed. The secret files were buried in the courtyard, and thus survived the initial upheaval of defeat. According to Morell s assistant Dr Rolf Makkus, a lawyer in Bad Homburg, in 1984, a French woman journalist had visited Morell in the first hospital at Bad Reichenhall during May 1945 and had learned of the cache. American troops then raided the institute. Riedel, it seems, traded the valuables in return for being left unmolested. In my plight, he said in one report, I asked the American occupation troops who had meanwhile arrived to put a guard on the laboratory. They were very considerate and immediately provided four soldiers and these made themselves at home in the bunker. After a while these sentries got bored and ransacked the entire Morell crates. Morell s papers were shipped to the Military Intelligence Service Centre, formerly the Luftwaffe s notorious Dulag Luft interrogation camp, at Oberursel. Dr Karl Brandt, a rival Hitler doctor, had told them under interrogation a few weeks earlier that since 1943 Hitler had received almost daily injections, the composition of which Morell refused to reveal. Morell kept a notebook which he surely has with him, stated Brandt, in which he regularly noted names and treatments administered. 1 The Americans now had those notes. Headed by Captain Walter H Gruendl, a former research chemist, a team began to interrogate Morell and the dozen other physicians who had treated Hitler over the years. 1.CCPWE No 32, Ashcan, Report DI 30.

13 introduction 13 Dr Morell s memory was genuinely shaky. An early interrogation report on him states, Some of his information is produced from memory; some is based on documentary evidence found in his papers... It should also be noted here that... on some occasions he can recall things which he later is unable to confirm. 2 his documents were shipped to the United States and vanished from view (thus sharing the fate of Eva Braun s diaries and her intimate correspondence with Hitler, the diaries of Hans Lammers, Karl Wolff and a score of other Third Reich personalities). On June 10, 1967 German journalist Otmar Katz asked Morell s widow, Do you think the Americans that s what people are saying might have found the medical records? The authentic medical files? Maybe, she answered. Katz pressed her: Did your husband ever say anything about it? Where can the medical files have been? She could not say. Nobody could say with certainty. In 1968 when Professor Hugh Trevor-Roper made available his British Intelligence files to the author it became clear that the Americans had captured the diaries and Hitler dossier. But an extensive search of American archives failed to locate the material. This was no wonder, as the papers had by then gravitated into a classified medical library outside Washington DC. Out of the blue in March 1981 Washington archivist George Wagner received a telephone call from HEW, the Department of 2. OI/CIR/4.

14 14 the secret diaries of hitler s doctor Health, Education and Welfare: We ve found the Morell files; would the Archives like to accession them? From the original transmittal letter attached to them it emerged that Major R G Seelig, chief of the German Military Documents Section at the Pentagon, had sent them to the Surgeon General on June 28, 1946 listing them as Dr Morell s medical records, appointment booklets, medical account of Hitler s health, photographs, personal correspondence. On October 4, 1946 he had sent further unspecified Morell documents to a Dr Turner, of Medical Intelligence at the Pentagon. The Pentagon had later loaned it out to the Army Medical Library, subsequently known as the National Institute of Health, a division of HEW based at Bethesda, Maryland; and it was from here on March 18, 1981 that Dr John B Blake, chief of the institute s History of Medicine Division, now sent them over to Wagner, at the Modern Military Branch of the Archives. As you will see, he wrote, it also includes X-rays of some of the other Nazi leaders, some photographs etc. Papers attached to the files indicate that in about March 1946 an unnamed American officer had toyed with the idea of publishing them, but evidently gave up. He noted, I am sorry that I am not yet able to present the material in a more refined form. As soon as I have dug out the English meaning, I plan to list all the drugs which Dr Morell used... The material is not my property thus I do not like to show it to too many people. Now these new Morell papers have been accessioned and partly microfilmed on National Archives microcopy T 253, roll 62. The filmed portion comprises the correspondence files including seventy-two pages of private letters; a spring binder including 122 pages of records on Hitler s health from July 1942 to April 1945; a folder of

15 introduction 15 documents on Benito Mussolini s health from November 1, 1944 to March 23, 1945; a desk diary covering the final weeks from November 1944 to the end of the war; a bundle of medical data cards on which Morell noted his almost daily sessions with Patient A from 1942 to 1944; and a sheaf of loose notes detailing individual crises since August Some items have not been microfilmed, including an important but unphotogenic diary for 1944 and a thick pack of large filing cards on which Hitler s daily diet for was meticulously recorded. The author has deciphered all the annotations, determined the precise meanings of the often exotic medications used and obtained medical opinion on both Hitler s problems and Morell s methods. The medical picture of Adolf Hitler is now complete. There is no longer room for any speculation. From the diary there emerges a picture of Hitler s relationship with his medicine men and with Morell in particular the doctor who reigned supreme from his first meeting with Hitler in the winter of 1936 until his dramatic leave-taking from him in the last days before the collapse of the Third Reich, when Hitler snapped at him: Take off that uniform and go back to being the doctor of the Kurfürstendamm!

