Synchronous Programming of Reactive Systems. Nicolas Halbwachs

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1 Synchronous Programming of Reactive Systems Nicolas Halbwachs 1993

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3 Listoftables Contents Listofgures Foreword ix 1Introduction Listofcontactsconcerningeachlanguage::::::::::::xiii Explanationofacronyms::::::::::::::::::::::xiii x 1.5Summaryofthisbook::::::::::::::::::::7 1.4Complexsystems:::::::::::::::::::::::6 1.3Thesynchronousapproach::::::::::::::::::5 1.2Classicalapproaches:::::::::::::::::::::3 1.1Reactivesystems:::::::::::::::::::::::11 2TheimperativelanguageEsterel IFourSynchronousLanguages 2.3Programmingprimitives:::::::::::::::::::13 2.2Basicconcepts::::::::::::::::::::::::11 2.1Introduction:::::::::::::::::::::::::: Expressions:::::::::::::::::::::: Declarations:::::::::::::::::::::: Programmingstyleandrstexamples::::::::::: Usingsignalsastimeunits::::::::::::: Statements::::::::::::::::::::::15 v

4 2.5CausalityproblemsinEsterel::::::::::::::::29 2.6Anotherexample:thereexgame::::::::::::: Useofbroadcasting::::::::::::::::: Instantaneousdialogue:::::::::::::::: Puttingrightthestopwatch::::::::::::: Multiplebehavior:::::::::::::::::: Lackofbehavior::::::::::::::::::: Astopwatch:::::::::::::::::::::25 3Graphicformalisms:thelanguageArgos 3.1Automataandoperators::::::::::::::::::: Computationoftheaveragereextime:::::: Theprogrambody:::::::::::::::::: Interface:::::::::::::::::::::::: Specications:::::::::::::::::::::31 3.3Programmingstyle::::::::::::::::::::::46 3.2Causalityproblems:::::::::::::::::::::: Normaltermination::::::::::::::::: Terminationbyexception:::::::::::::: Argosoperators::::::::::::::::::: Simpleautomata::::::::::::::::::: Declarativelanguages:LustreandSignal 4.2ThelanguageLustre::::::::::::::::::::55 4.1Introduction::::::::::::::::::::::::::53 3.4Examples::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Controllogicofthedigitalwatch:::::::::: Thestopwatch:::::::::::::::::::: Interrupt::::::::::::::::::::::: Someexamples:::::::::::::::::::: CausalityinLustre::::::::::::::::: Programstructure:::::::::::::::::: Flowsandclocks::::::::::::::::::: Variables,equations,expressions,andassertions:57 4.3ThelanguageSignal:::::::::::::::::::: Signals,clocks,andoperators:::::::::::: Programstructure::::::::::::::::::71 vi

5 5Staticverications IICompilation 73 6Sequentialcodegeneration 5.1CausalitycheckinginEsterel:::::::::::::::75 5.2CausalitycheckinginArgos::::::::::::::::77 5.4TheclockcalculusofSignal::::::::::::::::81 5.3ClockcheckinginLustre::::::::::::::::::80 6.2TheLustrecompiler::::::::::::::::::::93 6.1TheEsterelcompiler:::::::::::::::::::: Nodeexpansion:::::::::::::::::::: Comments::::::::::::::::::::::: Example:::::::::::::::::::::::: Principles:::::::::::::::::::::::85 7Distributedcodegeneration 7.2CodedistributioninSignal::::::::::::::::: Introduction:::::::::::::::::::::::::: TheOCcodeandassociatedtools::::::::::::: CompilingLustreintoautomata::::::::: Singleloop::::::::::::::::::::::94 7.3OCcodedistribution::::::::::::::::::::: Staticdependences:::::::::::::::::: Dynamicdependences:::::::::::::::: Codereplication::::::::::::::::::: Circuitgenerationfromsynchronousprograms 7.3.5Synchronization::::::::::::::::::: Finalprocessing::::::::::::::::::: Uselessemissionelimination::::::::::::: Placementofreceivingstatements::::::::: Placementofemissionstatements:::::::::: AhardwareimplementationofLustre:::::::::: Introduction:::::::::::::::::::::::::: Programmableactivememories::::::::::: TranslationofBooleanLustre:::::::::::120 vii 117

