1.INTRODUCTION 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1.INTRODUCTION 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS"

Transcription

1 PATTERN OF INJURIES TO MOTORCYCLISTS IN FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS Dr. Srinivasulu Pothireddy* 1, Dr. Naresh Karukutla 2 1. Associate Professor 2. Assistant Professor Dept of Forensic Medicine, Katuri medical college & hospital, Guntur, Andhra pradesh. *E Mail: ABSTRACT Study of pattern of injuries in road traffic accidents helps us to know the measures to be taken at different levels to reduce suffering to human beings. Injuries to the limbs (96%) and head (95%) occurred in most of the cases followed by chest and abdomen. In head region, scalp contusion, fissured fracture of the skull and subdural hemorrhage were more commonly seen than other injuries. Lungs and liver suffered maximum among visceral organs. Contusions were more commonly seen in scalp and brain unlike that of abrasions present on chest, abdomen and limbs. Femur fracture (n=16) was more than other long bones. Head injury was the primary cause of death (69%) in most of the cases. Fatal motorcycle accidents are associated with a wide spectrum of injuries involving multiple anatomical regions. Key words: Road traffic accident, Motorcyclist, Injury. 1.INTRODUCTION Road traffic accidents are the world s most serious health problem causing premature death and disability with increasing prevalence year by year. India accounts for about 10% of road accident fatalities worldwide. 1 In 2010, 1,33,938 people died in India. 2 Factors that increase the risk of road traffic accidents include poor road structure and maintenance, encroachments, traffic mix, non laying of roads compared to absolute increase in the motor vehicles, alcohol overuse, lack of driving awareness, ill control of children by parents, allowing domestic animals on to roads and usage of mobiles while driving. Motorized two wheelers account for a significant number of cases in developing countries like India. 3 Motorcyclists constitute a large number among vehicle population, responsible for more road traffic accidents and thereby injuries. Now- a- days, motorized two wheelers in India became a family vehicle where the number of riders are more than two because of habituation and family size. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in modern mortuary, Andhra medical college, Vishakapatnam from 1 st Jan 2007 to 31 st Dec A total of 131 motorcyclists deaths were studied for the pattern of injuries using a standard proforma prospectively. Mechanical injuries of different anatomical regions of the body were studied externally along with the internal organs like brain, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, intestines etc., As there was no stringent law implementation regarding the usage of helmet in motorcyclists, we could not study the affect of helmet. Pedestrians and bicyclers, who died as a result of hit with motorcycle, were not included in this study. 513

2 3. OBSERVATIONS AND DISCUSSION Out of all motorcyclists deaths, injuries to the limbs (96%) and head (95%) occurred in most of the cases followed by chest (61%) and abdomen (38%) correlating with Nilambar Jha etal study. 4 The predominance of injuries to limbs can be attributed to the free mobility and reflex action of limbs, partial covering of lateral regions of chest and abdomen by upper limbs. High incidence of head injuries can be due to reception of maximum force because of restricted movement of the head. In the trunk, the predominance of injuries in chest can be explained by the fragile nature of bony cage sometimes even damaging the internal organs, while the abdomen is protected by its elasticity and rebound nature. The rolling nature of trunk during accidents makes it more susceptible to injuries. In head, scalp injuries were present in 92% of cases among which contusions (75%) were more common than lacerations (43%) and abrasions (8%), consistent with other studies. 4,5 The common area of contusion of scalp was right parietal region and least common was left frontal region. The predominance of contusions and lacerations in scalp can be explained by the heavy blunt force, loose areolar space available for blood accumulation beneath scalp, minimal musculature of the scalp and the velocity of victim at the time of fall on the ground. Skull was fractured more (69%), among which fissured fractures (65%) followed by comminuted (18%) and depressed fractures (12%) were observed, in consistent with Akhilesh Pathak s study. 6 Right Parietal part of skull was commonly involved (36%). Parietal (n=58) and temporal (n=50) bones were fractured more commonly than frontal (n=33) and occipital bones (n=27). In Basal fractures, middle cranial fossa was commonly involved which was also observed in Harnam Singh s study. 7 More number of skull fractures observed in this study can be explained by restricted movement of the head receiving maximum force, more striking surface area of skull in all directions, least protection offered by the minimal scalp musculature when compared to limbs and other parts of the body. Contusions (61%) were more prevalent than lacerations (14%) in all the lobes of brain. Frontal lobes (91%) suffered maximum injury followed by temporal (89%) and parietal lobes (84%). Less number of lacerated injuries were noted in parietal (39%) and occipital (28%) lobes of brain when compared to the frontal (78%) and temporal lobes (72%). Intracranial hemorrhages were present in 76% of cases, in which sub-dural and sub-arachnoid hemorrhages were dominant, consistent with Nilambar Jha etal 4, Akhilesh Pathk 6 and Sarkar etal 8 studies. Extra-dural and intra-cerebral hemorrhages were noted only in few cases (3% each). Contusions were more because of effusion of blood in different layers of brain due to the rupture of blood vessels by blunt trauma. An impacting force to the head can produce distortion of skull, development of shear strains in brain tissue which can produce a contusion. The development of acceleration and deceleration forces may produce intracranial pressure gradients responsible for intracranial hemorrhages. Less number of lacerations in parietal and occipital areas can be explained by the smoothness of skull in the respective regions. 514