16 16 the secret diaries of hitler s doctor The Relationship For as long as the attention of modern historians remains rooted to the curse of Adolf Hitler, they will also be intrigued by the relationship between him and one shadowy figure in the background: his personal doctor, Theo Morell. This fascination has been nourished throughout history by visions of power and influence, by the mental and physical peculiarities of the beings who wield those instruments, and by the doctors whom these men of power attract to their sides. Winston Churchill retained as physician Lord Moran a man not dissimilar to Morell and Lord Moran wrote an equally fastidious diary in which he jotted down sufficient detail to reconstruct, in his declining years, a memoir of Britain s great wartime prime minister. Joseph Stalin kept a whole court of doctors, many of whom he eventually terminated with considerable prejudice. Nobody should underestimate the influence that such doctors can secretly exert. They are indispensable and know it. Great events can be affected by the illnesses of their leaders. International conferences, such as Yalta, have been overshadowed by the physical decline of the participants. Battles can be lost because of one s general debility: obliged by a painful attack of diarrhoea to desert the field at Waterloo at the height of that battle, Napoleon forfeited victory. In Morell s diaries we find proof for the theory that Hitler was similarly weakened by dysentery for weeks at the height of the Battle for Russia in the summer of 1941, and that he was bedridden with 16

17 the relationshipintroduction 17 hepatitis shortly before the Battle of the Bulge in 1944; we learn too that he was oppressed by the knowledge that he had a heart ailment rapid progressive coronary sclerosis which might at any moment write finis to all his schemes for Germany. But the similarity with the case of Napoleon was only superficial. Napoleon abhorred doctors and spurned medicines until shortly before his death. Hitler was the opposite, a hypochondriac. From his earliest youth he rarely travelled without his medicine cabinet, and willingly believed himself incapable of survival without pills, injections and batallions of attendant doctors. Senior among them was Morell, his personal physician for the last eight years of his life. Morell, wrote his rival Dr Karl Brandt in American captivity, comes from somewhere near Darmstadt, is about fifty-six years old, very fat, has a bald head, a round and very full face, dark-brown complexion and dark-brown eyes, is near-sighted and wears glasses, has very hairy hands and chest. Approximately five feet seven inches tall. One of Hitler s four private secretaries rendered this somewhat unappetising description of a soirée with Morell: With his heavy, hairy hands clasped across a podgy paunch, Morell would fight back his drowsiness. He had the odd characteristic that when he closed his eyes he did so from the bottom upwards it looked hideous behind the thick pebble glasses... Sometimes Colonel von Below would give him a nudge and he d wake up with a start and chuckle out loud in case the Führer had just told a joke. No, Morell was not popular in Hitler s circle. He was teetotal, did not smoke and there was worse to come. Another secretary remarked: Morell had an appetite as big as his belly, and he gave not only visual but audible expression to it.

18 18 the secret diaries of hitler s doctor When Hasselbach once remarked on the physician s body odour, Hitler snapped: I don t employ Morell for his fragrance but to look after my health. it remains a matter for some speculation that Hitler should have allowed this obese, middle-aged doctor to dose him with the volume and variety of medicines that he did. Hitler s staff were in despair. His perennial housekeeper Frau Anni Winter, explained, Once Morell was turned loose on him, all sorts of medicines popped up on Hitler s table. Their number and potency increased at the same rate as the dietary regulations multiplied, the restrictions on certain foods were intensified and his overall food intake declined. It began around the winter of with one little medicine bottle. Over the next seven years there were enough to fill an attaché case. Morell administered tablets and dragées, uppers and downers, leeches and bacilli, hot compresses and cold poultices, and literally thousands of injections litres of mysterious fluids that were squirted into his grateful and gullible Führer each year, whose arms were punctured so often that even Morell sometimes could not find anywhere to insert the needle into the scarred veins. since the end of the war intrigue has surrounded Morell and his methods. How great was his influence on the Führer? What were his treatments of the man who had occasion to determine the destinies betimes of two hundred million Europeans? Dr Erwin Giesing, the ear nose and throat doctor who treated Hitler s head traumas for weeks after the assassination attempt of 1944, wrote the following report about his patient s personality: From Hitler s psychopathic constitution and the associated con-