6 8.3HardwareimplementationofpureEsterel:::::::: TranslatingfullLustre:::::::::::::::123 9Lustreprogramverication:thetoolLesar IIIProgramVerication 8.3.3TranslatingParallelandExceptions:::::::: Basiccomponents:::::::::::::::::: Firstexample:::::::::::::::::::::130 10UsingAutoforEsterelprogramverication 9.1Specicationofsafetyproperties:::::::::::::: Verication:::::::::::::::::::::::::: Conclusion Bibliography 11.1Thecommonenvironmentofsynchronouslanguages::: Worksinprogress::::::::::::::::::::::: viii

7 ListofFigures 2.1Thewholeprogramofthereexgame:::::::::::37 3.7Implicitnondeterminism:::::::::::::::::::47 3.5Hierarchicaldecomposition:::::::::::::::::45 3.4Localsignaldenition::::::::::::::::::::43 3.3Behaviorofparallelprocesses::::::::::::::::42 3.6Absenceofbehavior:::::::::::::::::::::46 3.2Parallelcomposition:::::::::::::::::::::42 3.1AnArgosautomaton::::::::::::::::::::40 4.2Operatornetofthecounter::::::::::::::::: Thecontrolautomatonofthestopwatch::::::::: Processinterrupt:::::::::::::::::::::::49 4.1Descriptionsofadata-owsystem:::::::::::::54 3.9Normaltermination:::::::::::::::::::::48 3.8Exceptionhandling::::::::::::::::::::::48 4.3ModelinstanciationinSignal:::::::::::::::72 5.2Nondeterminism:::::::::::::::::::::::79 5.1Lackofbehavior::::::::::::::::::::::: Therunningmodesofthedigitalwatch::::::::::52 6.3Thecontrolautomatonofthewatchdog::::::::::99 6.2Aloopingcall:::::::::::::::::::::::::93 6.1Thecontrolautomatonofthebuttoninterpreter:::::90 6.4ThecommonenvironmentEsterel/Lustre/Argos:: TheSaharaintrumentpanelofthereexgame:::::102 ix

8 8.1Asimpleprogrammableactivememory:::::::::: Thecellcomputingthevariable\watchdogison":::: SomerulesforpackingoperatorsintoPabs:::::::: Thenetofthezerocomparator::::::::::::::: LayoutofthewatchdogonPerle-0::::::::::::: Thefullautomatonofaliftcontroller::::::::::: Secondcircuit::::::::::::::::::::::::: Vericationprogram::::::::::::::::::::: Assumption-dependentequivalenceofprograms:::::: Modularverication::::::::::::::::::::: Firstcircuit:::::::::::::::::::::::::: Simpliedautomaton:::::::::::::::::::::151 ListofTables 10.3Reducedautomaton::::::::::::::::::::: Thecommonenvironmentofsynchronouslanguages::: Booleanowsandclocks:::::::::::::::::::56 7.1Codereplication::::::::::::::::::::::: Nodesandclocks:::::::::::::::::::::::61 7.2Placementofemissionstatements:::::::::::::: Filteringandprojection:::::::::::::::::::59 7.3Placementofreceivingstatements::::::::::::: Resultofthesecondreductionstep::::::::::::: Exampleofdistributedcode::::::::::::::::: Resultoftherstreductionstep:::::::::::::: Transitiontableofthe-saturatedautomaton:::::::152 x

9 cerningreactivesystemdesign.theterm\reactivesystem"hasbeen term\real-timesystem,"which,althoughbestknownandmoresugges- introducedinordertoavoidtheambiguitiesoftenassociatedwithbythe Thisbookwillattempttogivearstsynthesisofrecentworkscon- Foreword tioncontrolandsupervisionsystems,signal-processingsystems,areex- amplesofthesystemswehaveinmind. prisingtonoticethattheproblemoftimeincomputersciencehasbeen studiedonlyrecentlyby\pure"computerscientists.untiltheearly tive,hasbeengivensomanydierentmeaningsthatitisalmostin- 1980s,timeproblemswereregardedastheconcernofperformanceevaluation,orofsome(unjustlyscorned)\industrialcomputerengineering," or,atbest,ofoperatingsystems. Althoughthesesystemsaremoreandmorecomputerized,itissurevitablymisunderstood.Industrialprocesscontrolsystems,transporta- negligiblewithrespecttotheresponsedelaysofitsenvironment,thetime algebrasgaverisetoaschoolofthoughtadoptingthefollowingabstract reacttoevents,i.e.,iftheexecutiontimeofthemachineisconsidered suddenlybecomeafundamentalgoalformostmodelsofconcurrency.in pointofview:assoonasoneadmitsthatasystemcaninstantaneously particular,robinmilner'spioneeringworksaboutsynchronousprocess cerningtimedsystemsduringthelastdecade.thehandlingoftimehas Asecondsurprisingfact,incontrast,isthegrowthofresearchcon- behaviorofasystemcanbeformalizedinaverysimpleandelegantway. theselanguagesdonotthoroughlyusethismodel,andontheotherhand, tries,adoptsomeaspectsofthesynchronousmodel;butontheonehand, RIA),Signal(INRIA/IRISA),andLustre(IMAG).Otherlanguages likesml,statecharts,orl.0,whichweredevelopedinothercoun- started,quiteindependently,intheearly1980s,aimingatdesigning toprogrammingalmostexclusivelybyfrenchprojects.threeprojects thethreesynchronousprogramminglanguagesesterel(ensmp&in- Thethirdsurpriseisthatthissynchronouspointofviewwasapplied theywerenotdesignedtobeusedforprogramming(smlisahardware descriptionlanguage,statechartsweredesignedasaspecicationlanxi

