Garfield Public Schools Environmental Science Curriculum Grade Nine

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1 Garfield Public Schools Environmental Science Curriculum Grade Nine Revision Committee: Ms. Suvarna Shah Ms. Ludivina Manalo Final Revision Date: August 31, 2011 Garfield Board of Education Dr. Kenneth Conte- President Mr. Tony Lio - Vice President Mrs. Rose Marie Aloia Mr. Anthony Barckett Mr. Salvatore Benanti Mr. Richard Giacomarro Dr. Donna M. Koch Mr. Nikolce Milevski Mr. Edward Puzio Administration Mr. Nicholas Perrapato, Superintendent Mr. Tom Egan, Business Administrator / Board Secretary Curriculum Supervisor Mrs. Alexandra Bellenger Assistant Curriculum Supervisor Science Ms. Jennifer Botten Board Adoption Date September 26, 2011 Resolution #

2 Course Overview Garfield High School Science Department Environmental Science Curriculum This course is designed to introduce students to major ecological concepts and the environmental problems, which affect the world in which they live. Students will learn about technological developments which have created environmental problems as well as technology which is helping to solve them. This program also provides one way in which students can become more aware of the interactions of people and their environment. It relates important environmental issues to the lives of the students and their families. It promotes awareness and understanding of practical everyday problems which affect their lives as they become citizens of the world. Major topics include: general science skills, the earth, energy resources, land and water resources, and limiting human impact. Activity-based investigations are utilized to allow students to further investigate course concepts. Science Environmental Science 2

3 Science Department Environmental Science Curriculum Page Unit Title: Science and the Environment... 6 Duration: 2.5 Weeks This unit provides an overview of environmental science. The history of humans in the environment is presented including the needs of the human society and the need for sustainable development. Students will be given a preview of the various fields that contribute to environmental science. Also covered is how to solve environmental problems by identifying causes and describing solutions, as well as an introduction to some major environmental problems that are threatening today s environment. Unit Title: Tools of Environmental Science... 8 Duration: 2.5 weeks This unit discusses the tools of mind and the importance in environmental science. The mental and conceptual tools that scientists use to explore and understand the environment are an integral part of solving problems. Students will learn about the value of making informed, thoughtful decisions about the environment and will explore three models commonly used by scientist to examine the environment. A review of the scientific method is also included as well as introduction to statistics. Unit Title: The Dynamic Earth Duration: 2 weeks Earth is an integrated system consisting of four interacting components; the geosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the biosphere. In this unit, students will study the characteristics of each and understand how they all have an important role in sustaining life. Unit Title: Ecosystems Duration: 3 weeks In this unit, the structure of an ecosystem is presented. In an ecosystem, the biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) components interact to form an interconnected system. The flow of energy, cycling of materials, and ecological succession combine to affect how ecosystem works. Organisms need energy to stay alive. Some organisms, such as plants, can directly convert usable energy from sun. The cycling of materials such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus is essential to keep nutrients balanced in ecosystems. Human activities can affect these cycles. Through the ecological succession, ecosystems can change over time. Unit Title: Water Duration: 2 weeks In this unit, the importance of water in the environment is explored. Students will gain knowledge about the water and understand that even though there is an abundance of water on Earth, only a small Science Environmental Science Unit Map 3

