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1 E EVALUATION X X-RADIATION pposition eeducation r realisation t TRANSFORMATION I INNOVATION ssolution e EXPLORATION subsurface SERVICES from SGS

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3 CONTEnts SUBSURFACE CONSULTANCY An Integrated Approach 4 A&D and asset Valuation Reserves / Resources Certification & Audit 6 Acquisition and Divestment / Data room Support 7 Licence Application Support 8 Petroleum Economics 9 development & production studies Production & Reservoir Geophysics 10 Quantitative Interpretation 11 Petrophysical Evaluation 12 Production & Reservoir Geology 13 Dynamic Reservoir Modelling 14 Production Technology 15 Field Development Plan Support & Facilities Audit 16 Reservoir Management & Monitoring 17 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) 18 Well Test Design & Interpretation 19 equity determination & UnitisatioN 20 data acquisition & Logging Operational Support 21 Other Services Peer Review 25 Seismic processing Geophysical Imaging 26 services for unconventionals Multi-Scale Shale Characterisation 27 Tight Gas Services 28 Coal Bed Methane (CBM) Services 29 special services Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) 30 UGS Evaluation Services 31 Reservoir Compaction and Subsidence Modelling 32 Sedimentology and Diagenesis 33 Geochemical Services 34 staffing solutions Secondment 35 Index 36 contact information 38 Drilling & completion engineering Well Engineering 22 integrated exploration studies Exploration Studies 23 Basin Modelling 24 3

4 SUBSURFACE CONSULTANCY AN INTEGRATED APPROACH How can you ensure effective reservoir and field studies for the evaluation, development and management of oil and gas fields? Due to the challenging economics of the petroleum industry, there is an ever-increasing need to optimise field development and increase hydrocarbon recovery. With the growing complexity of hydrocarbon production, the need for extensive up front evaluation and management of uncertainties is greater than ever. To ensure effective evaluation, development and management of oil and gas fields, accurate reservoir modelling and simulation is of paramount importance. SGS Horizon can act as a qualified and experienced partner to support your reservoir and field studies from start to end. When you need to make a decision on field development, be it on bringing into production an exploration discovery or on realising infill well / workover opportunities in a mature field, you are likely to have available several options, and you will be faced at the same time with inherent subsurface uncertainty. A lack of understanding and quantification of amongst others geologic uncertainties, reservoir depletion mechanisms, location of remaining hydrocarbons and potential well options will probably result in decisions that will not extract the full value of your field. Our integrated reservoir studies services will provide you with the support to make fully informed decisions based on thorough analysis and consistent reservoir modelling, weighing alternatives so you can be confident of the success of your field development decisions and you are ensured of optimised hydrocarbon recovery. WHY CHOOSE SGS horizon FOR INTEGRATED RESERVOIR STUDIES? Since founded in 2001, we have performed, for a wide variety of clients, hundreds of field studies worldwide, with focus on Europe, Africa, FSU and the Middle East. Our strengths in integrated reservoir studies services are: Tailor made evaluation approaches to suit both your business needs and the characteristics of the field under study Fit for purpose customized solutions, for every stage of the field life cycle, carried out via a multidisciplinary approach in our office Integration of technical disciplines, including subsurface, wells and facilities High level of expertise in reservoir modelling, enhanced by the application of complementary analytical methods Identification of risks and opportunities and integrated assessment of uncertainty ranges Evaluation of the technical feasibility of developments and recommendations on future development strategy High standards of quality assurance, forming an integral part of our project workflow Results supported by integrated reporting, clearly describing and effectively arguing our conclusions Focussed project management that allows you to deliver projects within budget and on time. 4

