A New Way to Compute or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Cloud

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1 A New Way to Compute or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Cloud Robert Bohn NIST March 7, 2012 DC/SLA Washington, DC Chapter

2 History Cloud" is borrowed from telephony. Telecoms once offered P2P networks, then Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) Utilization of overall network bandwidth more effective. The cloud symbol denotes the demarcation point between the responsibility of the provider and user. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. 2

3 History The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s, when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility." American Computer & Cognitive Scientist ( ) Coined the term Artificial Intelligence Invented Lisp Programming language Popularized timesharing The characteristics of cloud computing & comparison to the electricity industry were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book, The Challenge of the Computer Utility, Addison Wesley, 1966, ISBN

4 History Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers, which, like most computer networks, were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time, just to leave room for occasional spikes & launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in

5 A Cloud Service Models SaaS, PaaS, IaaS Deployment models Public, Private, Community, Hybrid Necessary Characteristics On demand self service Broad network access Resource Pooling Rapid Elasticity Measured Service Interested in the WHAT of Cloud Computing, not the HOW 5

6 Economic Old business model Purchasing software Licensing Upgrading Cloud Computing Pay for use No license fees Upgrades by Provider Hardware costs 2 3 yr refresh cycle Power (elec, HVAC) Provider owns hardware Consumer needs thin client Power costs drop Company s costs soar Vast underutilization of hardware Consumer s costs decrease. Provider increased revenue per customer cost decreases 6

7 Technological Maturity Networking CPUs Memory Software 7

8 Practical Aspects & Considerations Services What am I buying? Storage Where is my data? Procurement What else am I buying? NIST Cloud Computing Program 8

9 Services Available to a Cloud Consumer Billing ERP Human Resources Social Networks Sales Financials CRM Content Management Cloud Provider Collaboration Document Management SaaS Consumer & Office Productivity Database Storage Services Management Business Intelligence Application Deployment CDN Platform Hosting Development & Testing PaaS Consumer Integration Backup & Recovery IaaS Consumer Compute 9

10 Cloud Consumer/Provider Activities Service Model SaaS PaaS IaaS Consumer Activities Uses application/service for business process operations Develops, tests, deploys and manages applications hosted in a cloud environment Creates/installs, manages and monitors services for IT infrastructure operations Provider Activities Installs, manages, maintains and supports the software application on a cloud infrastructure. Provisions and manages cloud infrastructure and middleware for the platform consumers; provides development, deployment and administration tools to platform consumers. Provisions and manages the physical processing, storage, networking and the hosting environment and cloud infrastructure for IaaS consumers. 10

11 Your data 11

12 Procurement Standards Driven Data Portability Service Interoperability Security USG needs a starting point (blueprint) for Cloud Computing. A Reference 12

13 NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture Actors and their Roles Cloud Consumer Person or organization that maintains a business relationship with, and uses service from Cloud Providers. Cloud Auditor A party that can conduct independent assessment of cloud services, information system operations, performance and security of the cloud implementation. Cloud Provider Person, organization or entity responsible for making a service available to Cloud Consumers. Cloud Broker An entity that manages the use, performance and delivery of cloud services, and negotiates relationships between Cloud Providers and Cloud Consumers. Cloud Carrier The intermediary that provides connectivity and transport of cloud services from Cloud Providers to Cloud Consumers. 13

14 The NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture Cloud Service Consumer Cloud Auditor Security Audit Privacy Impact Audit Service Layer IaaS PaaS SaaS Resource Abstraction and Control Layer Physical Resource Layer Hardware Cloud Service Provider Cloud Service Management Business Support Provisioning/ Configuration Portability/ Interoperability Security Privacy Cloud Broker Service Intermediation Service Aggregation Service Arbitrage Performance Audit Facility Cloud Carrier 14

15 Taxonomies Taxonomy: The science of categorization, or classification, of things based on a predetermined system. (Webopedia) Main Attributes Typically a controlled vocabulary with a hierarchical tree like structure Terms in a taxonomy have relationships with other terms Usually in the form of a parent (broader) / child (narrower) Benefits Encompasses and labels all significant concepts within a given domain Allows users to understand the context of each label 15