4 percentage is suitable for human use. Pollution and misuse of our water has caused our fresh water supply to become our most threatened resource. Many freshwater sources are contaminated with chemicals, agriculture runoff, and sewage. The proper cleanup of water pollution may take a very long time to succeed. Unit Title: Air: Causes of Air, Noise, and Light Pollution Duration: 2 weeks In this unit, air and air pollution will be introduced. Students will learn about how air quality has a direct impact on human life. The short and long term health effects of air pollution will be discussed. Also covered are the different types of pollution that affect air quality and the various ways in which the pollution can be reduced. Unit Title: Atmosphere and Climate Change Duration: 2 weeks In this unit, the Earth's climate and ways that human activities may be causing climate change are explored. Students will learn about the difference between weather and climate and the four factors that determine climate. The different climates found on Earth will be investigated. The importance of the ozone layer and the relationship of the greenhouse effect and global warming will be examined. Unit Title: Land: Land Duration: 2 weeks Humans use land for many purposes, including farmland to grow crops, rangeland to feed livestock, forest land for wood, cities to live and conduct business, and parks for recreational enjoyment. In this unit, each of these uses will be examined. Unit Title: Nonrenewable Energy Duration: 2 weeks In this unit, students will begin to explore the energy needs and use in our society. Nonrenewable energy resources will be discussed as well as our choices of fuel type and our dependence on them. In the United State, energy consumption patterns produce a great demand for fuels in the transportation, industrial, residential and commercial sectors. Our choice of fuels and our dependence on them have economic, environmental, and political consequences. Unit Title: Renewable Energy Duration: 2 weeks In this unit, students will discover the role that renewable and alternative energy resources play in reducing our dependence on nonrenewable energy resources. The idea of energy conservation and efficiency in relation to the reduction of fossil-fuel use will be discussed. Science Environmental Science Unit Map 4

5 Unit Title: Waste Duration: 3 weeks In this unit, the study of waste disposal and the problems associated with various types of waste will be introduced. The student will evaluate methods and tradeoffs and relate it to the ecological premise that ""everything has to go somewhere"" and every method will have tradeoffs regarding economic, environmental and quality of life costs." Unit Title: Economics, Policy, and the Future Duration: 2 weeks This unit focuses on the many ways in which governments and people can affect environmental issues. Environmental decision making can occur at the following levels: the individual, the community, state or national government, or internationally New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards Index Common Core Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Science Environmental Science Unit Map 5

6 Content Area: Science Garfield High School Unit Title: Science and the Environment Unit Overview Target Course/Grade Level: Environmental Science/ Grade 9 Duration: 2.5 Weeks Description This unit provides an overview of environmental science. The history of humans in the environment is presented including the needs of the human society and the need for sustainable development. Students will be given a preview of the various fields that contribute to environmental science. Also covered is how to solve environmental problems by identifying causes and describing solutions, as well as an introduction to some major environmental problems that are threatening today s environment. Concepts & Understandings Concepts Understandings Understanding the Environment The environment is everything around us The Environment and Society including the natural world and things produced by humans. The environment is a complex web of relationships that connects us to the world we live in. To solve environmental problems, we have to consider human societies, how they act and what they do. Learning Targets CPI Codes A C D.1 21 st Century Themes and Skills Themes Global Awareness Environmental Literacy Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills Communication and Collaboration Skills ICT Literacy Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-Direction Productivity and Accountability Guiding Questions What is Environmental science? Why it is an interdisciplinary science? What effects have the different types of societies and revolutions throughout history have on the environment? What is the major difference between a renewable and nonrenewable resource? Science Environmental Science Tools of Environmental Science 6

7 How can environmental problems be grouped together? What is the law of supply and demand? How can we ethically control population growth? What are some differences between developing and developed countries? What is sustainability? Why is it important to research and explore many viewpoints when determining a solution for environmental problems? Unit Results Students will... Define environmental science, and compare environmental science with ecology. List the five major fields of study that contribute to environmental science. Describe the major environmental effects of hunter-gatherers, the agricultural revolution, and the Industrial Revolution. Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable resources. Classify environmental problems into three major categories. Explain the law of supply and demand. Discuss the problems associated with the control of population growth. List three differences between developed and developing countries. Compare population growth problems in more-developed countries and less developed countries. Explains the relationship between economics and the environment. Explain what sustainability is, and describe why it is a goal of environmental science. Discuss the role of critical thinking in science. Suggested Activities The following activities can be incorporated into the daily lessons: Laboratory Experiments The following experiments should be included into the daily lessons. Science Environmental Science Tools of Environmental Science 7