5 ONSITE SERVICES PVT FLUID SAMPLING & ANALYSIS OFFSITE SERVICES ADVANCED RESERVOIR QUALITY SERVICES (ARQS) FACILITIES & TRANSPORT ENGINEERING SEISMIC PROCESSING GEOCHEMISTRY METERING, MEASUREMENT & ALLOCATION (M&A) CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT WELL ENGINEERING RESERVOIR ENGINEERING INTEGRATED APPROACH GEOLOGY SEISMIC INTERPRETATION PETROPHYSICS WELL TESTING & PRODUCTION SERVICES(TPS) CASED HOLE SERVICES (CHS) WELL INTEGRITY & PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT SGS HORIZON PROVIDES CONSULTING SERVICES APPLICABLE TO THE FULL LIFE CYCLE OF A FIELD. THE SERVICES WE OFFER INCLUDE: SEISMIC UNRIVALED INTERPRETATION, EXPERIENCE RESERVOIR IN INTEGRATED GEOLOGY, WHY PETROPHYSICS, SGS? RESERVOIR ENGINEERING, A WORLDWIDE WELL DESIGN COMPANY AND TECHNOLOGY WITh GLOBAL RESERVOIR STUDIES During our long history, we have Founded in 2001, SGS Horizon became part of the SGS Group in As part SOLUTIONS Recognised as the global benchmark for performed a complete range of of SGS s Oil, Gas & Chemicals business, quality and integrity, we employ over integrated EXPLORATION reservoir and field studies DEVELOPMENT SGS Horizon provides integrated PRODUCTION people SPECIAL and operate STUDIES a network of across the globe in just about every more than offices and laboratories geological setting. We have built up around the world. solutions throughout the field lifecycle, covering all subsurface, well and Static Reservoir engineering Modelling aspects from Reservoir exploration Management through development and production to Reservoir Simulation Reservoir Monitoring abandonment. These solutions help the Seismic Inversion History Matching oil and gas industry add value to their Well Design and Technology Enhanced Recovery assets. Risk Assessment and Field Operations Petroleum Our Economics in-depth knowledge and experience Re-development Conceptual of Engineering a wide range of oil and gas regions, Drilling and Completion settings and environments, enables us to a Regional strong reputation Reviews and an excellent track Play record Definition as solutions provider. Our performance Seismic Processing is supported by: Seismic Our know-how Interpretation spanning the entire Prospect spectrum Identification of upstream and disciplines, Evaluation including geophysics, reservoir Licence geology, petrophysics, reservoir Strategic engineering, Entriesproduction technology Geomechanics Services Data and Rooms well and (A&D) facility engineering, tailor our services to almost Facilities any specific Engineering Peer enabling Reviews full integration of disciplines situation or project. and Supervision The global network of offices and laboratories of SGS, offering a variety of supporting services and a large source of specialist knowledge SGS is the world s leading inspection, verification, testing and certification company. Our global network of offices and laboratories and our dedicated team allow us to respond to your needs, when An outstanding team of highly skilled and where they occur. Our reputation for multilingual technical professionals independence, excellence and innovation bringing along worldwide expertise, has established us as the market leader augmented by our network of in providing services that improve associate experts that allows us efficiency, reduce risk and deliver to cover a wide range of special competitive advantage. expertise areas. We provide innovative CO 2 Sequestration services and solutions for every Chemical part EOR of the oil, gas and chemicals industry Unconventional and environmental Reservoirs services, when Underground and where Gas they Storage are needed. Our global Coal Bed network Methane of offices Reservoirs and laboratories, alongside our dedicated team, allows ASSET us to VALUE respond ASSURANCE to your needs, when Equity and where Re-determination they occur. Our reputation for Reserve independence, and Resource excellence Technical and innovation Audits has established and Certifications us as the market leader Competent in providing Persons services Reporting (CPR) that improve efficiency, reduce risk and deliver competitive advantage. For more information about subsurface consultancy or other upstream services, contact or visit 5

6 TOTAL PETROLEUM INITIALLY-IN-PLACE (PIIP) A&D AND ASSET VALUATION RESERVES / RESOURCES CERTIFICATION & AUDIT Oil and gas companies need independent reserves and resources certifications or audits for stock exchanges, certain regulatory bodies and commercial or institutional institutions. This can be to fulfil information requirements or provide an independent certification for shareholders, but also to substantiate loan facilities or support discussions with banks or financial institutions. Furthermore, reserves evaluations can be conducted to investigate whether opportunities to book additional compliant reserves exist. Alternatively, financial institutions may require an informed opinion on the asset base of their customers or their potential acquisition targets. When you need to be sure, SGS Horizon has the required expertise to provide independent evaluations and audits in compliance with well established standards. Our tailored advice is focussed on adding value to your portfolio and supporting your long term business strategy. Our reserves and resources evaluations involve an independent assessment of all pertinent data which typically involves the following components: Identification and assessment of asset data (such as seismic, well, production, CAPEX and OPEX data and other available information) Construction or validation of hydrocarbon potential maps Calculation or validation of the STOIIP and GIIP Calculation or validation of CAPEX and OPEX profiles Calculation or validation of technical production profiles Determination of economic cut-off using the economic model The reserves evaluations and audits can be conducted according to any of the standards, rules and (or) guidelines applicable to the oil and gas industry (e.g. SEC, SPE-PRMS, NI51-101, UKLA) depending on your preferences or the purpose of the evaluation. We also carry out reserves process audits focussed on assessing the robustness and integrity of your internal processes, risks and controls (e.g. control framework) driving your reserves estimation, classification and reporting process. Equity and debt capital raising Independent reviews Review and design of reserves guidelines and processes Maximised loan facility opportunities Augmented reserves booking for different standards Independently audited reserves and reserves processes PRODUCTION DISCOVERED PIIP UNDISCOVERED PIIP COMMERCIAL SUB-COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL Undeveloped Developed Marginal Sub-Marginal Proved P90 1P 1C Low Estimate RESERVES Probable CONTINGENT RESOURCES Unrecoverable PROSPECTIVE RESOURCES P50 2P 2C Best Estimate Possible P10 3P 3C High Estimate Increasing Chance of Commerciality Unrecoverable 6 Range of Uncertainty Not to scale

