Review of Controller Training Requirements for Advanced ATC Environments

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1 Review of Controller Training Requirements for Advanced ATC Environments Colin Dow, Jonathan Histon Humans in Complex Systems Lab (HCOM) Systems Design Engineering University of Waterloo Contact:

2 Introduction ATC system updates will increase automation and complexity Need for re-evaluation of: knowledge, skills and abilities required of controllers training best practices ATC training programs need to adapt by using new instructional techniques and concepts What are the key challenges that must be addressed? 2

3 Increasing Air Traffic Trends in scheduled passenger Traffic World ( ) (ICAO) 3

4 Upgraded ATM System A global ATM system upgrade is currently underway Airspace over Europe and the U.S. represent some of the biggest challenges Eurocontrol and the FAA have developed a plan for an improved system; shift to implementation (FAA 2013) (Eurocontrol) 4

5 Changing Environment New operational tools being introduced include: o ADS-B o CPDLC o SWIM New tools will have a significant impact on the operational environment o CDM o Decision support tools (DSTs) (FAA 2009) 5

6 Outline Approach & 3 Key Challenges Areas for Future Research Conclusion 6

7 Approach Goal: Gain better understanding of challenges and identify potential for research opportunities Gathered the relevant literature Analyzed for recurrent themes Identified potential areas for further research (SavePottstown) 7

8 Model for the process of ATC training program redesign 8

9 3 Key Challenges Simulation-Based Training Training for Automation Instructional Design for Training Complex Skills 9

10 Simulation-Based Training Level of Fidelity Not how much you have but how you use it (Salas et al. 1998) High-fidelity simulation does not mean good training Simulation-based training needs to be informed by research in instructional design and learning concepts (AT-One) 10

11 Simulation-Based Training Lower-fidelity simulation can be just as valuable High-fidelity simulation is one component of learning process Need to set: Learning goals Performance measurements Why continuing heavy reliance on high-fidelity? 11

12 Simulation-Based Training Characterization of Simulation Scenarios Improved ability to create scenarios Automatic Scenario Generation How to characterize ATC simulation scenarios? Advanced Training Technologies Intelligent Tutoring Systems Voice Recognition & Synthesis How to incorporate in training programs? 12

13 3 Key Challenges Simulation-Based Training Training for Automation Instructional Design for Training Complex Skills 13

14 Training for Automation Automation can have significant impact on: Mental workload Situation awareness Complacency Skill degradation (Parasuraman et al., 2000) What impact will new ATM tools have on performance? (Tom Cheney) 14

15 Training for Automation Impacts of automation in advanced ATC environments have been extensively studied Less focus on how automation will affect training Recent studies have focused on the order in which ATC skills are trained (Manual control vs. Support tools) There is a significant impact on performance depending on the order (Rorie et al., 2011; Billinghurst et al., 2011) Reliance on DSTs in training can also affect performance (Vu et al. 2012) How else will training need to adapt? 15

16 3 Key Challenges Simulation-Based Training Training for Automation Instructional Design for Training Complex Skills 16

17 Instructional Design for Training Complex Skills Complex cognitive skills are essential for controllers There are learning concepts and theories to inform the design of training for these skills Holistic approach vs. Atomistic approach Recent work supports the holistic approach (van Merrienboer & Kirschner, 2013) Ex.: 4-Component Instructional Design Model Learning tasks Supportive information Procedural information Part-task Practice 17

18 Instructional Design for Training Complex Skills Dynamic Problem Selection Critical Thinking Instruction How do these learning strategies compare with current ATC training program design? 18

19 Outline Approach & 3 Key Challenges Areas for Future Research Conclusion 19

20 Importance of Training Program Redesign 20

21 Areas for Future Research Simulation-Based Training Simulator fidelity for specific training outcomes Use of complexity metrics for characterization of simulation scenarios Training for Automation Training for automation failure Controller skill degradation due to automation Instructional Design for Training Complex Skills Adapting learning theories to ATC training programs 21

22 Outline Approach & 3 Key Challenges Areas for Future Research Conclusion 22

23 Conclusion Focus has been on design of new tools, what about the training to use these tools? Developed preliminary model for training design process Further work needed to identify relationships between new tools and training needs 23

24 Conclusion Recent work has identified several key challenges that will affect the success of training programs Choice of simulator fidelity Need for contingency training Approach to skill development Addressing these challenges is an important step in developing effective training programs that will support the introduction of new operational concepts 24

25 References ICAO. (2007). Outlook for Air Transport to the Year Montreal, QC: ICAO FAA. (2013). NextGen. Retrieved from Eurocontrol. (2012). European ATM Master Plan. Retrieved from FAA. (2009). NextGen Briefing. Retrieved from SavePottstown. (2010). A Lot of Reading to Do. Retrieved from AT-One. (2013). ATM Simulators. Retrieved from Salas, E., Bowers, C. A., & Rhodenizer, L. (1998). It Is Not How Much You Have but How You Use It : Toward a Rational Use of Simulation to Support Aviation Training. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 8(3), Parasuraman, R., Sheridan, T. B., & Wickens, C. D. (2000). A model for types and levels of human interaction with automation. IEEE transactions on systems, man, and cybernetics. Part A, Systems and humans : a publication of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society, 30(3),

26 References Billinghurst, S. S., Morgan, C., Rorie, R. C., Kiken, a., Bacon, L. P., Vu, K.-P. L., Strybel, T. Z., et al. (2011). Should Students Learn General Air Traffic Management Skills Before NextGen Tools? Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 55(1), Rorie, R., Kiken, A., Morgan, C., Billinghurst, S., Morales, G., Monk, K., & Battiste, V. (2011). A preliminary investigation of training order for introducing NextGen tools. Human Interface and the Management of Information. Interacting with Information, Vu, K.-P. L., Silva, H., Ziccardi, J., Morgan, C. a., Morales, G., Grigoleit, T., Lee, S., et al. (2012). How Does Reliance on Automated Tools During Learning Influence Students Air Traffic Management Skills When the Tools Fail? Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 56(1), Van Merrienboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013). Ten Steps to Complex Learning: A Systematic Approach to Four-Component Instructional Design (2nd ed.). Burlington, VT: Routledge. 26

27 Thank you. 27

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