8 Content Area: Science Garfield High School Unit Title: Tools of Environmental Science Unit Overview Target Course/Grade Level: Environmental Science / Grade 9 Duration: 2.5 weeks Description This unit discusses the tools of mind and the importance in environmental science. The mental and conceptual tools that scientists use to explore and understand the environment are an integral part of solving problems. Students will learn about the value of making informed, thoughtful decisions about the environment and will explore three models commonly used by scientist to examine the environment. A review of the scientific method is also included as well as introduction to statistics. Concepts Scientific Methods Statistics and Models Making Informed Decisions Concepts & Understandings Understandings A series of steps that scientists worldwide use to identify and answer a question. Statistics includes the collection and classification of data in the form of numbers. Models are representation of objects or systems. Environmental decisions involve values and a decisions making model. Learning Targets CPI Codes A A A B B B D D.2 21 st Century Themes and Skills Themes Global Awareness Environmental Literacy Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills Communication and Collaboration Skills ICT Literacy Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-Direction Science Environmental Science Tools of Environmental Science 8

9 Productivity and Accountability Guiding Questions What are the steps of the experimental method? Why a hypothesis is not just a guess? How can a scientist be both skeptical and open to new ideas at the same time? What types of models used by scientists? Why is sample size so important? Why are conceptual and mathematical models especially powerful? What is the use of statistics in science? Which values should be considered when making environmental decisions? Unit Results Students will... List and describe the steps of the experimental method. Describe why a good hypothesis is not simply a guess. Describe the two essential parts of a good experiment. Describe how scientists study subjects in which experiments are not possible. Explain the importance of curiosity and imagination in science. Explain how scientists use statistics and why size of a statistical sample is important. Describe the three types of models commonly used by scientist. Explain the importance of conceptual and mathematical models. Describe three values that people consider when making decisions about the environment. Describe the four steps in a simple environmental decision-making model. Compare short term and long term consequences regarding hypothetical environ mental issues. Suggested Activities The following activities can be incorporated into the daily lessons: Laboratory Experiments The following experiments should be included into the daily lessons. Science Environmental Science Tools of Environmental Science 9

10 Content Area: Science Garfield High School Unit Title: The Dynamic Earth Unit Overview Target Course/Grade Level: Environmental Science / Grade 9 Duration: 2 weeks Description Earth is an integrated system consisting of four interacting components; the geosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the biosphere. In this unit, students will study the characteristics of each and understand how they all have an important role in sustaining life. Concepts & Understandings Concepts Understandings Geosphere The geosphere includes the solid part of Earth, Atmosphere such as rock and soil. Hydrosphere The atmosphere is the mix of gases that surround the Earth, including nitrogen, oxygen, carbon Biosphere dioxide and others. The hydrosphere is all the water on or near the Earth s surface. The biosphere is the narrow layer around Earth s surface in which life can exist. Learning Targets CPI Codes C C C G G G.7 21 st Century Themes and Skills Themes Global Awareness Environmental Literacy Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills Communication and Collaboration Skills ICT Literacy Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-Direction Productivity and Accountability Guiding Questions What are the four components of the Earth's system? Science Environmental Science The Dynamic Earth 10

11 How wind and water can alter the Earth's surface? Where do earthquakes and volcanic eruptions most often occur? What are three mechanisms of heat transfer in Earth s atmosphere? What is the role of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere? What are 3-major steps in water cycle? What are the properties of ocean water and the types of ocean current? What are the factors that confine living things to the biosphere? Unit Results Students will... Describe the composition and structure of the Earth. Describe the Earth's tectonic plate. Explain the main cause of Earthquakes and their effects. Identify the relationship between volcanic eruptions and climate change. Describe how wind and water alter the Earth's surface. Describe the composition of the Earth's atmosphere and the layers of Earth's atmosphere. Explain three mechanisms of heat transfer in Earth's atmosphere. Explain the greenhouse effect. Name the three major processes in the water cycle. Describe the properties of ocean water and describe the two types of ocean current. Explain how the ocean regulates Earth's temperature. Discuss the factors that confine life to the biosphere. Explain the difference between open and closed system. Suggested Activities The following activities can be incorporated into the daily lessons: Laboratory Experiments The following experiments should be included into the daily lessons. Science Environmental Science The Dynamic Earth 11