3 TABLE 1 INCIDENCE OF MECHANICAL INJURIES IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF BODY REGION OF ABRASION CONTUSION LACERATION BODY Head 8.33% 87.78% 43.45% Neck 9.16% 3.81% 0.76% Chest 54.19% 14.5% 4.58% Abdomen 23.66% 8.39% 2.29% Upper limb 84% 21.37% 16.03% Lower limb 82.96% 19.84% 18.32% TABLE : 2 PATTERN OF HEAD INJURIES Scalp Skull Brain injuries injuries fractures abrasions contusions laceration contusion laceration Intracranial hemorrhage 8.33% 87.78% 43.45% 69.46% 60.3% 13.74% 75.57% CHART 1 INCIDENCE OF REGIONAL INJURIES 6.87% 9.92% 96.18% 95.41% head neck c hest abdomen pelvis genitals limbs 38.16% 61.06% 15.26% 515

4 CHART 2 INCIDENCE OF VISCERAL INJURIES (N); N= NUMBER OF CASES lungs heart liver 13 spleen kidneys intestines CHART 3 INCIDENCE OF FRACTURES IN DIFFERENT BODY REGIONS (N); N= NUMBER OF CASES face trunk 72 upper limbs lower limbs vertebra pelvis skull 516

5 In toto, scalp injuries were seen in 92% of cases, skull fractures were seen in 70% of cases, and brain injuries were seen in 76% of cases. The incidence of injuries in different layers of the head explains the independency of each anatomical region i.e., more brain injuries can be observed with or without fracture of skull and vice versa. Abrasions were the common injuries suffered by the neck (9%) followed by contusions (4%). Fractures of vertebral column were seen in 20 cases in which cervical vertebra suffered maximum (n = 12) followed by thoracic vertebra (n = 5), consistent with Sarkar etal s study. 8 The transmission of force from head to neck, instability of cervical vertebra due to neck movements, less support of musculature for neck may be the cause for causing more number of cervical vertebral fractures. Abrasions were the most common injuries present on trunk. Abrasions (54%), contusions (15%) and lacerations (5%) were present on the chest wall in descending order of frequency. Fractures of clavicle were seen in 20 cases, sternum in 6 cases and ribs in 45 cases. Lung injuries were present in 32 cases and heart injuries were present in 6 cases, consistent with KY Tham etal study. 9 High incidence of lung injuries can be explained by their anatomical position and more surface area covering antero-posteriorly, medially and laterally, while heart was injured only in few cases because of its anatomical position and the protection offered by lungs, layers of heart and blood. Abrasions (24%), contusions (8%) and lacerations (2%) were present on the abdominal wall in descending order of frequency. Liver and spleen were injured in 20 and 16 cases respectively with predominant laceration injuries can be explained by the solidity and close approximation with rib cage. Kidneys were injured in 13 cases, intestines in 8 cases with predominant contusion injury, can be explained by the anatomical position of kidneys and mobility of intestines. Injuries to bladder (n=6) and external genitals (n=7) were seen only in few cases. Fractures of pelvic bones were seen in 8 cases with pubis fractured in all cases whereas Ilium in 3 cases. In this study, upper and lower limbs suffered maximum with abrasions as the predominant injuries (85%) followed by contusions (20%) and lacerations (17%). In upper limbs, humerus fractured in 10 cases followed by ulna and radius each in 9 cases. In lower limbs, femur was fractured in 16cases followed by tibia and fibula each in 11 cases. Lower limb long bones were comparatively at high risk than upper limb long bones, consistent with Nilambar Jha etal s study. 4 Higher risk of injuries to the lower limbs can be attributed to landing on the lower limbs receiving the first impact, weight of the motorcycle and dragging at the time of accident. Out of 131 cases, 69% of the people died primarily of head injury associated either with fracture of skull or intracranial hemorrhages or brain injuries which were consistent with studies of Julian Stella etal 5 and Harnam singh CONCLUSIONS 1. Abrasions, contusions were the common injuries observed throughout the body. 2. Skull fracture was the most common fracture. 3. Intracranial hemorrhages were observed more frequently among brain injuries. 4. Lungs, liver suffered more than other organs in their cavities. 517

6 5. Limbs suffered maximum injuries when compared to other regions of the body. 6. Cause of death in majority of cases was due to head injury associated with fracture of skull or intracranial hemorrhages or brain injury. 5. SUGGESTIONS The study indicates cause of death is mainly due to head injury which necessitates the establishment of emergency trauma care centers with inclusion of neurology, radiology and orthopedic departments to reduce morbidity and mortality. The prevention of death of a bread winner in the family will help directly the family not to land in economic crisis and indirectly the country through prevention of crimes. 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Work attributed to Andhra medical college, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. 7. REFERENCES [1]. Arvind Kumar, Sanjeev Lalwani, Deepak, Agarwal, Ravi Rautji, T D Dogra. Fatal road traffic accidents and their relationship with head injuries; an epidemiological survey of five year. Indian Journal of Neurotrauma 2008; Vol.5, No.2. [2]. National Crime Record Bureau. Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India. Accidental Deaths In India, URL: 10.pdf [3]. B.R. Sharma. Motorized two wheeler crash injuries and the role of helmet use in their prevention: an overview. JIAFM 2008; vol 30(4): [4]. Nilambar Jha, D.K. Srinivasa, Gautam Roy, S. Jagdish. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases: a study from South India. Indian Journal of Community Medicine Jan.-Mar 2004;Vol. XXIX No.1: [5]. Julian Stella, Peter Sprivulis, Clive Cooke. Head injury-related road crash mortality in rural Western Australia. ANZ Journal of Surgery November 2001; Volume 71: [6]. Akhilesh Pathak, N L Desania, Rajesh Verma. Profile of road traffic accidents and head injury in Jaipur. JIAFM 2008; 30(1): 6-9. [7]. Harnam Singh, S.K.Dhattarwal. Pattern and distribution of injuries in fatal road [8]. Traffic accidents in Rohtak (Haryana). JIAFM 2004; 26(1): [9]. Sarkar, soumitra; Peek, Corinne; Kraus, Jess F. Fatal injuries in Motorcycle Riders According to Helmet Use. Journal of Trauma Injury infection and Critical Care February 1995; 38(2): [10]. Tham KY, Seow E, Lau G. Pattern of injuries in helmeted motorcyclists in Singapore. Emerg Med J 2004; 21: [11]. Harnam Singh, AD Aggarwal. Fatal road traffic accident in motorcyclists not wearing helmets. Journal of Punjab Academy of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology (Online) 2011; 11(1). 518