19 the relationship 19 viction that he always knew better, there developed a marked neuropathic disorder. 1 His intense contemplation of his own bodily functions, and particularly his preoccupation with his gastro-intestinal and digestive tracts, were only one token of this. Others were the frequency with which he took his own pulse when I gave him a check-up, and then asked me to confirm it; and his ever-present fear of an imminent death in the fall of 1944 he repeatedly said that he had only two or three years to live. Of course, he was convinced that he would by then not only have attained final victory but have given the German people such leadership and have consolidated their position so enormously that others will be able to take up where I leave off. Other significant symptoms were his addiction to medication like sleeping pills, all manner of indigestion tablets, bacterial compounds and general-purpose fortifier pills and injections. Not that Hitler was your common drug addict; but his neuropathic constitution led to his finding certain drugs particularly pleasureable, like the strychnine and atropine contained in the Anti-Gas pills, and the cocaine in the sinus treatments I gave him; and there was a clear inclination towards becoming an habitual user of such medications, as he himself admitted to me. Morell, he commented in June 1945, converted the largely healthy man that Hitler had earlier been into one constantly plied with injections and fed with tablets which made Hitler more or less dependent on him; he played on Hitler s neuropathic nature by spouting utter rubbish about how Hitler s heavy workload meant 1. Erwin Giesing, MD: Report on my Treatment of Hitler. The author has donated all the documents used for this volume to the Institute of Contemporary History in Munich. See footnote on page 277.

20 20 the secret diaries of hitler s doctor that he was burning energy at the same rate as people in the tropics, and that the lost energy had to be replaced by all manner of injections like iodine, vitamins, calcium, heart-and-liver extract and hormones. Could such massive treatments be totally innocuous? Captain Heinz Assmann, a navy staff officer attached to the High Command, who stood at Hitler s side every day from August 1943 until April 23, 1945, talked to experts who regarded these thousands of glucose injections as distinctly harmful. They talked of the danger of premature arteriosclerosis, he wrote, with all its side effects like premature senility. Assmann maintained, There are also grounds to believe that the shots A.H. got were beefed up with stimulants like Pervitin [a notorious amphetamine-type compound], because several observers who were witness to A.H. s collapses told of how he revived dramatically after getting tablets or jabs from Morell. It must be said that Morell s dossier shows no explicit evidence that he administered Pervitin to Hitler, unless the vitamin shots he christened Vitamultin forte contained this ingredient. Pervitin (chemical designation 1-Phenyl-2-methylaminopropanehydrochloride) was a substance capable of pharmacologically reproducing the effect of a stimulation of the vegetative sympathetic nervous system. But Pervitin was addictive; moreover, it was found to cause serious permanent damage and in 1941 it was restricted under the German Narcotics Act. It figures only rarely in Morell s papers. Thus in his agenda for October 15, 1943 he wrote: Pervitin prescription for Engel Pharmacy, with the hand-written postscript: Out of stock. The Engel Pharmacy in Berlin supplied all medical stores to Hitler s headquarters. And on January 27, 1944 he wrote: Prescription Eupaverin + Pervitin, heating pads.

21 the relationship 21 But Morell was familiar with the dangers of Pervitin. He wrote to one patient on December 1, 1944: You can get Intelan and bars of Vitamultin with the enclosed prescription from the Engel Pharmacy at No. 63 Mohren Strasse 63, Berlin W8. But let me warn you against Pervitin. This does not replace lost energy; it is not a carrot but the stick! The doctors were frustrated by not knowing precisely what Morell was injecting Hitler with. For instance, Giesing wrote, I don t know if he injected hormones. It might be important to know whether or not massive hormone doses were having an effect on Hitler s physique in the sense of suppressing female stigmata. reich ministers and Nazi Party officials also brooded on Morell. In June 1943 Joachim von Ribbentrop came out into the open and tackled him about the treatment. Morell wrote a painstaking record of the conversation. Reich Foreign Minister von Ribbentrop had invited me to lunch at Fuschl... After lunch he invited me upstairs to talk something over. Now it came out why he had asked me to lunch to speak to me about the Führer s health and my treatment of him. Ribbentrop had, noted Morell, inquired whether it was a good thing for Hitler to get so many injections Whether he was getting anything other than glucose? Whether I was giving him anything else? Morell answered laconically, even cryptically, I give him what he needs. He could afford to snub these powerful inquirers. He knew he had enjoyed Hitler s unqualified confidence. Didn t Hitler keep telling him how much he needed him?