12 Content Area: Science Unit Title: Ecosystems Garfield High School Unit Overview Target Course/Grade Level: Environmental Science / Grade 9 Duration: 3 weeks Description In this unit, the structure of an ecosystem is presented. In an ecosystem, the biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) components interact to form an interconnected system. The flow of energy, cycling of materials, and ecological succession combine to affect how ecosystem works. Organisms need energy to stay alive. Some organisms, such as plants, can directly convert usable energy from sun. The cycling of materials such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus is essential to keep nutrients balanced in ecosystems. Human activities can affect these cycles. Through the ecological succession, ecosystems can change over time. Concepts & Understandings Concepts Understandings Energy Flow in Ecosystems Sunlight is the ultimate source of energy for all The Cycling of Materials living things. How Ecosystems Change Energy needs to be transferred in the ecosystem because all living things need energy to survive. Materials in the ecosystem are constantly recycled. Ecosystems are constantly changing. Learning Targets CPI Codes B B B C C G.2 21 st Century Themes and Skills Themes Global Awareness Environmental Literacy Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills Communication and Collaboration Skills ICT Literacy Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-Direction Productivity and Accountability Science Environmental Science Ecosystems 12

13 Guiding Questions How is energy transferred in the environment? Why do consumers depend on producers? Why is energy transfer in a food web more complex than energy transfer in a food chain? What is the carbon cycle? What is the nitrogen cycle? What is ecological succession? Unit Results Students will... Describe how energy is transferred from the sun to producers and then to consumers. Describe one way in which consumers depend on producers. List two types of consumers. Explain how energy transfer in a food web is more complex than energy transfer in a food chain. Explain why an energy pyramid is a representation of trophic levels. List the three stages of the carbon cycle. Describe where fossil fuels are located. Identify one way that humans are affecting the carbon cycle. List the three stages of the nitrogen cycle. Describe the role that nitrogen-fixing bacteria play in the nitrogen cycle. Explain how the excess use of fertilizer can affect the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. List two examples of ecological succession. Explain how a pioneer species contributes to ecological succession. Explain what happens during old-field succession. Describe how lichens contribute to primary succession. Suggested Activities The following activities can be incorporated into the daily lessons: Laboratory Experiments The following experiments should be included into the daily lessons. Science Environmental Science Ecosystems 13

14 Content Area: Science Unit Title: Water Garfield High School Unit Overview Target Course/Grade Level: Environmental Science / Grade 9 Duration: 2 weeks Description In this unit, the importance of water in the environment is explored. Students will gain knowledge about the water and understand that even though there is an abundance of water on Earth, only a small percentage is suitable for human use. Pollution and misuse of our water has caused our fresh water supply to become our most threatened resource. Many freshwater sources are contaminated with chemicals, agriculture runoff, and sewage. The proper cleanup of water pollution may take a very long time to succeed. Concepts & Understandings Concepts Understandings Water Resources Water on Earth is found as either fresh water Water Use and Management or salt water. Water Pollution Most human uses of water require fresh water. There are three major uses for water: residential use, agricultural use, and industrial use. The availability of water, population size, and economic conditions of a given area affect how people use water. Water management projects can have various goals such as bringing in water to make a dry area hospitable, creating a reservoir for recreation or drinking water, or generating electrical power. Water pollution is a major environmental problem that needs to be addressed. Learning Targets CPI Codes C G.1 21 st Century Themes and Skills Themes Global Awareness Environmental Literacy Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills Communication and Collaboration Skills ICT Literacy Flexibility and Adaptability Science Environmental Science Water 14

15 Initiative and Self-Direction Productivity and Accountability Guiding Questions How are water resources distributed to the different areas of the Earth? Why is freshwater considered a limited resource? How do different areas of the Earth use water? Why and how is water treated for drinking uses? How is water used in homes, industry, and agriculture? How can we conserve water? What are some sources of water pollution? Unit Results Students will... Describe the distribution of Earth s water resources. Explain why fresh water is one of Earth s limited resources. Describe the distribution of Earth s surface water. Describe the relationship between groundwater and surface water in a watershed. Identify patterns of global water use. Explain how water is treated so that it can be used for drinking. Identify how water is used in homes, in industry, and in agriculture. Describe how dams and water diversion projects are used to manage freshwater resources. Identify five ways that water can be conserved Compare point-source pollution and non point-source pollution. Classify water pollutants by five types. Explain why groundwater pollution is difficult to clean. Describe the major sources of ocean pollution, and explain the effects of pollution one co systems. Describe six major laws designed to improve water quality in the United States. Suggested Activities The following activities can be incorporated into the daily lessons: Laboratory Experiments The following experiments should be included into the daily lessons. Students will be testing their home tap water samples to check for various impurities. They will use a plastic cup with a water sample and use various additives dissolved into the water to check for impurities. As the additive dissolves the water should change color, letting the students know what impurities are present in their home tap water. Science Environmental Science Water 15

