Promotion of Satellite Derived Bathymetry (SDB) & other Satellite Remote Sensing EO downstream services for the marine economy

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1 Promotion of Satellite Derived Bathymetry (SDB) & other Satellite Remote Sensing EO downstream services for the marine economy François Régis Martin Lauzer, chairman of ARGANS Ltd with contributions of IGN FI, OceanWise Ltd and Environment System Ltd, UKHO and SHOM P.S. the views expressed are the author s and do not necessarily represent opinions and positions of the contributors

2 Sub Title "customers awareness & confidence building" via straightforward promotion/marketing campaigns? expansion in non defense & official hydrography markets? via the organization of the supply chain? data processes and outputs qualification / edition standardisation? the establishment & maintenance of technical rules for data processing and release the classing of data production lines

3 SDB is a mature technology o with historical successes official products distributed to national agencies, local governments and sailors since 1995 in use with Navies since 2000 o withon going academic research yet a market which has which has not taken off despite and even socio economic needs (e.g. ecosystem preservation valuation) users needs (e.g. sailors) WHY? main questions are : is there an «effective demand» (did «innovation push» meet «market pull»?) Subsidiary questions : what hampered the market growth? a «market failure»? (to be chosen between demand, investments, marketing, performance, etc.) how to correct market desequilibrium?

4 Agenda 1 What is Satellite Derived Bathymetry and related survey data (water quality/optical properties, and benthos/substrate composition)? 2 The market 3 Why has the market not taken off since 1995? 3.1 Mismatch between Demand and Offer 3.2 Major original interferences to market growth i. reliability open to question, time delivery, etc. ii. agencies strategy iii. financial framework iv. governmental innovation policies 3.3 Mitigation 4 Conditions of Market Development 5 Concurring initiatives 6 How could the European Commission help trigger/develop opportunities

5 1 What is Satellite Derived Bathymetry (SDB)? SDB is a survey method founded on analytical modelling of light penetration through the water column in visible bands of satellites hyper-spectrometers. (to be compared with traditional depth measurements with) lead lines, and sonars sensor sun Sensor receives this Depth bathymetry is retrieved simultaneously to water quality/optical properties, and benthos/substrate composition SDB optically shallow waters

6 The layman belief : it is dedicated to surveys of atolls, coral reefs, etc. true : it started there because the easiest (atoll of OUVEA in 1988) Traditional survey SDB Model but technology has evolved Nr 7458 Aratika, Tuamotu

7 SDB offers a viable interim solution for [any of] those areas of shallow coastal waters where there is little or no existing hydrographic data and no prospect of obtaining the resources required to proceed with extensive surveys using other higher accuracy methods in the foreseeable future. incl. regions with reduced water clarity (suspended sediments, dissolved organic matter) e.g. Baltic Sea, Saaremaa - hyperspectral data for tests Attenuation is strongest in blue and near-infrared bands due to scattering by suspended sediment and absorption by water, respectively.

8 Estimation of depth and algal bottom cover Brown algae Depth

9 SDB processing a technology under control Selection of scenes 2 Ground control (as needed or if possible) 3 Orthorectification 4 Destriping & enhancement 5 Creation of vector Masks 6 Capture of objects 7 Bathymetric modelling 8 Production of chart 5 7 6

10 2 How is it used? the MARKET a) in Satellite Derived Charts (SDC) SDCs are standard nautical charts, combining traditional surveys with SDB layers and precise WGS 84 topography. Modern SDCs are vectorised and composed of S 100 objects, amongst which are SDB layers. SDCs have been in production and integrated into French National Chart Series for almost 20 years (first prototype 1988, first official chart 1995)

11 also in non internationally recognized Satellite Derived Charts the Ari atoll in the Maldives archipelago

12 2 Other use? b) for specific defence purposes, e.g. REA, or ecosystems valuation services or environmental impact assessments or scientific studies on the biocœnose, the interaction between physical/chemical/ biological phenomena. An example to demonstrate the utility within Defence, by Lt Cdr Stuart Long RN, DMGIC SO2 HMSEE

13 Initial Trial / Proof of Concept Cougar 12 in 2012 Exercise CORSICAN LION 12 Evaluation of Multi Spectral Satellite Derived Products in a Littoral Operation, Seabed Rock and Vegetation mix Products 2 m Imagery, Bathymetry and Seabed composition Contract with Proteus Geo 6 weeks from capture to product (no ground truthing activity permitted) total Cost 450 per nm 2 Captured 54 nm of coastline and immediate hinterland, Total Area 120nm² Horizontal Accuracy 10m CEP 90% Vertical Accuracy 10 15% At limits tends to shoal bias UNCLASSIFIED

