# Presentation Slides. Lesson Nine. Cars and Loans 04/09

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1 Presentation Slides \$ Lesson Nine Cars and Loans 04/09

2 costs of owning and operating a motor vehicle ownership (fixed) costs: Depreciation (based on purchase price) Interest on loan (if buying on credit) Insurance Registration fee, license, taxes operating (variable) costs: Gasoline Oil and other fluids Tires Maintenance and repairs Parking and tolls cars and loans slide 9-A

3 how much can you afford? (the rule) never borrow more than 20% of your yearly net income If you earn \$400 a month after taxes, then your net income in one year is: 12 x \$400 = \$4,800 Calculate 20% of your annual net income to find your safe debt load: \$4,800 x 20% = \$960 So, you should never have more than \$960 of debt outstanding. Note: Housing debt (i.e., mortgage payments) should not be counted as part of the 20%, but other debt should be included, such as car loans, student loans and credit cards. monthly payments shouldn t exceed 10% of your monthly net income If your take-home pay is \$400 a month \$400 x 10% = \$40 Your total monthly debt payments shouldn t total more than \$40 per month. Note: Housing payments (i.e., mortgage payments) should not be counted as part of the 10%, but other debt should be included, such as car loans, student loans and credit cards. cars and loans slide 9-B

4 consumer decision making deciding to spend your money: Do I really need this item? Is it worth the time I spend making the money to buy it? Is there a better use for my money right now? deciding on the right purchase: What level of quality do I want (low, medium, or high)? What level of quality do I need? What types of services and repairs does the dealer offer? Should I wait until there is a sale on the type of car I want? Should I buy a new or a used car? If I buy a used car, should I buy it from a dealer or from a private party? Should I choose a car with a well-known name even if it costs more? Do I know anyone who owns the type of car I want? Are the warranty and the service contracts on the car comparable with warranties and service contracts on similar cars? What do consumer magazines say about the type of car I want? cars and loans slide 9-C

5 shopping for a used car before you begin shopping: Decide how much you can afford to spend. Decide which car models and options interest you. Research the reliability of the model of car you want. Find out where the nearest repair facility is that works on the type of car you want. Find out whether parts are readily available for the type of car you want. Find recent prices in used-car blue books in the library, on the internet, in newspaper ads, consumer magazines, etc. Shop for financing. Factor in the costs of the loan and the cost of maintenance. Know how to read a Buyer s Guide sticker. as you shop: Find out the reputation of the dealer. Find out what type of warranty comes with the car. Find out what type of service contract comes with the car. cars and loans slide 9-D

6 sources of used cars new-car dealers provide quality used vehicles; service department available; higher prices than other sources used-car dealers specialize in previously owned vehicles; limited warranty (if any); vehicles may be in poor condition private parties may be a good buy if vehicle was well maintained; few consumer protection regulations apply to private party sales other sources such as auctions or sales by government agencies, auto rental companies, and on the internet; most of these vehicles have been driven many miles cars and loans slide 9-E

7 shopping for a new car before you begin shopping: Decide which car model and specific options you want. Find out the invoice price and the true cost to the dealer of the model and options you want. Decide how much you are willing to pay the dealer above the invoice price. Make your offer to as many dealers as possible. Compare final sales prices with other dealers and buying services. Compare financing costs from various sources. If you already have a car, find out its value independent of the dealer s trade-in offer. Try to sell your old car yourself (dealers usually give better deals without a trade-in). Decide whether you need an optional service contract or credit insurance. cars and loans slide 9-F

8 warranties as-is (no warranty): No expressed or implied warranty. If you buy a car and have problems with it, you must pay for any repairs yourself. Some states do not permit as-is sales on used cars. implied warranties: Warranty of merchantability a product will do what it is designed to do. Warranty of fitness for a particular purpose a product will do what the seller promises it will do. Always in effect unless the product is sold as-is or the seller says in writing that there is no warranty. dealer warranties: Offered and specifically written by the dealer. Terms and conditions can vary greatly. Useful to compare warranty terms on similar cars or negotiate warranty coverage. unexpired manufacturer s warranties: Manufacturer s warranty can sometimes be transferred to the new owner. There may be a fee for the transfer process. cars and loans slide 9-G