16 Content Area: Science Garfield High School Unit Title: Air: Causes of Air, Noise, and Light Pollution Unit Overview Target Course/Grade Level: Environmental Science / Grade 9 Duration: 2 weeks Description In this unit, air and air pollution will be introduced. Students will learn about how air quality has a direct impact on human life. The short and long term health effects of air pollution will be discussed. Also covered are the different types of pollution that affect air quality and the various ways in which the pollution can be reduced. Concepts & Understandings Concepts Understandings Causes of Air Pollution Air pollution is caused by a buildup of harmful Effects of Air Pollution on Health substances in the air to unhealthy levels. Noise Pollution Air pollution can be a result of human Light Pollution activities and can also come from natural sources. Acid Precipitation Short term health effects of air pollution include headaches, nausea, irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat, tightness in the chest, coughing, and upper respiratory problems. Long term health effects of air pollution include emphysema, lung cancer, and heart disease. Noise pollution is irritating and damages our hearing by destroying the cells in our ears. Light pollution does not present a direct hazard to human health, although it does affect our environment such as diminishing our view of the night sky. Acid precipitation is rain, sleet, or snow that contains a high concentration of acid. This is a direct result of air pollution. Learning Targets CPI Codes C.2 21 st Century Themes and Skills Themes Global Awareness Environmental Literacy Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills Communication and Collaboration Skills Science Environmental Science Air: Causes of Air, Noise, and Light Pollution 16

17 ICT Literacy Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-Direction Productivity and Accountability Guiding Questions What are sources of air pollution? What is smog? How does air pollution affect human health? What is the problem with noise pollution? How can we reduce light pollution? What causes acid rain? Unit Results Students will... Name five primary air pollutants, and give sources for each. Name the two major sources of air pollution in urban areas. Describe the way in which smog forms. Explain the way in which a thermal inversion traps air pollution. Describe three possible short-term effects and long-term effects of air pollution on human health. Explain what causes indoor air pollution and how it can be prevented. Describe three human health problems caused by noise pollution. Describe solutions to energy waste caused by light pollution. Explain the causes of acid precipitation. Explain how acid precipitation affects plants, soils, and aquatic ecosystems. Describe three ways that acid precipitation affects humans. Describe ways that countries are working together to solve the problem of acid precipitation. Suggested Activities The following activities can be incorporated into the daily lessons: Laboratory Experiments The following experiments should be included into the daily lessons. Science Environmental Science Air: Causes of Air, Noise, and Light Pollution 17

18 Content Area: Science Garfield High School Unit Title: Atmosphere and Climate Change Unit Overview Target Course/Grade Level: Environmental Science / Grade 9 Duration: 2 weeks Description In this unit, the Earth's climate and ways that human activities may be causing climate change are explored. Students will learn about the difference between weather and climate and the four factors that determine climate. The different climates found on Earth will be investigated. The importance of the ozone layer and the relationship of the greenhouse effect and global warming will be examined. Concepts & Understandings Concepts Understandings Climate and Climate Change Climate is the long term prevailing weather The Ozone Shield conditions of a particular place based on Global Warming records taken. Seasonal changes in climate are the result of the tilt of the axis of the Earth. The ozone layer serves as a protective shield against ultraviolet radiation and can be damaged by CFCs. Trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere trap heat similar to the way a greenhouse does. Increasing levels of these gases in the atmosphere causes more heat to be trapped which leads to an increase in Earth s temperature. Learning Targets CPI Codes C F F.2 21 st Century Themes and Skills Themes Global Awareness Environmental Literacy Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills Communication and Collaboration Skills ICT Literacy Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-Direction Productivity and Accountability Science Environmental Science Atmosphere and Climate Change 18