10 guage,andl.0isalanguageforspecifyingcommunicationprotocols). ThethreeFrenchgroupsrapidlynoticedthattheirlanguageswerebased opmentofoneoftheselanguages thelanguagelustre Icannot viewtotheindustrialworld.thiscommunitywasjoinedbyanother, onthesamemodel.atightcooperationwassetup,thatfocusedinparticularoncompilingmethodsandbroadcastingthesynchronouspointof synchronousvariantofstatecharts. mypersonalopinionandmypresentknowledgeofthesubjects.onthe morerecentproject,concerningthelanguageargos(imag),apurely thismaterial,andformanyhelpfulcommentsaboutthemanuscript,i claimtogiveafullyunbiasedpresentation:itisofteninuencedby otherhand,severalpartsofthisbookhavebeenpartiallyborrowedfrom existingpapersdevotedtoeachlanguage.fortheirpermissiontoborrow isstillunderdevelopment.beingmyselfstronglyinvolvedinthedevel- Thisbookisthereforeasurveyofveryrecentwork,someofwhich ComputerScience,heldinSanSebastian(Spain)inJuly1991. Pichon,whocarefullycorrectedtheEnglishversion. wouldliketothankgerardberry,albertbenveniste,paulcaspi,paul fora12-hourcoursegivenatthe21thafcetinternationalschoolof LeGuernic,andFlorenceMaraninchi.IamalsogratefultoCorinne Arstdraftofthisbook(writteninFrench)wasusedaslecturenotes xii

11 concerningeachlanguage Listofacademicandindustrialcontacts Esterel:GerardBerry,CMA/ENSMP,SophiaAntipolis- PhilippeCouronne,ILOGS.A.,2,AvenueGalieni- Jean-PierreParis,CISI-Ingenierie,SophiaAntipolis Valbonne,France Lustre:PaulCaspiorNicolasHalbwachs,IMAG,B.P.53- Argos:FlorenceMaraninchi,IMAG,B.P Gentilly,France Signal:AlbertBenvenisteorPaulLeGuernic,IRISA/INRIA, DanielPilaud,VERILOG,ZACduPreMillet Montbonnot,France 38041Grenoble,France Explanationofacronyms FrancoisDupont,TNI,ZIduVernis-29608Brest, CampusdeBeaulieu-35042Rennes,France INRIA:InstitutNationaldeRechercheenInformatiqueetAutomatique ENSMP:EcoleNationaleSuperieuredesMinesdeParis IRISA:InstitutdeRechercheenInformatiqueetSystemesAleatoires IMAG:Institutd'InformatiqueetdeMathematiquesAppliqueesde Grenoble xiii

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13 Chapter1 Introduction 1.1Reactivesystems Reactivesystemsarecomputersystemsthatcontinuouslyreacttotheir environmentataspeeddeterminedbythisenvironment.thisclassof signal-processingsystems butotherexamplesconcerncommunication systems,whoseinputsareavailableatthebeginningoftheexecution environment,butattheirownrate(e.g.,operatingsystems).most andwhichdelivertheiroutputswhenterminating and,ontheother hand,frominteractivesystems,whichcontinuouslyinteractwiththeir industrial\real-time"systemsarereactive control,supervisionand systemshasbeenintroduced[hp85,ber89]inordertodistinguishthese protocolsorman-machineinterfaces. systems,ontheonehand,fromtransformationalsystems i.e.,classical Themainfeaturesofthesesystemsarethefollowing: systemintoparallelprocessesgenerallyhasnothingtodowithanactual theirreliability.however,letusnotethatthelogicaldecompositionofa behavior.finally,thesesystemsaresometimesimplementedonparallel ordistributedarchitecturesinordertoincreasetheirperformancesor ofasetofparallelcomponents,thatcooperatetoachievetheintended itisoftenconvenientandnaturaltoconsidersuchasystemasmade thesystemanditsenvironmentmustbetakenintoaccount.moreover, Theyinvolveconcurrency:Attheleast,theconcurrencybetween