14 Product Maritime Tactical Chart UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED

15 3 3.1 Why has the market not taken off since 1995? The overall situation A shortfall in global bathymetric survey capacity resulting from a subsequent reduction of national agencies budgets for marine data capture (using ship borne and airborne sensors); The consequent global shortfall in available hydrographic/marine information and nautical charts impacting the safety of navigation. 1/4 The overall need for any marine data, incl. SDB to derive commercial benefit from the offshore space mapping an ecosystem based approach to the management of our oceans and seas demanding more evidence increased citizen understanding and intervention in marine conservation and heritage; greater regulatory controls imposed onto Marine and coastal spatial planning Fisheries Management Environment assessment and mitigation, e.g. Marine Highways Monitoring (e.g. habitats, pollution) Integrated Coastal Zone Management (CZM)

16 3 Why has the market not taken off since 1995? 1/3 3.2 Major interferences to market growth i. Technical ones current products rely on empirical formula for the retrieval of bathymetry, water column IOPs and subsequent organic and mineral content, and benthos/substrate composition, in dire needs of local parametrisation, i.e. in situ surveys a priori processors do not deliver uncertainty / false alarm assesment without controls, i.e. insitu surveys a posteriori paper charts instead of GIS/ECDIS layers (transfer standart to for digital hydrographic data) Recent evolution : physics based models, IHO/S 100 and ISO availability of multispectral various resolutions

17 Critical factor: - spectral resolution of imagery (less spectral bands means less power to resolve bathymetry) an example with GMES Sentinel 2 data (to be launched in 2014), or the JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite ALOS (launched 2006)

18 Critical factor: - spatial resolution of imagery (larger pixels means less power to resolve bathymetry) SPOT-4 (20 m pixels) Landsat ETM+ (30 m) Ikonos (4 m) WorldView 2 (4 m)

19 Critical factors: - forward model and inversion Results of US Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Australian Research Council (ARC) funded investigation to shallow water mapping remote sensing methods Site 1 Site 2 Physics based Physics based Simple algorithm Simple algorithm Many existing bathymetry services use variations of the simple algorithm systematic errors 19 / 47

20 Critical factors: - Representation of the light from the sun and sky factor of 10 error Hydrolight AquaLux amount of light (log) sun downwelling light underwater at 5 m depth at different angles Critical factors: - light transfer across the sea surface

21 3 Why has the market not taken off since 1995? 2/3 3.2 Major original interferences to the development ii. commercial hindrance a B2B market in the public sector with continuous reduced governmental commitments few commercial opening fear of a «substitute product» to the showcase hydrographic product, i.e. acoustic swath bathymetry (survey with mutibeam echosounders ) iii. financial hindrance no purchasing / purchasing capacity power of potential SDB users, i.e. governments of poorly chartered areas of the world transfer of charting/mapping commitments to governments and agencies with shrinking budget, and no economic reason to invest for others countries and agencies iv. innovation policies public subsidies of technology push has created a subsidized economic sector for applied science labs and research companies that demonstrate the potentials of technologies without bringing it to the customers

22 3 Why has the market not taken off since 1995? 3/3 3.3 Mitigation in the current economic & public environment (awareness of the lack of data by HOs and Environmental Agencies; evolution of public mapping agencies economic model; international funding, e.g. GEF; etc.) Change of view of the main players : from «product substitution» to «product differentiation» From a B2B commercial model to B2C Capacity building Commercial offer with financial tools (loans, support from foreign countries or international dev. Banks )

23 4 Conditions for a strong market development (how to give a value to SDB) targeting the real consumers, with a full scope product offer (data delivered in various standard format with a Quality Control Certificate, with the metadata and auxiliary data files, software, etc.) establishment & maintenance of technical rules for data processing and release a robust and quality assured production capacity to match a market of some 15M /year (instead of workshop s toolboxes and Labs services) classing of data production lines (check of processes) giving a purchasing power to the consummers (loans; extrafunding from sponsors, benefactors ) 23 / 47

24 5 Concurring initiatives the initiatives of companies to develop the market through a standardization scheme (3 UK SMEs, i.e. ARGANS Ltd, OceanWise Ltd and Environment Systems Ltd, and IGN FI, the private subsidiary of the French Ordnance Survey) the commercial offer by EO data distributors, geophysical survey companies and environment monitoring companies (e.g. EOMAP, PROTEUS, GeoEye, ASTRIUM Geoservices, FUGRO ) the initiative of the Satellite CATAPULT Center of the UK TSB to develop national EO downstream services the initiatives of 2 major HOs, i.e. UKHO (feasibility studies and acquisition of production tools for military purposes) and SHOM (updating of its production line) (still born) standardization initiative of the Bureau of the International Hydrographic Organization IHO, further to withdrawal of one HO contrib. Commitment to technical and quality standards for SDB (safety, commoditization or growth of independent single suppliers, quality, repeatability and compatibility, interoperability)

25 6 How could the European Commission help exploit the opportunities? a mapping/survey capacity building program (as part of its economic development program for foreign countries) defining standards for SDB surveys (to avoid being in the same situation as the implementation of bathing water & water quality directives in situ sampling remains the norm) helping SMEs have access to capital (in exchange for convertible debt or ownership equity) 25 / 47

26 THE END SDB (bathymetry, water quality/optical properties and benthos/substrate composition) = trustworthy data

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