19 Guiding Questions What is the difference between weather and climate? What determines an area s climate? What causes the seasons? How does the ozone layer protect living things? What are humans doing that damage the ozone layer? What is the greenhouse effect? How does the greenhouse effect relate to global warming? Unit Results Students will... Explain the difference between weather and climate. Identify four factors that determine climate. Explain why different parts of the earth have different climates. Explain what causes the seasons. Explain how the ozone layer shields the Earth from much of the sun s harmful radiation. Explain how chlorofluorocarbons damage the ozone layer. Explain the process by which the ozone hole forms. Describe the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation. Explain why the threat to the ozone layer is still continuing today Explain why Earth s atmosphere is like the glass in a greenhouse. Explain why carbon dioxide in the atmosphere appears to be increasing. Explain why many scientists think that the Earth s climate may be becoming increasingly warmer. Describe what a warmer Earth might be like. Suggested Activities The following activities can be incorporated into the daily lessons: Laboratory Experiments The following experiments should be included into the daily lessons. Science Environmental Science Atmosphere and Climate Change 19

20 Content Area: Science Unit Title: Land: Land Garfield High School Unit Overview Target Course/Grade Level: Environmental Science / Grade 9 Duration: 2 weeks Description Humans use land for many purposes, including farmland to grow crops, rangeland to feed livestock, forest land for wood, cities to live and conduct business, and parks for recreational enjoyment. In this unit, each of these uses will be examined. Concepts & Understandings Concepts Understandings How we use land Land can be used for cities, agriculture, Urban land use forestry, pasture, recreation, and preservation. Land management and conservation City planning is used to maximize the land resources of an area to accommodate its population. Resources of rural land are needed to support the population. Lands can be managed to provide resources indefinitely. Learning Targets CPI Codes C G G.5 21 st Century Themes and Skills Themes Global Awareness Environmental Literacy Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills Communication and Collaboration Skills ICT Literacy Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-Direction Productivity and Accountability Guiding Questions What is the difference between urban and rural land? How do we use the land? How does urban sprawl affect the environment? What are the benefits of preserving farmland? What effects does deforestation have on the environment? Unit Results Science Environmental Science Land 20

21 Students will... Distinguish between urban and rural land. Describe three major ways in which humans use land. Explain the concept of ecosystem services. Describe the urban crisis, and explain what people are doing to deal with it. Explain how urban sprawl affects the environment. Explain how open spaces provide urban areas with environmental benefits. Explain the heat-island effect. Describe how people use the geographic information system as a tool for land-use planning. Explain the benefits of preserving farmland. Describe two ways that rangeland can be managed sustainably. Describe the environmental effects of deforestation. Explain the function of parks and of wilderness areas. Suggested Activities The following activities can be incorporated into the daily lessons: Laboratory Experiments The following experiments should be included into the daily lessons. Science Environmental Science Land 21

22 Content Area: Science Unit Title: Nonrenewable Energy Unit Overview Target Course/Grade Level: Environmental Science / Grade 9 Duration: 2 weeks Description In this unit, students will begin to explore the energy needs and use in our society. Nonrenewable energy resources will be discussed as well as our choices of fuel type and our dependence on them. In the United State, energy consumption patterns produce a great demand for fuels in the transportation, industrial, residential and commercial sectors. Our choice of fuels and our dependence on them have economic, environmental, and political consequences. Concepts Energy Resources Fossil Fuels Nuclear Energy Concepts & Understandings CPI Codes D D B G.2 21 st Century Themes and Skills Themes Global Awareness Environmental Literacy Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills Communication and Collaboration Skills ICT Literacy Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-Direction Productivity and Accountability Guiding Questions Why is fuel so important to human societies? What is a fossil fuel and how is it used? What is nuclear fission? Understandings Most energy we use comes from fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are the remains of ancient organisms that have changed into coal, oil, or natural gas. Nuclear energy is the energy that is within the nucleus of an atom. Through a process called nuclear fission, nuclear energy is released and can be collected for use. Learning Targets Science Environmental Science Nonrenewable Energy 22