PATTERN AND DISTRIBUTION OF INJURIES IN FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT CASES

PATTERN AND DISTRIBUTION OF INJURIES IN FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT CASES PATTERN AND DISTRIBUTION OF INJURIES IN FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT CASES Dr. K.K. Aggarwal, Additional Professor, Forensic Medicine Department, GMC, Patiala. Dr. S.S. Oberoi, Associate Professor, Forensic

More information

Ganesh Govekar*, Gaurang Patel**, Bhaumesh Rajdev**Chandresh Tailor***. & Dharmesh Shilajiya****

Ganesh Govekar*, Gaurang Patel**, Bhaumesh Rajdev**Chandresh Tailor***. & Dharmesh Shilajiya**** JIndian Acad Forensic Med, 31(4) Originals and Papers Trends of road traffic accidents-in Seurat city...'jj Ganesh Govekar*, Gaurang Patel**, Bhaumesh Rajdev**Chandresh Tailor***. & Dharmesh Shilajiya****

More information

Originals and Papers

Originals and Papers Originals and Papers A comprehensive study of motorcycle fatalities in South Delhi C. Behera*, (Lt. Col.) Ravi Rautji **, Sanjeev Lalwani*** & T. D. Dogra **** Abstract Ninety four of motorcycle fatalities

More information

A study on pattern of fatal injuries in road traffic accidents in costal belts of Orissa

A study on pattern of fatal injuries in road traffic accidents in costal belts of Orissa J Indian.Acad Forensic Med,_31(4) Originals and Papers,. A study on pattern of fatal injuries in road traffic accidents in costal belts of Orissa Satyasi Panda*, Shaikh Khaja** & Nayana Kishore Mohanty***

More information

Medicolegal Study of Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Varanasi Region

Medicolegal Study of Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Varanasi Region Medicolegal Study of Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Varanasi Region Navin Kumar 1, Manoj Kumar 2 1 Junior Resident-3, Dept. of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University,

More information

Radiology Reference Guide

Radiology Reference Guide Radiology Reference Guide Your skeleton gives your body structure and support. It is made of living bone cells, living tissues, blood vessels, mineral deposits and water. Your skeleton also protects delicate

More information

Mechanism of Injury 1

Mechanism of Injury 1 Mechanism of Injury 1 Objectives At the end of this lecture the participant will be able to: Describe the importance of the mechanism of injury in history taking of the trauma patient. Identify patterns

More information

Aehlert: Paramedic Practice Today PowerPoint Lecture Notes Chapter 50: Abdominal Trauma

Aehlert: Paramedic Practice Today PowerPoint Lecture Notes Chapter 50: Abdominal Trauma Aehlert: Paramedic Practice Today PowerPoint Lecture Notes Chapter 50: Abdominal Trauma Chapter 50 Abdominal Trauma 1 Describe the epidemiology, including morbidity, mortality rates, and prevention strategies,

More information

DOT HS 811 325 May 2010. Children Injured in Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes

DOT HS 811 325 May 2010. Children Injured in Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes DOT HS 811 325 May 2010 Children Injured in Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes DISCLAIMER This publication is distributed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration,

More information

The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) A brief introduction

The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) A brief introduction The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) A brief introduction Abbreviated Injury Scale 1990 Revision Update 98 The Abbreviated Injury Scale produced by: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine

More information

SSMJ Issue 2 Vol 4. Downloaded from http://www.southernsudanmedicaljournal.com

SSMJ Issue 2 Vol 4. Downloaded from http://www.southernsudanmedicaljournal.com Motorcycle-Related Trauma in South Sudan: a cross sectional observational study. Andrew Allan, University of Birmingham. AXA615@bham.ac.uk Abstract Motorcycle related trauma is a major cause of morbidity

More information

A study of morbidity and mortality profile of 500 road traffic accident cases in Malwa region of Punjab

A study of morbidity and mortality profile of 500 road traffic accident cases in Malwa region of Punjab Road traffic accident cases in Malwa region of Punjab Original Research Article ISSN: 2394-0026 (P) A study of morbidity and mortality profile of 500 road traffic accident cases in Malwa region of Punjab

More information

The Study of Pattern of Injuries in Fatal Cases of fall from Height

The Study of Pattern of Injuries in Fatal Cases of fall from Height AJMS Al Ameen J Med Sci (20 1 2 )5 (1 ):4 5-5 2 (A US National Library of Medicine enlisted journal) I S S N 0 9 7 4-1 1 4 3 C O D E N : A A J M B G ORIGI NAL ARTICLE The Study of Pattern of Injuries in

More information

Figure 1.7a. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 1.7a. Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Language of Anatomy Anatomical Position Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body Right, left, front, back, top, bottom are the subject s (cadaver s) P.O.V. NOT

More information

An Article Critique - Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims. Ashley Roberts. University of Cincinnati

An Article Critique - Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims. Ashley Roberts. University of Cincinnati Epidemiology Article Critique 1 Running head: Epidemiology Article Critique An Article Critique - Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims Ashley Roberts University of Cincinnati

More information

Motorcycle Safety A Trauma Surgeon s Perspective Sean A. Nix, D.O.