14 tionisperformed,thephysicaldecompositionisnotnecessarilythesame asthelogicalone.thereisnoreasonforalogicaldecompositionofa problemintosubproblemstosatisfactorilymeetperformanceorfault 2concurrentimplementation,and,evenifsuchaconcurrentimplementa- Chapter1:Introduction Theyaresubmittedtostricttimerequirements:Theserequirementsconcernboththeirinputrateandtheirinput/outputresponse time.theseconstraintsmustbeexpressedinthesystemspecications, Theyaregenerallydeterministic:Theoutputsofsuchasystem necessitatespreciseevaluationofexecutiontime. areentirelydeterminedbytheirinputvaluesandbytheoccurrence fulllmentobviouslyrequiresecientimplementation,butitespecially theymustbetakenintoaccountduringthesystemdesign,andtheir timesoftheseinputs.thisdeterminismdistinguishesreactivesystems frominteractiveones:mostinteractivesystemsareintrinsicallynonde- satisfactionmustbecheckedontheimplementation.time-constraint tolerancecriteriaonagivenarchitecture. preservedintheirimplementation. sign,analysis,anddebuggingofadeterministicsystemaremucheasier. Sotheinherentdeterminismofreactive-systemspecicationsmustbe dynamicallyactivateandinterruptprocessesaccordingtovariousparameters(cpuload,resourceavailability,priorities,:::).theresultoterminist.anoperatingsystemcontains,forinstance,schedulersthat acalltothesystemgenerallydependsontheseparameters.thede- theirmostimportantfeature.itisacommonplacetosaythaterrorsin Theirreliabilityisanespeciallyimportantgoal:Thismaybe reactivesystemscanhavedramaticconsequences,involvinghumanlives andhugeamountofmoney.theeconomicandhumanconsequences especiallyrigorousdesignmethodsandconstituteaeldwhereformal vericationmustbeconsidered. Generally,theyaremadepartlybysoftwareandpartlyby ofanerrorinthesoftwaredrivingasatelliteorcontrollinganuclear forreasonsofcostorperformanceorforhistoricalreasons.inmany plantcanobviouslybeincalculable.therefore,thesesystemsrequire hardware:manyreactivesystemsarestillimplementedbyhardware,

15 x1.2:classicalapproaches othercases,theyarepartlyimplementedbyhardware,andthehardware 1.2Classicalapproaches andsoftwarepartsareseparatedquitelateduringthedesign. 3 Asnotedabove,reactivesystemshavebeenforalongtime(andoften andcustomcircuits).whenimplementedbysoftware,theyareoften stillare)implementedbyhardware(analogmachines,switchsystems, Deterministicautomata:Automataareoftenusedtoimplement net-basedmodels,task-basedmodels,andcommunicatingprocesses. thecontrolkernelofareactivesystem.givenasetofinputvalues, purposeparallellanguagesareused.modelsincludeautomataorpetri- level,\operatingsystem"approaches(real-timemonitors)orgeneral- programmedinassemblylanguageforeciencypurposes.atahigher Suchanapproachgenerallyleadstoexcellentandmeasurableperfor- theautomatonselectsatransitionfromitscurrentstate,callsthecorrespondingsequentialtasks,andchangesitsstateforitsnextreactionmances;areactionisa\linear"pieceofcode(neitherloopnorrecursivity,nointerrupt,nooverheadduetoprocessmanagement),whosemaximalexecutiontimecanbeaccuratelybounded.moreover,automata dicultanderror-pronetask.theslightestmodicationinthesystem complexsystems.writinganautomatonwithabouttenstatesonlyisa arewell-knownmathematicalobjectsforwhichvericationtechniques automaton. parallelstructure.consequently,theyareverydiculttousetodesign specicationsmayinvolveacompletemodicationandrewritingofthe ductionandobservation[ver86,fer90]). areavailable(evaluationoftemporallogicformulas[ces86,qs82],re- However,automataare\at"objects,withoutanyhierarchicalor semantics,especiallyconcerningtimeaspects,isoftenunclear. ofhierarchy,theyarehardtoapplytobigsystems.moreover,their industrialcontrollers.theinherentconcurrencyofthesemodelsreduces thecomplexityofsystemdescription.however,becauseofthelack Petri-net-basedmodels:Thesemodelsaremainlyusedtoprogram