23 How does a nuclear power plant work? What are some advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power? Unit Results Students will... List five factors that influence the value of a fuel. Explain how fuels are used to generate electricity in an electric power plant. Identify patterns of energy consumption and production in the world and in the United States. Explain how fossil fuels form and how they are used. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of fossil-fuel use. List three factors that influence predictions of fossil-fuel production. Describe nuclear fission. Describe how a nuclear power plant works. List three advantages and three disadvantages of nuclear energy. Suggested Activities The following activities can be incorporated into the daily lessons: Laboratory Experiments The following experiments should be included into the daily lessons. Science Environmental Science Nonrenewable Energy 23

24 Content Area: Science Unit Title: Renewable Energy Unit Overview Target Course/Grade Level: Environmental Science / Grade 9 Duration: 2 weeks Description In this unit, students will discover the role that renewable and alternative energy resources play in reducing our dependence on nonrenewable energy resources. The idea of energy conservation and efficiency in relation to the reduction of fossil-fuel use will be discussed. Concepts & Understandings Concepts Understandings Renewable Energy Renewable energy is from sources that are Alternative Energy constantly being formed and include solar and Conservation of Energy wind power, biomass fuels, hydroelectric, and geothermal energy. Alternative energy describes energy sources that are still in development. For a source to become a viable option, it must prove to be cost efficient. Conservation means saving energy and this can be accomplished in many ways, including using energy efficient devices and wasting less energy. Learning Targets CPI Codes D G.6 21 st Century Themes and Skills Themes Global Awareness Environmental Literacy Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills Communication and Collaboration Skills ICT Literacy Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-Direction Productivity and Accountability Guiding Questions What are some forms of renewable energy? What are some alternative energy technologies? Science Environmental Science Renewable Energy 24

25 What is the difference between energy efficiency and energy conservation? Unit Results Students will... List six forms of renewable energy, and compare their advantages and disadvantages. Describe the differences between passive solar heating, active solar heating, and photovoltaic energy. Describe the current state of wind energy technology. Explain the differences in biomass fuel use between developed and developing nations. Describe how hydroelectric energy, geothermal energy, and geothermal heat pumps work. Describe three alternative energy technologies. Identify two ways that hydrogen could be used as a fuel source in the future. Explain the difference between energy efficiency and energy conservation. Describe two forms of energy-efficient transportation. Identify three ways that you can conserve energy in your daily life. Suggested Activities The following activities can be incorporated into the daily lessons: Laboratory Experiments The following experiments should be included into the daily lessons. Science Environmental Science Renewable Energy 25

26 Content Area: Science Unit Title: Waste Unit Overview Target Course/Grade Level: Environmental Science / Grade 9 Duration: 3 weeks Description In this unit, the study of waste disposal and the problems associated with various types of waste will be introduced. The student will evaluate methods and tradeoffs and relate it to the ecological premise that ""everything has to go somewhere"" and every method will have tradeoffs regarding economic, environmental and quality of life costs." Concepts & Understandings Concepts Understandings Solid Waste Solid is any discarded solid material. Reducing Solid Waste Solid waste amounts can be reduced by Hazardous Waste producing less waste, recycling, buying recycled products, composting, and changing the materials we use. Hazardous waste is any waste that poses a risk to the health of humans and living things. It is difficult to dispose of. Learning Targets CPI Codes D C G.6 21 st Century Themes and Skills Themes Global Awareness Environmental Literacy Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills Communication and Collaboration Skills ICT Literacy Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-Direction Productivity and Accountability Guiding Questions What is a biodegradable material? What is solid waste? How do we dispose of solid waste? How can we produce less waste? What is the process of recycling? Science Environmental Science Waste: 26