Motorcycle Safety A Trauma Surgeon s Perspective Sean A. Nix, D.O. Motorcycle Safety A Trauma Surgeon s Perspective Sean A. Nix, D.O. Disclosure I have nothing to disclose No political or financial attachments I do take care of injured patients Motorcycle Safety Injury

More information

Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System

Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System HEALTH AND COST OUTCOMES RESULTING FROM TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CAUSED BY NOT WEARING A HELMET, FOR MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN WISCONSIN, 2011 Wayne Bigelow Center for Health

More information

.org. Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine. Cause. Description

.org. Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine. Cause. Description Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Page ( 1 ) Spinal fractures can vary widely in severity. While some fractures are very serious injuries that require emergency treatment, other fractures can

More information

Injuries caused by motorcycle accidents a 5-year survey of patients treated in Kuopio University Hospital

Injuries caused by motorcycle accidents a 5-year survey of patients treated in Kuopio University Hospital Injuries caused by motorcycle accidents a 5-year survey of patients treated in Kuopio University Hospital Imke Höfling, Paula Keinänen, Heikki Kröger Department of Orthopaedics, Kuopio University Hospital

More information

A STUDY OF THE PATTERN OF HEAD INJURY IN DISTRICT ALIGARH. U.P.. INDIA

A STUDY OF THE PATTERN OF HEAD INJURY IN DISTRICT ALIGARH. U.P.. INDIA A STUDY OF THE PATTERN OF HEAD INJURY IN DISTRICT ALIGARH. U.P.. INDIA Dr. Mohammad Zafar Equabal, Former P. G. Student, Department of Forensic Medicine, Dr. Shameem Jahan Rizvi, Professor, Department

More information

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT CASES: A STUDY FROM SOUTH INDIA

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT CASES: A STUDY FROM SOUTH INDIA EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT CASES: A STUDY FROM SOUTH INDIA Abstract: Nilambar Jha, D.K. Srinivasa, Gautam Roy, S. Jagdish Deptt. of PSM and Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Post Graduate

More information

LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH FOR PERSONS UNDER 39 YEARS OLD RESPONSIBLE FOR MORE THAN 150,000 DEATHS EACH YEAR, NEIGHBORHOOD OF 50,000000 ON HIGHWAYS

LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH FOR PERSONS UNDER 39 YEARS OLD RESPONSIBLE FOR MORE THAN 150,000 DEATHS EACH YEAR, NEIGHBORHOOD OF 50,000000 ON HIGHWAYS THE KINETICS OF T MAX BORNSTEIN, NREMTP OLD DOMINION OMINION EMS A EMS ALLIANCE DIRECTOR PRINCE GEORGE FIRE (RETIRED) OF TRAUMA IRE/EMS BASIC TRAUMA F RAUMA FACTS LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH FOR PERSONS UNDER

More information

BONE BINGO. Blood Production Red and white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow, a substance found inside the larger bones of the body.

BONE BINGO. Blood Production Red and white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow, a substance found inside the larger bones of the body. BONE BINGO Background: The human skeleton is a framework of bones that is held together by ligaments and joints. Our skeleton has four major functions: Support The main job of the skeleton is to provide

More information

Laboratory 1 Anatomical Planes and Regions

Laboratory 1 Anatomical Planes and Regions Laboratory 1 Anatomical Planes and Regions Goals: Define the anatomical position, including the application of the terms right and left. List and correctly use the major directional terms used in anatomy.

More information

Divisions of the Skeletal System

Divisions of the Skeletal System OpenStax-CNX module: m46344 1 Divisions of the Skeletal System OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the end of this

More information

FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS, STUDY OF DISTRIBUTION, NATURE AND TYPE OF INJURY.

FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS, STUDY OF DISTRIBUTION, NATURE AND TYPE OF INJURY. 71 JIAFM, 2005 : 27 (2). ISSN 0971-0973 FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS, STUDY OF DISTRIBUTION, NATURE AND TYPE OF INJURY. Dr. Archana Kual, Deptt. Of F.M.T. M.L.N. Medical College, Alld. Dr. U.S. Sinha Professor

More information

If you or a loved one have suffered because of a negligent error during spinal surgery, you will be going through a difficult time.

If you or a loved one have suffered because of a negligent error during spinal surgery, you will be going through a difficult time. If you or a loved one have suffered because of a negligent error during spinal surgery, you will be going through a difficult time. You may be worried about your future, both in respect of finances and

More information

Laerdal' Human Anatomy Manual The Skeleton

Laerdal' Human Anatomy Manual The Skeleton Human Anatomy Manual The Skeleton Laerdal Texas P.O. Box 38.226 EM. 116 Gatesville,Texas U.S.A.76528 U.S.A.1-800-433-5539 IntemationaI1-254-865-7221 24 Hour Fax 254-865-8011 ~ Laerdal' TABLE OF CONTENTS

More information

Review Article. Motorized two-wheeler crash injuries and the role of helmet-use in their prevention: an overview

Review Article. Motorized two-wheeler crash injuries and the role of helmet-use in their prevention: an overview J Indian Acad Forensic Med, 30(4) Review Article Motorized two-wheeler crash injuries and the role of helmet-use in their prevention: an overview B. R. Sharma Abstract Road-traffic accidents are a major

More information

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM THE SKELETAL SYSTEM The skeleton is the body s bony framework which consists of 206 bones. The bones are made up of water(45%), calcium and phosphorous(35%) and other organic materials(20%). The calcium

More information

HEAD INJURY WITH HELMET USE

HEAD INJURY WITH HELMET USE HEAD INJURY WITH HELMET USE by Greg Doc TrojanIntroduction While motorcycling has been targeted as a public burden and garners most of the public attention concerning head injury, it is actually a minor