16 RA Taxonomy 16

17 Service Level Agreement (SLA) Taxonomy Service Level Objectives 17

18 Service Level Agreement (SLA) Taxonomy Business Level Objectives 18

19 NIST Cloud Computing Program Goal Accelerate the federal government s adoption of cloud computing* Build a USG Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap which focuses on the highest priority USG cloud computing security, interoperability and portability requirements Lead efforts to develop standards and guidelines in close consultation and collaboration with standards bodies, the private sector, and other stakeholders *REF Cloud Computing Strategy.pdf 19

20 S T R A T E G I C NIST CC Definition May 2010 NIST CC Forum & Workshop I REVISITING NIST CLOUD COMPUTING PROGRAM (PHASE 1) INITIATIVE TO BUILD A USG CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP Outreach & Fact finding with USG, Industry, SDOs Evaluate past models & lessons learned Define fresh approach to support secure & effective USG cloud computing adoption, prioritize interoperability, portability, & security requirements, collaborate, more quickly respond to operational needs Tactical efforts Nov 2010 NIST CC Forum & Workshop II Launch CC Strategic Program Initiate Stakeholder Meetings Collaboratively define working group scope & resources Refine Plan March 2011 NIST CC Forum & Workshop III Execute CC Strategic program Continue Stakeholder meetings Integrate results into tactical priorities How to build a USG Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap 1. Define Target USG Cloud Computing Use Cases 2. Define Neutral Cloud Computing Reference Architecture & Taxonomy 3. Generate Roadmap Translate Requirements & Identify Gaps Oct 2011 NIST CC Forum & Workshop IV Complete 1 st draft USG Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap Interagency Report Assess Results & Replan 20

21 Volume I Highlights USG Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap requirements* high priorities to further USG Cloud Computing Technology Adoption: Requirement 1: International voluntary consensus based interoperability, portability and security standards Requirement 2: Solutions for high priority Security Requirements Top 10 High Priority USG Requirements to accelerate secure & effective cloud adoption (interoperability, portability, security) And.There are practical reasons why the requirements that are needed for USG agencies to securely & effectively deploy the Cloud Computing model are also needed by the broad cloud computing stakeholder community Requirement 3: Technical specifications to enable development of consistent, high quality Service Level Agreements Requirement 4: Clearly and consistently categorized cloud services Requirement 5: Frameworks to support seamless implementation of federated community cloud environments Requirement 6: Technical security solutions which are decoupled from organizational policy decisions Requirement 7: Defined unique government regulatory requirements, technology gaps, and solutions Requirement 8: Collaborative parallel strategic future cloud development initiatives Requirement 9: Defined and implemented reliability design goals Requirement 10: Defined and implemented cloud service metrics *relationship to interoperability, portability, and security guidance, standards, & technology highlighted in roadmap 21

22 Recommended Priority Action Plans are tactical as well as strategic Examples of Priority Action Plans & interim solutions to apply while cloud solutions are maturing Encourage standards & compensate with Service Level Agreements to require demonstration of data/system portability between providers Request that cloud service vendors map their offerings to a common reference (i.e. NIST Reference Architecture) so that it is easier to compare services Define unique USG/mission/sector/business Requirements (e.g. 508 compliance, e discovery, record retention) USG Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap requirements high priorities to further USG Cloud Computing Technology Adoption: Requirement 1: International voluntary consensus based interoperability, portability and security standards (interoperability, portability, and security standards) Requirement 2: Solutions for high priority Security Requirements (security technology) Requirement 3: Technical specifications to enable development of consistent, high quality Service Level Agreements (interoperability, portability, and security standards and guidance) Requirement 4: Clearly and consistently categorized cloud services (interoperability and portability guidance and technology) Requirement 5: Frameworks to support seamless implementation of federated community cloud environments (interoperability and portability guidance and technology) Requirement 6: Technical security solutions which are de coupled from organizational policy decisions (security guidance, standards and technology) Requirement 7: Defined unique government regulatory requirements, technology gaps, and solutions (interoperability, portability and security technology) Requirement 8: Collaborative parallel strategic future cloud development initiatives (interoperability, portability, and security technology) Requirement 9: Defined and implemented reliability design goals (interoperability, portability, and security technology) Requirement 10: Defined and implemented cloud service metrics (interoperability and portability standards) 22