9 service contracts (also called extended warranties ) before deciding to buy a service contract, find out: The cost Which repairs the contract covers Whether the warranty already covers the same repairs Whether the vehicle is likely to need repairs and, if so, the potential cost of repairs Whether there is a deductible and, if so, what it is Whether repairs and service can be performed at locations other than at the dealership Whether the contract covers incidental expenses such as towing Whether there is a cancellation or refund policy and, if so, the cost Whether the dealer or company offering the service is reputable Whether you can purchase the service contract later cars and loans slide 9-H

10 shopping for a car loan variables include: Annual Percentage Rate (APR) Length of the loan Monthly payments Total finance charge Total to be repaid e.g. example of how loans can vary: Borrowing \$8,000 at different rates Total Total Length monthly finance To be APR of loan payment charge repaid 10.00% 36 months \$ \$1, \$9, months \$ \$2, \$10, % 36 months \$ \$1, \$9, months \$ \$2, \$10, % 36 months \$ \$1, \$9, months \$ \$2, \$10, cars and loans slide 9-I

11 how to calculate the total cost of a loan to estimate the total cost of a loan: Amount of the loan x APR x number of years* e.g. example: \$10,000 x 0.10 x 5 years = \$5,000 \$5,000 + \$10,000 = \$15,000 to estimate the amount of monthly payments: e.g. Total to be paid divided by number of months of the loan* example: \$15,000 / 60 = \$250 per month * These formulas produce estimates that are slightly higher than your actual costs and payments, because they do not account for the reduction of interest payments as you repay the loan. cars and loans slide 9-J

12 the truth-in-lending act the truth-in-lending act requires lender to inform borrower of: Amount financed What charges are included in amount financed Total finance charge, in dollars Annual Percentage Rate (APR) Payment schedule Total amount of payments Total sales price Prepayment penalty, if any Late payment penalty, if any Security interest Insurance charges cars and loans slide 9-K

13 types of auto insurance coverage liability (40 50% of premium) Bodily injury coverage Property-damage coverage (e.g., to another person s car) collision (up to 30% of premium) Pays for the physical damage to your car as a result of an accident Limited by deductible comprehensive (about 12% of premium) Pays for damage caused by vandalism, hailstorms, floods, theft, etc. medical Covers medical payments for driver and passengers injured in accident uninsured motorist Reimburses you for bodily injury in accidents caused by uninsured drivers towing and labor rental reimbursement Pays a specific amount per day to rent a car while yours is being fixed cars and loans slide 9-L

14 how insurance rates are set personal characteristics Age Sex Marital status Personal habits (e.g., smoking) Type and frequency of vehicle use (e.g., commuting) geographic location (often classified by zip code) Rural usually lowers rates, urban usually raises rates driving record Accident with death, bodily injury, or property damage in excess of \$400 may trigger surcharge on premium for 3 years Number and kind of moving violations (and total of associated points) Number of years insured with the company vehicle characteristics Damage, repair, and theft record of type and model of car Age of car cars and loans slide 9-M

15 repossession rights of creditor Can seize car as soon as you default Can t commit a breach of the peace, e.g., use physical force or threats of force Can keep car or resell it May not keep or sell any personal property in car (not including improvements such as a stereo or luggage rack) your rights May buy back car by paying the full amount owed on it plus repossession expenses your legal responsibilities Must pay the deficiency balance the amount of debt remaining even after your creditor has sold your car cars and loans slide 9-N

16 leasing a motor vehicle advantages Smaller initial outlay than down payment when buying on credit Monthly lease payments may be less than monthly finance payments Lease agreement provides detailed records for business purposes Oftentimes, all service charges related to maintenance are included in lease, so there is no additional outlay of money for regular maintenance disadvantages No ownership interest in the vehicle Must meet requirements similar to applying for credit Additional costs occur (such as for extra mileage, certain repairs, ending lease early) discussion of leasing vs. buying You must decide which option makes the most sense for your situation. Do you have cash available for a down payment? How much of a monthly payment can you afford? How long do you plan to keep the car? cars and loans slide 9-O

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