More information

Classification of bones Any bone may be classified into one of the following groups:

Classification of bones Any bone may be classified into one of the following groups: Skeletal system This system is made up of hard tissues like bone and cartilages. This system gives form and shape to animal body The skeleton of a living animal is made up living structures of bones. The

More information

RP0807 - PERFORM SPLINTING TECHNIQUES

RP0807 - PERFORM SPLINTING TECHNIQUES RP0807 - PERFORM SPLINTING TECHNIQUES TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE. 1. Without the aid of references, given a casualty and standard combat lifesaver medical equipment set, perform splinting techniques,

More information

Main figures on Road Safety Data Spain 2013

Main figures on Road Safety Data Spain 2013 Main figures on Road Safety Data Spain 2013 Contents Preface.3 Road Safety Data 2013.4 Injuries related to traffic...10 Evolution of the road safety indicators.....12 Casualties.....14 Drivers...16 Fleet...17

More information

Analysis of Patients with Severe Trauma Caused by Motorcycle Accidents 1

Analysis of Patients with Severe Trauma Caused by Motorcycle Accidents 1 Analysis of Patients with Severe Trauma Caused by Motorcycle Accidents 1 1 You In-Gyu, 2 Lim Chung Hwan, 3 Shim Jae Goo 1, First Author Dept of Health Care, Hanseo University, semicoma72@daum.net *2,Corresponding

More information

United States Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Paramedic: National Standard Curriculum 1

United States Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Paramedic: National Standard Curriculum 1 UNIT TERMINAL OBJECTIVE 4-8 At the completion of this unit, the paramedic student will be able to integrate pathophysiologic principles and the assessment findings to formulate a field impression and implement

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. EPC, Ch 26 Quiz w-key Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The largest reserve of blood of any body organ is contained in the:

More information

HEAD INJURIES Table 1

HEAD INJURIES Table 1 NEISS HORSE RELATED EMERGENCY ROOM ADMISSIONS HEAD INJURY Edited 5-31-08 Word count 3,694 Characters 17,297 The first part of the report concerned the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS)

More information

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION UTILIZING COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY SCANS FOR ANALYSIS OF MOTORCYCLE HELMETS IN REAL-WORLD CRASHES Kathryn L. Loftis 1, Daniel P. Moreno 1, Joshua Tan 2, Hampton C. Gabler 1, Joel D. Stitzel 1 1 Virginia Tech-

More information

A COMPARISON STUDY ON VEHICLE TRAFFIC ACCIDENT AND INJURIES OF VULNERABLE ROAD USERS IN CHINA AND GERMANY

A COMPARISON STUDY ON VEHICLE TRAFFIC ACCIDENT AND INJURIES OF VULNERABLE ROAD USERS IN CHINA AND GERMANY A COMPARISON STUDY ON VEHICLE TRAFFIC ACCIDENT AND INJURIES OF VULNERABLE ROAD USERS IN CHINA AND GERMANY Jikuang Yang Hunan University, Changsha China Dietmar Otte Hannover Medical University Germany

More information

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule: A Guide for Law Enforcement

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule: A Guide for Law Enforcement EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule: A Guide for Law Enforcement The HIPAA Privacy Rule provides Federal privacy protections for individually identifiable

More information

Types of Brain Injury

Types of Brain Injury Types of Brain Injury The bones of your skull are hard and they protect your brain. Your brain is soft, like firm Jell-O. When your head moves, your brain moves inside your skull. When your head is hit

More information

Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1. Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009

Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1. Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009 Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1 Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009 Of all types of injury, traumatic brain injuries () are among the most likely to cause death or permanent

More information

ITARDA INFORMATION. No.97. Special feature

ITARDA INFORMATION. No.97. Special feature ITARDA INFORMATION No.97 Special feature Introduction P2 Casualties resulting from cycling have not fallen as much as for other accident types P2 Following cycling accidents, which parts of the body are

More information

METROPOLITAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY NEW YORK, NEW YORK

METROPOLITAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY NEW YORK, NEW YORK METROPOLITAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY NEW YORK, NEW YORK Group Policy Form No: GPNP12-AX (Referred to as the Group Policy ) Certificate Form No: GCERT12-AX (Referred to as the Certificate ) GROUP ACCIDENT

More information

Motorcyclists killed and injured (1980 2012)

Motorcyclists killed and injured (1980 2012) Motorcyclists CRASH FACTSHEET November 2013 CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2012 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport In 2012, 50 motorcyclists 1 died and a further 1,138 were injured

More information

Synopsis of Causation. Sternal Fractures. Ministry of Defence

Synopsis of Causation. Sternal Fractures. Ministry of Defence Ministry of Defence Synopsis of Causation Sternal Fractures Authors: Mr M Jeyam, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham and Professor W Angus Wallace, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham Validator: Mr Sheo

More information

BULLETIN. Road Traffic Injuries. WA Childhood Injury Surveillance. No. 13 January 2008. Introduction Road Traffic Injuries

BULLETIN. Road Traffic Injuries. WA Childhood Injury Surveillance. No. 13 January 2008. Introduction Road Traffic Injuries WA Childhood Injury Surveillance BULLETIN Road Traffic Injuries No. 13 January 2008 Childhood Injury Presentations: October to December 2007 There were 13,607 presentations to Princess Margaret Hospital

More information

Magnitude of pedestrian head injuries & fatalities in Bangalore, south India: A retrospective study from an apex neurotrauma center