16 intotasksthatgenerallycommunicatewitheachotherbymeansofa controlledbyareal-timeoperatingsystem.thesystemisdecomposed signingasystemasmadeofasetofsequentialtasks,activatedand 4Task-basedmodels:Here,wemeantheapproachconsistinginde- Chapter1:Introduction straintsarenotdirectlyexpressedinthedescription;theycanonlybe sharedmemory.inouropinion,thisisalow-levelapproach.timecon- satisedbymeansofschedulinginstructions(interrupts,priorities,:::) analysisismadedicultbecauseofnondeterminismandlackofaglobal view.performancescandeterioratebecauseoftasksmanagementand giventotheoperatingsystem.programportabilityisdoubtful.system dynamicscheduling. Communicatingprocesses:General-purposeparallellanguages, suchasada[ada83]oroccam[inm84]areonahigherlevel. Theselanguagesoerhigh-levelprimitivestostructureprogramsand processsynchronization.evenifsomeoftheselanguageshavebeen foqueues,:::)aremuchcleanerthansharedmemory.theselanguages data.communicationandsynchronizationmechanisms(rendezvous, exampleofanadaprogram,whereataskasignals\minutes"toatask providedwith\real-time"primitives,thesemanticsoftheseprimitives ormultiprocessor),onlyminimalassumptionsaremadeaboutinter- thisportabilityisachievedattheexpenseofnondeterminism.fora programbehaviortobeindependentofthetargetarchitecture(mono- isgenerallyvague.weillustratetheseproblemsbymeansofaclassical havebeendesignedinordertoincreaseprogramportability.however, B,bycounting\seconds": tobereceivedbyb,amusthavebeenwaitingfor60seconds,butbmust alsolistentoit,and,moreover,therendezvousmusttakeplace and theoccurrencetimeofthisrendezvousisleftunspeciedinthelanguage Thisprogramdoesnotprovidetheintendedbehavior:foraMINUTE loop semantics.thedelayseparatingtwosuccessivereceptionsofminuteis delay60;b.minute atleast60seconds.ontheotherhand,asignalcannotbebroadcast:if end AmustsendMINUTEtoathirdtaskC,AmustalsoexecuteC.MINUTE.B

17 program.thelastdrawbackofgeneral-purposeparallellanguagesfor x1.3:thesynchronousapproach andcwillneverreceiveminuteatthesametime.insuchalanguage, dierentprocessesneverhavethesameviewoftheglobalstateofthe real-timeprogrammingisthetremendousoverheadthatcanbeinvolved5 byruntimeprocessmanagement. temdesign,letusnoticethattheusermustchoosebetweendeterminism andconcurrency.allparallellanguagesarebasedonasynchronousexecutionschemes,whereprocessescompetewitheachotherforresources, languagesmaybeviewedasanattempttoreconcileconcurrencyand andwherethiscompetitionisnondeterministicallysolved.synchronous Asaconclusiontothisbriefoverviewofclassicaltoolstoreactivesys- determinism. 1.3Thesynchronousapproach Synchronouslanguageshavebeendesignedtomaketheprogrammer's programtobeconsideredasinstantaneouslyreactingtoexternalevents. taskeasier,byprovidinghimwith\ideal"primitives,whichallowa Eachinternaloroutputeventoftheprogramispreciselydatedwith respecttotheowofinputevents.thebehaviorofaprogramisfully considerthetwofollowingrequirements: Thisiscalledthemultiformnotionoftime.Asanexample,letus event,exactlyasanyothereventcomingfromtheprogramenvironment. anyspecialrole(asitdoesinada);itwillbehandledasanexternal simultaneityandprecedencebetweenevents.physicaltimedoesnotplay simplenotionoforderamongevents:theonlyrelevantnotionsarethe deterministic,bothfromthefunctionalandfromthetimepointofview. Infact,thenotionofphysical(chronometric)timeisreplacedbya inalanguagewherephysicaltime(countedin\seconds")playsaparticularroleandishandledbyspecialstatements,theywillbeexpressed and\thetrainmuststopwithin100meters" incompletelydierentways.inthesynchronousmodel,theywillbe expressedbysimilarprecedenceconstraints: Conceptually,thesetwoconstraintsareofthesamenature.However, \Thetrainmuststopwithin10seconds"