22 22 the secret diaries of hitler s doctor In July 1944 Hitler was to fob off the fuming Dr Giesing with this explanation: It s like this. It was Morell who first healed me. I know that Morell s newfangled methods are still not recognised internationally, and that even out here Morell is still researching in many fields without having reached firm conclusions. But isn t that how it has always been with innovations in medicine? It has always taken a finite time before new methods are accepted. I haven t the slightest doubt that Morell will see things through. And the moment he needs financial support for his researches he ll get it from me. small wonder that the other doctors envied Morell s position, particularly Hitler s escort doctor, Karl Brandt. Brandt was a goodlooking young surgeon whom the Americans would hang in Brandt racked his brains over the Morell enigma: under interrogation in September 1945, he tried to answer how Morell managed to maintain his position for eight years. Was he subject to some external pressure to keep Hitler under his influence? Was he somebody else s tool? Or was Morell himself seeking to enslave Hitler for his own political or commercial ends? Eventually Brandt gave up. Although Morell had his measure of animal cunning, he was too dense for political intrigues; besides, he would never get involved in anything that might expose his quivering frame to personal risk. Perhaps Morell influenced Hitler in the way that doctors do, until Hitler could not do without his treatments and eventually came to regard himself as owing some kind of obligation towards Morell as a person? Hasselbach, Brandt s assistant since 1936, also called attention to Hitler s obvious dependence on Morell. I just couldn t get over the influence Morell had on Hitler in medical respects, he wrote.

23 the relationship 23 Brandt surmised three possible ways in which Morell might have snared the dictator: either by some narcotic like morphine; or by hormone treatments; or by less specific means perhaps by playing on the gratitude that patients feel toward doctors who have cured an illness or stimulated their personal performance. Hitler s reasons for staying with Morell were probably irrational. His choice was governed by the antipathy shown during the Third Reich toward all true experts. Most of the top Party officials favoured doctors of dubious repute. Himmler and Ribbentrop were devoted to non-medical practitioners and masseurs like Felix Kersten; Hess to herbal medicine and astrology. In the Third Reich the dilettante was king, and of Hitler s inclinations there could be no doubt. On August 30, 1944 he snarled at his new chief of air staff, Lieutenant-General Werner Kreipe who had just ventured the expert view that the Messerschmitt 262 jet plane would make a better fighter than bomber Experts are only good at one thing: explaining why something will not work! His aversion to the military brains of the General Staff was equally notorious: he called it an establishment for lying. What therefore could be more natural than that the busy Führer should engage a physician who could work instant miracle cures through a hypodermic needle? morell s actual treatment of Hitler will be analysed in another chapter. Probably only clinical experiments can establish how far Hitler s unquestioned capacity for sustained effort derived from Morell s medication. Morell unquestionably influenced him by his use of stimulants.

24 24 the secret diaries of hitler s doctor By stimulants, Brandt wrote, I am thinking not just of the daily intake of Vitamultin but of the massive glucose injections, which are bound to have had an effect on Hitler s sense of vitality. Hasselbach was more robust in his indictment of the physician s methods. In many cases he suggested to patients that they were suffering from a serious malady which he then successfully cured, he claimed. I will say, he admitted however, that he often displayed a healing hand with nervous complaints. Morell had treated the propaganda minister: Dr Goebbels had contracted dermatitis over virtually his entire body and was unable to sleep because of the irritation; twenty-two doctors tried to cure it and failed. Morell s course of Homoseran injections worked, and Goebbels never forgot it: I m happy to be able to withstand these present burdens, he recorded on March 10, 1943, I attribute this primarily to Morell s treatment. Hitler, impressed, loaned his doctor to other VIPs, including Mussolini. the dossier on Patient A destroys many legends. Former OSS-adviser William C Langer s speculations about Hitler s exotic sexual and psychological problems are exposed for the bunkum that they were. American myths about Hitler s congenital syphilis and Soviet whispers about his impotence are also slain by the urinalyses and blood serologies. However there does now seem to be evidence to support the persistent suggestions that by 1945 Hitler was a victim of paralysis agitans also known as Parkinsonism. Morell certainly suspected it. There is no other explanation for the medication which he initiated (daily doses of Homburg 680), a prescription which he left his doomed patient still taking whilst he fled to Bavaria on April 23, 1945.

25 the relationship 25 One thing is certain. Most of Morell s medicines were quite harmless, and he injected the others in such minute quantities that they would have been virtually useless. Modern experts have described Morell s many hormone preparations such as Orchikrin, a so-called youth elixir, as trash. Of course, Morell may have realized this: he may have administered them to keep the medicine-crazy Führer contented. The same charitable view cannot be taken of his lavish use of inferior proprietary sulphonamides like Ultraseptyl long after they had been publicly exposed as toxic by experts, nor of his use on Hitler of his own still experimental penicillin. It is unlikely that Morell will be adjudged one of the great physicians of this century. History will term him a doctor with an unjustified sense of his own capabilities a man who was less wicked than negligent, perhaps, but above all a man of monumental jealousy and vulnerability.

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