Magnitude of pedestrian head injuries & fatalities in Bangalore, south India: A retrospective study from an apex neurotrauma center Indian J Med Res 136, December 2012, pp 1039-1043 Magnitude of pedestrian head injuries & fatalities in Bangalore, south India: A retrospective study from an apex neurotrauma center Nupur Pruthi, Ashok

More information

DOT HS 810 982 August 2008. Lower-Extremity Injuries in Motorcycle Crashes

DOT HS 810 982 August 2008. Lower-Extremity Injuries in Motorcycle Crashes DOT HS 810 982 August 2008 Lower-Extremity Injuries in Motorcycle Crashes This publication is distributed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in the

More information

Aurora Health Care EMS Continuing Education 3 rd Quarter 2011 Packet HEAD TRAUMA

Aurora Health Care EMS Continuing Education 3 rd Quarter 2011 Packet HEAD TRAUMA Head Injury Overview Aurora Health Care EMS Continuing Education 3 rd Quarter 2011 Packet HEAD TRAUMA Traumatic head injuries are a major cause of death, and disability but it might be best to refer to

More information

(*) Awards for all burns include compensation for any residual scarring or pigmentation and take into account any skin grafting.

(*) Awards for all burns include compensation for any residual scarring or pigmentation and take into account any skin grafting. Table 1 Burns (*) Item Column (a) Level 1 4 2 5 3 6 4 6 5 7 6 8 7 9 8 11 9 12 10 12 11 13 12 14 13 15 Column (b) Injury Burns, with deep second degree, third degree, or full thickness burns affecting 70

More information

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,

More information

Procedures for Investigation and Registration of Accidents at Work

Procedures for Investigation and Registration of Accidents at Work Republic of Latvia Cabinet Regulation No. 950 Adopted 25 August 2009 Procedures for Investigation and Registration of Accidents at Work I. General Provisions Issued pursuant to Section 13, Paragraph one

More information

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,

More information

Estimating Cost Effectiveness of Wearing Motorcycle Helmets

Estimating Cost Effectiveness of Wearing Motorcycle Helmets Estimating Cost Effectiveness of Wearing Motorcycle Helmets Presented by Gwendolyn L. Gill PhD Student in Public Policy (Economics) University of North Carolina at Charlotte Contact me at: glgill@uncc.edu

More information

PE finding: Left side extremities mild weakness No traumatic wound No bloody otorrhea, nor rhinorrhea

PE finding: Left side extremities mild weakness No traumatic wound No bloody otorrhea, nor rhinorrhea Case report A 82-year-old man was suffered from sudden onset spasm of extremities then he fell down to the ground with loss of consciousness. He recovered his consciousness 7-8 mins later but his conscious

More information

Thoracic Surgery Top Diagnosis Codes (Crosswalk)

Thoracic Surgery Top Diagnosis Codes (Crosswalk) Thoracic Surgery Top s (Crosswalk) 427.5 Cardiac arrest I46.2 Cardiac arrest due to underlying cardiac condition I46.8 Cardiac arrest due to other underlying condition I46.9 Cardiac arrest, cause unspecified

More information

Non-accidental injury: a radiological perspective

Non-accidental injury: a radiological perspective Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine Non-accidental injury: a radiological perspective H Carty Introduction Non-accidental injury (NAI), though well recognised in Western Society, since Caffey's publications

More information

MEDICAL MALPRACTICE CASE RESULTS

MEDICAL MALPRACTICE CASE RESULTS CASE RESULTS INFORMATION Please note that every case is different and these verdicts and settlements, while accurate, do not represent what we may obtain for you in your case. Nor does it mean that we

More information

Measure Name: Low Back Pain Imaging Studies Measure Code: LBP Lab Data: N

Measure Name: Low Back Pain Imaging Studies Measure Code: LBP Lab Data: N Measure Name: Low Back Pain Imaging Studies Owner: NCQA (LBP) Measure Code: LBP Lab Data: N Rule Description: General Criteria Summary The percentage of patients 18-50 years of age who had a principal

More information

BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models

BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models Archives of Emergency Medicine, 1985, 2, 209-213 BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models J. WORRELL Senior Registrar, Accident and Emergency Department, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth,

More information

Head & Spinal Trauma. Lesson Goal. Lesson Objectives 9/10/2012

Head & Spinal Trauma. Lesson Goal. Lesson Objectives 9/10/2012 Head & Spinal Trauma Lesson Goal Learn assessment of patients with head or spinal injuries and how to treat those injuries Lesson Objectives State nervous system components List central nervous system

More information

Report #14 CATASTROPHIC INJURIES: Paralysis, Amputation, Burns

Report #14 CATASTROPHIC INJURIES: Paralysis, Amputation, Burns Report #14 CATASTROPHIC INJURIES: Paralysis, Amputation, Burns Overview: A catastrophic injury or illness usually occurs suddenly and without warning. Injuries may be considered catastrophic when they

More information

Skeletal System: Axial and Appendicular Skeleton (Chapter 7 & 8)

Skeletal System: Axial and Appendicular Skeleton (Chapter 7 & 8) Skeletal System: Axial and Appendicular Skeleton (Chapter 7 & 8) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Eastern Campus Primary Sources for figures and content:

More information

Introduction. I. Objectives. II. Introduction. A. To become familiar with the terms of direction and location.