18 6logicalinstant:thehistoryofasystemisatotallyorderedsequenceof Whenwewillspeakofaninstant,thisnotionwillbeunderstoodasa \Theeventstopmustprecedethe10th(respectively,100th) nextoccurrenceoftheeventsecond(respectively,meter)" Chapter1:Introduction occur.eventoccurrencesthathappenatthesamelogicalinstantare consideredsimultaneous;thosethathappenatdierentinstantsareorderedastheirinstantsofoccurrence.apartfromtheselogicalinstants, logicalinstants;ateachoftheseinstants,zero,one,orseveralevents alltheprocessesofthesystemhavethesameknowledgeoftheevents nothinghappenseitherinthesystemorinitsenvironment.finally, occurringatagiveninstant. wewillseethatsynchronouslanguagescanbeimplementedinaparticularlyecientandmeasurableway.theobjectcodeisstructuredasa programreactsrapidlyenoughtoperceivealltheexternaleventsin amorerealisticabstractionthantheonethatconsistsinconsidering thatamachinedealswith\actual"integerorrealnumbers.moreover, suitableorder.ifthisassumptionissatised and,moreimportantly, ifitssatisfactioncanbechecked thesynchronoushypothesisisrather Inpractice,thesynchronyhypothesisistheassumptionthatthe hypothesiscanbechecked. 1.4Complexsystems niteautomaton,atransitionofwhichcorrespondstoareactionofthe program.asnotedbefore,thecodecorrespondingtosuchatransition islinear(loop-free),anditsmaximalexecutiontimecanbeaccurately However,synchronouslanguagesdonotpretendtosolvealltheproblemsraisedbythedesignofreal-timesystems.Areal-lifecomplex systemgenerallyinvolvesthecooperationofthethreetypesofpro- boundedonagivenmachine.therefore,thevalidityofthesynchrony system: ingsystemandtoactivatetransformationaltasks.generallyspeaking, following[bg92],wecandistinguishthreepartsinacomplexreal-time grams:forinstance,aprogrammermakesuseofareactiveinterface (keyboard,mouse,scrollbar)tocallinteractiveservicesoftheoperat-

19 x1.5:summaryofthisbook Agenerallyinteractiveinterfacewiththeenvironment,whichacquirestheinputsandprocessestheoutputs.Thislevelincludesionbetweenlogicalandphysicalinputs/outputs.Thislevelcan 7 interruptmanagement,inputreadingfromsensors,andconver- Oneormorereactivekernels.Suchakernelcomputestheoutputs synchronouscomponents. alsodealwiththecommunicationbetweenseverallooselycoupled, mostspecicandprobablythemostdicultpartofthedesignofa Alevelofdatamanagement,whichperformstransformational Thisbookessentiallydealswithreactivekerneldesign,whichisthe tasksunderthecontrolofthereactivekernel. tationsandoutputemissions)toincominginputs. fromthelogicalinputs,byselectingthesuitablereaction(compu- kernelsareintendedtobemergedintomorecomplexsystems.asa complexreal-timesystem.onemustkeepinmind,however,thatthese consequence,synchronouslanguagesarenotcompletelanguages.in program. 1.5Summaryofthisbook particular,theydonotoerprimitivestodeneandhandlecomplex datastructures,whicharelefttoaclassicallanguage(hostlanguage). Wewillpresenttheworkconcerningfourlanguages:Esterel,Argos, Moreover,synchronouslanguagecompilersproducetheirobjectcodein Lustre,andSignal.Ratherthandescribingsuccessivelytheparts thehostlanguage,forthiscodewilllateronbeintegratedintoalarger concerningeachofthem,weprefertosortthemaccordingtosomegeneraltopics: PartIIdealswithcompilation.Wewillsuccessivelypresent: PartIofthisbookpresentseachlanguage,togetherwithillustratingexamplesofprograms.Exampleshavebeenchoseninorderto highlightthemostspecicfeaturesofeachlanguage.

20 8 {nonclassicalstaticvericationsperformedbycompilers: (x5.4). causalitycheckinginesterel(x5.1)andargos(x5.2),clock checkinginlustre,(x5.3)andclocksynthesisinsignal Chapter1:Introduction {distributedcodegeneration.twoverydierentapproaches {sequentialcodegenerationfromesterel(x6.1)andlustre willbepresented.therstonehasbeenappliedtosignal whichseveraltoolscanbeapplied(x6.3). originalmethodtosynthesizethecontrolstructureoftheobjectcodeasaniteautomaton.bothcompilersgeneratethe codeinacommonformat,calledoc(for\objectcode"),on (x6.2)programs.esterelandlustrecompilerssharean PartIIIisdevotedtoprogramverication.ThelanguageLustre sourceprogram.thesecondapproachhasbeendeveloped andmakesuseofthelogicalconcurrencyexpressedinthe forlustre,butcanbeappliedtoanylanguagecompiled automatonbuiltbythecompiler.anotherapproach,usedtoverify 9);thesepropertiesarecheckedbyanexhaustiveanalysisofthe itselfcanbeusedtoexpresspropertiesaboutprograms(chapter {siliconcompiling,fromesterelandlustre(chapter8). code. towardsoc,sinceitrequiresrstthegenerationofsequential Esterelprograms(Chapter10),consistsofreducingthegeneratedautomatonaccordingtovarioussuitableobservationcriteria.