23 Volume II Highlights Useful Information for Cloud Adopters Summary of the work completed November 2010 through September 2011 in projects & working groups Analysis supports high priority requirements introduced in Volume I References to detailed publications & external work NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture (& Taxonomy) SP Sept 2011 Summary of USG target business use case templates & initial set SAJACC technical use case summary spec 1 spec 2 Specifications Use Cases Case 1 Case 2 Validation Exercises Spec 1 Test 1 Spec 2 Test 2 Spec n Test n Cloud Computing Standards Roadmap SP July 2011 standards & gap analysis Cloud Consumer Cloud Auditor Securit y Audit Privacy Impact Audit Perfor mance Audit Service Layer SaaS PaaS IaaS Resource Abstraction and Control Layer Physical Resource Hardware Layer Facility Cloud Provider Cloud Service Manage ment Business Support Provisio ning/ Configur ation Portabili ty/ Interoper ability Cloud Carrier Community Outreach NIST Cloud Standards Portal Use Cases Validated Specifications standards Existing Standards Working Groups information Security Privacy Reference Implementations High Priority Security Requirements challenges, requirements overview, risk mitigation measures Standards Development Organizations Other related work Reliability Research in Cloudbased Complex Systems Koala SLA taxonomy, Cloud Broker Service Intermed iation Service Aggregat ion Service Arbitrag e 23

24 NIST COMPUTING PROGRAM TIMELINE (PHASE 2) S T R A T E G I C Analyze Phase 1 working group & project results Complete 1 st draft for public comment USG Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap Version 1 SP Nov 2011 NIST CC Forum & Workshop IV Re Assess Progress & Phase 2 Plan March 2012 June 2012 NIST CC Forum & Workshop V Initiate NIST CC Program Phase II Integrate & track USG Technology Roadmap Priority Action Plans (PAPs) with external stakeholders Integrate results into tactical priorities Measure Results Nov 2012 NIST CC Forum & Workshop VI USG Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap Version 2 Tactical efforts Public & Federal Standards & Technology working groups Standards liaison, SAJACC, FedRamp & other technical advisory, Guidance, Koala NIST Cloud Computing Special Pubs Guidelines on Security and Privacy Definition of Cloud Computing CC Synopsis & Recommendations CC Standards Roadmap CC Reference Architecture USG CC Technology Roadmap Draft Planned NIST Cloud Computing Special Pubs Challenging Security Requirements for US Government CC Adoption Revised USG CC Technology Roadmap Vol I High priority requirements to Further USG Agency CC Adoption 2. Vol II Useful Information for Cloud Adopters 3. Draft Vol. III Technical Considerations for USG CC Deployment Decisions 24

25 25

26 Unplugs from Matrix No effect Ultimate Hack 26

27 Clouds & Relationships 27

28 Common Themes It has BIG promise. You want to dive in. You want to hold back. You want to tell everybody about it. It s a little scary. 28

29 You expect certain things Dependability Trust Respect giving the benefit of the doubt Open discussions Commitment Success & Longevity Security A little fun along the way 29

30 At the end of the day. We re just dating now. 30

31 Questions? US Federal Cloud Computing references: NIST Cloud Computing Collaboration Site cloud computing/ NIST Cloud Computing Home Page Contact: Dawn Leaf Robert Bohn John Messina 31

32 Backup Slides 32

33 Next Steps Goal 1 Requirement 3: Address Technical Specifications for High Quality Service Level Agreements Goal 2 Requirement 5: Address Frameworks to Support Federated Community Clouds. Goal 3 Requirement 10: Address Defined & Implemented Cloud Service Metrics. Goal 4 Advanced Actor Analysis To further the discussion on the roles of and interactions of cloud computing actors (consumer/auditor/broker/carrier). Goal 5 Develop an in depth study on security and RA mapping. (Collaborative with CC Security WG) 33

34 Examples Terms and Definitions Level 1: Cloud Service Provider Person, organization or higher level system responsible for making a service available to service consumers. Level 2: Cloud Service Management Cloud Service Management includes all the service related functions that are necessary for the management and operations of those services required by or proposed to customers. Level 3: Public Cloud The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services. [NIST Definition of Cloud Computing] Level 4: Data Portability The ability to transfer data from one system to another without being required to recreate or reenter data descriptions or to modify significantly the application being transported. [Federal Standard 1037C] 34

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