Introduction. I. Objectives. II. Introduction. A. To become familiar with the terms of direction and location. E X E R C I S E Introduction I. Objectives A. To become familiar with the terms of direction and location. B. To become familiar with different types of planes and sections. C. To learn the names and locations

More information

Deaths/injuries in motor vehicle crashes per million hours spent travelling, July 2008 June 2012 (All ages) Mode of travel

Deaths/injuries in motor vehicle crashes per million hours spent travelling, July 2008 June 2012 (All ages) Mode of travel Cyclists CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 212 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport CRASH FACTSHEET November 213 Cyclists have a number of risk factors that do not affect car drivers. The

More information

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PERMANENT DISABILITIES DATABASE BASED ON AUTOMOBILE COLLISIONS IN JAPAN

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PERMANENT DISABILITIES DATABASE BASED ON AUTOMOBILE COLLISIONS IN JAPAN THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PERMANENT DISABILITIES DATABASE BASED ON AUTOMOBILE COLLISIONS IN JAPAN Koshiro Ono Japan Automobile Research Institute, Japan Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis,

More information

June 2004 Version 1. Book of Quantum

June 2004 Version 1. Book of Quantum June 2004 Version 1 Book of Quantum Table of Contents FOREWORD 1 Background 1 Book of Quantum 1 Level of compensation 2 HOW TO USE THIS BOOK 3 How assessments are calculated 3 Identify a category of injury

More information

LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT

LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT UNIT - HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Chapter 18 LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT Movement is an important feature of living organism. Both the microbes and macrobes show wide range of movements. The movements results in change

More information

Appendix A Partial Pick List of Injury and Sequelae Codes (ICD-10-CA)

Appendix A Partial Pick List of Injury and Sequelae Codes (ICD-10-CA) What are ICD-10 and ICD-10-CA? The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - Tenth Revision (ICD-10) is an international standard for reporting diseases, injuries,

More information

On Cervical Zygapophysial Joint Pain After Whiplash. Spine December 1, 2011; Volume 36, Number 25S, pp S194 S199

On Cervical Zygapophysial Joint Pain After Whiplash. Spine December 1, 2011; Volume 36, Number 25S, pp S194 S199 On Cervical Zygapophysial Joint Pain After Whiplash 1 Spine December 1, 2011; Volume 36, Number 25S, pp S194 S199 Nikolai Bogduk, MD, PhD FROM ABSTRACT Objective To summarize the evidence that implicates

More information

Epidemiologic Features of Facial Injuries among Motorcyclists using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)

Epidemiologic Features of Facial Injuries among Motorcyclists using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) Epidemiologic Features of Facial Injuries among Motorcyclists using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) Hamed Akhlaghi 1, Ali Adibi 2 and Mohammad Reza Zafarghandi 3 Sina Trauma Research Center, Sina General

More information

Protect your students quality of life

Protect your students quality of life Gold Gold Plus Platinum Protect your students quality of life A quality education is an investment in a child s future, providing students with the skills, knowledge and experience to make the most of

More information

Kinematics of Trauma

Kinematics of Trauma CHAPTER 4 Kinematics of Trauma CHAPTER OBJECTIVES At the completion of this chapter, the reader will be able to do the following: Define energy in the context of production of injury. Describe the association

More information

Medical Terminology, Anatompy & Physiology

Medical Terminology, Anatompy & Physiology 1. Which of the following BEST describes the anatomical position? a. Supine with arms crossed over the chest and knees slightly bent b. Standing, facing forward, with arms raised above the head c. Standing,

More information

A Review of Paediatric Spinal Injuries in Traffic-Related Incidents

A Review of Paediatric Spinal Injuries in Traffic-Related Incidents A Review of Paediatric Spinal Injuries in Traffic-Related Incidents by Lynne E. Bilston and Julie Brown Final Report to the Motor Accidents Authority of New South Wales Prince of Wales Medical Research

More information

The Alarming Facts of Road Accidents in India

The Alarming Facts of Road Accidents in India The Alarming Facts of Road Accidents in India! BMW Z3 Honda Accord On behalf of Indian Orthopaedic Association Prepared by Dr S Rajasekaran, President-Indian Orthopaedic Association (sr@gangahospital.com)

More information

Summary. How severe are the injuries of victims of road traffic accidents

Summary. How severe are the injuries of victims of road traffic accidents Summary How severe are the injuries of victims of road traffic accidents Analysis of the MAIS severity scale for injuries suffered by victims of road traffic accidents hospitalized in Belgian hospitals

More information

Injury Law Center OTHER INJURIES

Injury Law Center OTHER INJURIES Injury Law Center Note: This information is provided to give you a basic understanding of the injury. It is not intended as medical advice. You should consult a qualified medical provider. OTHER INJURIES

More information

solutions Accidents happen an unintentional-injury death occurs every 4 minutes and a disabling injury every 1 second. 1 GROUP

solutions Accidents happen an unintentional-injury death occurs every 4 minutes and a disabling injury every 1 second. 1 GROUP GROUP solutions Accidents happen an unintentional-injury death occurs every 4 minutes and a disabling injury every 1 second. 1 1 Injury Facts 2010 Edition, National Safety Council. GVAP1 GROUP ACCIDENT

More information

Risk Factors for 24-Hour Mortality After Traumatic Rib Fractures Owing to Motor Vehicle Accidents: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

Risk Factors for 24-Hour Mortality After Traumatic Rib Fractures Owing to Motor Vehicle Accidents: A Nationwide Population-Based Study Risk Factors for 24-Hour Mortality After Traumatic Rib Fractures Owing to Motor Vehicle Accidents: A Nationwide Population-Based Study Yung-Chang Lien, MD, Chao-Hung Chen, MD, MPH, and Herng-Ching Lin,

More information

REDUCING MOTORCYCLE TRAUMA IN THE A.C.T.