21 FourSynchronous Languages PartI

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23 Chapter2 Theimperativelanguage Esterel andisacommonprojectofinriaandensmpinsophia-antipolis. signstartedintheearly1980s.itwasdevelopedingerardberry'sgroup 2.1Introduction Amongthelanguageswewillpresent,Esterelistheoldest,sinceitsdeday,Esterelisacommercialproduct(soldandmaintainedbytwmentalconceptsofsynchronousprogrammingismainlyaconsequence thespecicityofthesynchronousapproach.theformalizationoffunda- withclassicallanguages,esterelwillbethebestlanguagetohighlight ofthedesignofesterel,andthemethodtocompilesynchronouspro- usualparallellanguages.paradoxically,becauseofthisapparentanalogy gramsintoautomatawasrstproposedintheesterelcompiler.to- Esterelisanimperative,textuallanguage,anditssyntaxiscloseto usedintheindustry.thefollowingoverviewofthelanguageisessentiallyderivedfrom[bcg87,bcg88]. 2.2Basicconcepts Frenchsoftwarecompanies:CISI-IngenierieandIlog)thatisactually ofsignalsandsensors.signalsareusedbothasinputsandoutputs, AnEsterelprogramcommunicateswithitsenvironmentbymeans

24 millisecond,asignaleverywheelrevolution,tracksignalsconveyingpositionalinformations,andsignalscomingfromtheoperatorkeyboard;it alwaysdo.forinstance,atraincontrollercanreceiveasignalevery 12 whilesensorsareusedonlyasinputs.signalscanconveyvalues;sensors Chapter2:TheimperativelanguageEsterel castingmaybelimitedbyscoperules;seebelow).whenasignalis canusesensorstomeasuretheexternaltemperature;itcanemitpower emitted(eitherbytheenvironmentorbyaninternalprocess),itisinstantaneouslyperceivedbyalltheprocessesthatlistentoit.onecapressesthatthesignalsconveysthevaluev. communicatingwitheachotherbymeansofinternalsignals. commandstotheenginesandbrakes.itcanbemadeofsubmodules, thinkofprogramsascommunicatingviaradiowaves,eachsignalbeingrepresentedbyafrequency.twokindsofinformationarebroadcast onthewaves:values,whicharepermanent,andsignaltops,whichare andavaluechangeisalwayssynchronouswithasignaltop(hence,the thesignalwhenitoccurs).asensorhasavaluebutnosignaltop.a transient(theycannotbeperceivedbyprocessesthatdonotlistento Signalsarebroadcastamongalltheprocesses(thoughthisbroad- Signalsandsensorsareidentiedbynames.ThenotationS(v)ex- puresignalhasasignaltopbutnovalue.avaluedsignalhasboth, todetectsensorvaluechanges). signaltopisusedtobroadcastanddetectvaluechanges;thereisnoway signaltopisacontrolinformationthatishandledbyspecialcontrol signalcaninstantaneouslyresultintheemissionofothersignals.asa statements. nameofavaluedsignalorofasensor,?sdenotesitscurrentvalue.a consequence,thefollowingprogramfragment Valuesconveyedbysignalscanappearinexpressions:ifSisthe InEsterel,controltakesnotime.Theoccurrenceofaninput SECOND.TheemissionofMINUTEissimultaneouswiththe60thoccurrenceofSECOND. preciselyemitsthesignalminuteevery60occurrencesofthesignal every60seconddo endemitminute