27 What is a hazardous waste? How do we dispose of hazardous wastes? Unit Results Students will... Name one characteristic that makes a material biodegradable. Identify two types of solid waste. Describe how a modern landfill works. Name two environmental problems caused by landfills. Identify three ways you can produce less waste. Describe how you can use your consumer buying power to reduce solid waste. List the steps that an item must go through to be recycled. List two benefits of composting. Name one advantage and one disadvantage to producing degradable plastic. Name two characteristics of hazardous waste. Describe one law that governs hazardous waste. Describe two ways in which hazardous waste is disposed Suggested Activities The following activities can be incorporated into the daily lessons: Laboratory Experiments The following experiments should be included into the daily lessons. Science Environmental Science Waste: 27

28 Content Area: Science Garfield High School Unit Title: Economics, Policy, and the Future Unit Overview Target Course/Grade Level: Environmental Science / Grade 9 Duration: 2 weeks Description This unit focuses on the many ways in which governments and people can affect environmental issues. Environmental decision making can occur at the following levels: the individual, the community, state or national government, or internationally. Concepts & Understandings Concepts Understandings Economics and International Cooperation Environmental and economic conditions are Environmental Policies in the United States linked across political borders around the Importance of Individuals world. Governments, organizations, and businesses around the work have to work together to solve environmental problems. The United States has enacted policies to reduce pollution and improve water quality. Individuals can influence policy at the national, state, and local levels. Individuals can influence environmental affairs through public and private actions. Learning Targets CPI Codes C G D.1 21 st Century Themes and Skills Themes Global Awareness Environmental Literacy Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills Communication and Collaboration Skills ICT Literacy Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-Direction Productivity and Accountability Guiding Questions What is sustainability? Science Environmental Science Waste: 28

29 How are economics and environmental science related? What are some things you as an individual can do to help solve environmental problems? Unit Results Students will... Describe some of the challenges to achieving sustainability. Describe several major international meetings and treaties relating to the environment. Explain how economics and environmental science are related. Compare two different approaches to regulation. Give an example of a private effort to address environmental problems Describe two major developments in U.S. environmental history. Give examples of three federal agencies that have environmental responsibilities. Explain the purpose of Environmental Impact Statements. Give an example of how citizens can affect environmental policy at each level of government local, state, and national. Evaluate the media as a source of information about the environment. Give examples of individuals who have influenced environmental history. Identify ways in which the choices that you make as an individual may affect the environment. Suggested Activities The following activities can be incorporated into the daily lessons: Laboratory Experiments The following experiments should be included into the daily lessons. Science Environmental Science Waste: 29

30 New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards Index A , A A B B B C D , 7, 21, 23, D D B , B B C , 11, C , 11, 19, 25, C C , D F F G G , 19, G G G G , 25, G New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards Index 30

31 Common Core Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects The following Common Core Standards are infused throughout the curriculum. Specific standards addressed will be noted in the individual teacher s lesson plans. Key Ideas and Details Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects (RST) Grades 9-10 RST Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanation or descriptions. RST Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text s explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide and accurate summary of the text. RST Follow precisely a complex multi-step procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks attending to special cases or exception defined in the text. Craft and Structure RST Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases are they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics. RST Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy). RST Analyze the author s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, defining the question the author seeks to address. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas RST Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. RST Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. RST Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity RST By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 9 10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. Common Core Standards 31

32 Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (WHST) Text Types and Purpose Grades 9-10 WHST Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. o WHST a - Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. o WHST b - Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audience s knowledge level and concerns. o WHST c - Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. o WHST d - Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. o WHST e - Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented. WHST Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes. o WHST a - Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. o WHST b - Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience s knowledge of the topic. o WHST c - Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. o WHST d - Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers. o WHST e - Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. o WHST f -Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic). WHST (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement) o NOTE: Students narrative skills continue to grow in these grades. The Standards require that students be able to incorporate narrative elements effectively into arguments and informative/explanatory texts. In history/social studies, students must be able to incorporate narrative accounts into their analyses of individuals or events of historical import. In science and technical subjects, students must be able to write precise enough descriptions of the step-by-step Common Core Standards 32

33 procedures they use in their investigations or technical work that others can replicate them and (possibly) reach the same results. Production and Distribution of Writing WHST Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. WHST Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. WHST Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. Research to Build and Present Knowledge WHST Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. WHST Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. WHST Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Range of Writing WHST Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. Common Core Standards 33

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