REDUCING MOTORCYCLE TRAUMA IN THE A.C.T. TARS Research Report REDUCING MOTORCYCLE TRAUMA IN THE A.C.T. Prepared by Dr. Mike Bambach Prof. Raphael Grzebieta Transport and Road Safety Research, UNSW (TARS) TARS February 2014 TARS Research Report

More information

Implementing Medical Checkups to Prevent. Sports-Related Injuries and Disorders

Implementing Medical Checkups to Prevent. Sports-Related Injuries and Disorders Sports-Related Injuries and Disorders Implementing Medical Checkups to Prevent Sports-Related Injuries and Disorders JMAJ 48(1): 1 5, 2005 Hideo MATSUMOTO*, Toshiro OTANI**, Hitoshi ABE*** and Yasunori

More information

Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review

Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review Name: Period: Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review 1. List four functions of the skeletal system: a. b. c. d. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and

More information

Latest DOT Statistics

Latest DOT Statistics Snell & Helmet Standards Daniel Thomas, M.D. Gear Up Conference Springfield, IL December 15, 2011 Snell Memorial Foundation, Inc. otorcycle Crashes on the Rise Latest DOT Statistics Motorcycling related

More information

Welcome to Anatomy & Physiology

Welcome to Anatomy & Physiology Welcome to Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 -Human Organization What do you need to do to pass this class? MEMORIZE! The Scope of Human Anatomy Human anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body.

More information

Wolfram Hell *, Matthias Graw. Ludwig Maximilians University, Forensic Medicine, Munich, Germany

Wolfram Hell *, Matthias Graw. Ludwig Maximilians University, Forensic Medicine, Munich, Germany Elderly people in fatal traffic accidents. Analysis of the LMU Safety Accident Database with results from Accident reconstruction, autopsy and ideas of countermeasures from the technical and medical perspective.

More information

Certified Athletic trainers should follow a 10-step process of evaluation for orthopedic injuries, which includes but is not limited to:

Certified Athletic trainers should follow a 10-step process of evaluation for orthopedic injuries, which includes but is not limited to: Acute Care Policy Acute Care Policy and Procedures Athletic training students within Winona State University s Athletic Training Education Program have the opportunity to evaluate acute athletic injuries

More information

Cycling-related Traumatic Brain Injury 2011

Cycling-related Traumatic Brain Injury 2011 Cycling-related Traumatic Brain Injury 2011 The Chinese University of Hong Kong Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery Accident & Emergency Medicine Academic Unit Jockey Club School of Public

More information

Nursing. Management of Spinal Trauma. Content. Objectives. Objectives

Nursing. Management of Spinal Trauma. Content. Objectives. Objectives 7 cervical vertebrae Content 12 thoracic vertebrae Nursing 5 sacral vertebrae Management of Spinal Trauma Kwai Fung Betty Siu Ward Manager O&T Dept TKOH Date : 22nd April 2007 5 lumbar vertebrae 4 coccygeal

More information

National Motorcycle Conference. Jim Hand Head of Crash Mitigation Department for Transport

National Motorcycle Conference. Jim Hand Head of Crash Mitigation Department for Transport National Motorcycle Conference Jim Hand Head of Crash Mitigation Department for Transport NATIONAL MOTORCYCLE CONFERENCE Jim Hand 27 August 2014 The Issue The safety of motorcyclists is very important.

More information

Measuring Injury Severity

Measuring Injury Severity 1 Measuring Injury Severity A brief introduction Thomas Songer, PhD University of Pittsburgh tjs@pitt.edu Injury severity is an integral component in injury research and injury control. This lecture introduces

More information

Speeding. Probability of death at different impact speeds

Speeding. Probability of death at different impact speeds Speeding CRASH FACTSHEET 2012 CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2011 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport In this fact sheet speeding is defined as driving too fast for the conditions. The

More information

Maryland s Motorcycle Crash Picture

Maryland s Motorcycle Crash Picture Maryland s Motorcycle Crash Picture Cindy Burch University of Maryland, Baltimore National Study Center for Trauma and EMS Maryland Center for Traffic Safety Analysis Challenges Motorcycle safety is not

More information

Research Article E-Bike Injuries: Experience from an Urban Emergency Department A Retrospective Study from Switzerland

Research Article E-Bike Injuries: Experience from an Urban Emergency Department A Retrospective Study from Switzerland Emergency Medicine International, Article ID 850236, 5 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/850236 Research Article E-Bike Injuries: Experience from an Urban Emergency Department A Retrospective Study

More information

Are you protected from life s accidents? There are things that you or your family do outside of work that may lead to an accidental injury.

Are you protected from life s accidents? There are things that you or your family do outside of work that may lead to an accidental injury. Are you protected from life s accidents? There are things that you or your family do outside of work that may lead to an accidental injury. SPORTS TRAVEL SCHOOL VACATION Benefit coverage for A Plus Benefits

More information

Mary Case, MD Professor of Pathology St. Louis University USA. 2015 MO Juvenile Justice Association Conference Lake Ozark, MO

Mary Case, MD Professor of Pathology St. Louis University USA. 2015 MO Juvenile Justice Association Conference Lake Ozark, MO Mary Case, MD Professor of Pathology St. Louis University USA 2015 MO Juvenile Justice Association Conference Lake Ozark, MO I have nothing to disclose 75 80% of child abuse deaths are due to head trauma

More information

SAE / Government Meeting. Washington, D.C. May 2005

SAE / Government Meeting. Washington, D.C. May 2005 SAE / Government Meeting Washington, D.C. May 2005 Overview of the Enhancements and Changes in the CIREN Program History of Phase One Established 1997 (7 centers) Four Federal centers Three GM centers

More information

Financial protection for on- and off-the-job accidents Voluntary Plans

Financial protection for on- and off-the-job accidents Voluntary Plans Quality health plans & benefits Healthier living Financial well-being Intelligent solutions Financial protection for on- and off-the-job accidents Voluntary Plans www.aetnavoluntary.com 77.02.308.1 (5/12)

More information