25 particularrunofaprogramisasequenceofevents,calledahistory.we givebelowapossiblehistoryofaspeedcounter,receivingtwosignals eventisasetofsimultaneousoccurrencesof(possiblyvalued)signals.a x2.3:programmingprimitives Thisnotionofsimultaneityiscapturedbytheconceptofevent.An 13 toanyevent.inotherwords,tickoccursatanyreactionoftheprogram. Thereisaspecialbuilt-inpuresignalnamedtickthatimplicitlybelongs SECONDandMETER,andcomputingthevaluedsignalSPEEDeverysecond: (e.g.,byseveralprocesses).ifsuchasignalispure,theresultisonly Thesamesignalmaybeemittedseveraltimesatthesameinstant fmeterg;fsecond;speed(1)g;fmeterg;fmeter;second;speed(2)g;::: v1;v2. representsthecollisionoftwomessages.onesetsv1v2=nakforall signalbroadcastingisphysicallyrealizedonacable.aspecialvaluenak useofthiscombinationmechanism,inethernet-likelocalnetworks, renceofs(v1v2vn)inthecurrentevent.asanexampleofthe canbeassociateda\combinationoperator,"notedby:theresultof thesimultaneousemissionofs(v1),s(v2),:::,s(vn)isthentheoccur- thatthesignalispresentinthecurrentevent.ifitisavaluedsignal,it canbeimportedfromahostlanguageandareonlydeclaredasabstract 2.3Programmingprimitives namesinthedeclarationpart.onlyaminimalsetoftypes,constants, partandastatementpart. Thebasicprogrammingunitisthemodule,whichcontainsadeclaration acompletelanguage.datatypes,constants,functions,andprocedures andoperatorsarebuiltin(integers,boolean,usualarithmeticandlogic operators). Likeallthesynchronouslanguagesconsideredhere,Esterelisnot

26 thendeclarethesignalsandthesensorsthatdenethemodule'sinterface.finally,thedeclarationpartmayalsoinclude\relations,"which atimermodule,asitappearsinthedigitalwatchprogramdescribed pilerforoptimizationpurposes.hereisapossibledeclarationpartof areimplicationandexclusionrelationsamonginputsignals;theseare knownpropertiesoftheenvironment,whichareindicatedtothecom- in[ber91b]: moduletimer typetime; proceduresusedbythemodule(anddenedinthehostlanguage);we Declarations Inthedeclarationpart,wedeclarethetypes,constants,functions,and Chapter2:TheimperativelanguageEsterel TheprocedureINCREMENTTIMEisdeclaredwithtwolistsoftypes: inputsecond,reset; outputtimervalue(time), relationsecond#reset; procedureincrementtime(time)(); constantinitialtime:time; typesargumentspassedbyvalue(itisemptyhere).theoutputsignaltimervalueconveysavalueoftypetimeandhasnocombination therstlisttypesargumentspassedbyreference,andthesecondlist BEEP(combineintegerwithPLUS); operator:itsmultipleemissionisforbidden(itwillbecheckedbythe compiler).themultipleemissionoftheoutputsignalbeepisallowed: theintegervaluesconveyedwillthenbeadded.intuitively,severalcomponentsofawatchcanoperatethebeeper:thechimebeepsoncea timesasecond.ifsomeofthesecomponentsbeeptogether,thebeep frequenciesmustbeadded.finally,thegivenrelationindicatesthat second,thestopwatchbeepstwiceasecond,andthealarmbeepsfour sensorvalues(?s),andfunctioncalls. denotesexclusivity) Expressions Theexpressionsareclassicallybuiltfromvariables,constants,signaland signalssecondandresetneveroccuratthesametime(the#operator

27 primitivestatementsarethemselvesdividedintotwogroups:classical statements,whicharedenedintermsofprimitivestatements.the Therearetwokindsofstatements:primitivestatementsandderived x2.3:programmingprimitives 2.3.3Statements 15 Hereisthelistofthebasicimperativestatements: signals. Basicimperativestatements basicimperativestatements,andtemporalstatementsthatdealwith nothing halt call<id>(<varlist>)(<explist>)externalprocedurecall <stat>;<stat> if<exp>then<stat> <var>:=<expression> loop<stat>end dummystatement <stat> <stat> else<stat>end haltingstatement sequence assignment exit<id> trap<id>in<stat> conditional inniteloop trapdenition parallelstatement branchofaparallelstatement,itcannotbereadorwrittenintheother run<name><renaming> signal<signaldecls> var<vardecls>in<stat>end Therearenosharedvariables:ifavariableisupdatedinone localsignaldeclaration moduleinstanciation localvariabledeclaration exitfromtrap branches. rupted. andneverterminates.1therefore,nothingdoesnothinginnotime, statementthattakestimeisthehaltstatement,whichdoesnothing assignmentandexternalprocedurecallsareinstantaneous,thesecond statementofasequenceisstartedexactlywhentherststatementter- 1Wewillseelaterthattheinniteexecutionofahaltstatementcanbeinter- Rememberthattheexecutionmachineisinnitelyfast.Theonly

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