7 A&D AND ASSET VALUATION ACQUISITION AND DIVESTMENT / DATA ROOM SUPPORT Acquisition and Divestment (A&D) activities are an integral part of the global oil and gas industry and constitute a valuable means to manage and strengthen your company s asset portfolio. Any business transaction requires an understanding of all the factors constituting the valuation of an asset and the risks and benefits associated with the transaction. At SGS Horizon we understand the complexity of such transactions and can ensure a swift and reliable progression. The sale or acquisition of any existing oil and gas asset requires the evaluation or provision of a large amount of data. Data rooms are the common means for transferring relevant information. SGS Horizon can assist in efficient and high quality handling of your data room requirements. Our integrated multidisciplinary teams offer expert technical support during the course of your asset evaluation process. Our seasoned A&D staff amalgamate technical insights with commercial, legal, economic, financial and other key aspects and defines all risks and opportunities in order to arrive at the best possible business transaction for your company. Using quick-screening tools we can swiftly identify key value drivers that will focus your team s efforts to ensure time-efficient delivery of assessment results. Access to our extensive global client network allows smooth cooperation with small to large companies, private equity institutions, equity and debt providers, brokers, sovereign wealth funds and other service providers. Through our network, we are aware of current and imminent opportunities which can give you a competitive edge. Our team can also conduct opportunity screening exercises combining our software tools with market intelligence based on your search criteria. For your acquisitions, we collect and structure all your information for provision to potential buyers through an information memorandum, a virtual data room, and management presentations. For the virtual data room, we can autonomously manage the time-consuming question and answer process. For your divestments, depending on your requirements, our seasoned experts can provide tailored advice during the course of the data room analysis. Oil and gas assets or companies Licence bidding rounds Opportunity screening Farm-in and farm-out opportunities Enhanced risk mitigation Maximised value for opportunities Time-efficient focus on main value drivers Competitive edge through access to our network Flexible, multidisciplinary staff availability VALUATION Risk 5 Risk 4 Risk 3 Risk 2 Risk 1 Transaction Opportunity 1 Opportunity 2 Opportunity 3 Opportunity 4 Opportunity 5 7

8 A&D AND ASSET VALUATION LICENCE APPLICATION SUPPORT Governmental institutions such as Ministries of Energy, National Hydrocarbon Commissions and other regulatory bodies regularly organise licence bidding rounds, often accompanied by data rooms, to promote further oil and gas development in their country. To determine the value of a licence, a thorough understanding of the licence bid requirements combined with technical aspects, such as knowledge of the subsurface geology and the ullage available in the evacuation routes, is required. SGS Horizon provides services in all required aspects of licence bidding rounds. We can effectively integrate our technical and commercial knowledge to optimally prepare your bids. We also can provide for governments the sales brochure of a licensing round, based on integrated exploration studies (see page 23) In order to support your licence applications, we perform fully independent evaluations on the licence areas offered in order to distil all key relevant risks and opportunities on the basis of information provided or publicly available data. Our evaluations can range from single block screening and feasibility studies to larger multi area assessments. Typical evaluation components include seismic and well data interpretation, definition of play fairways, prospect identification, deterministic and stochastic volumetric calculations, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, prospect and block ranking, and static and dynamic reservoir modelling. If required, we can also conduct development screening and technical cost assessment. Through our extensive network in the industry, we are fully aware of all potential future licence bidding rounds and licences being released. Our multidisciplinary team includes a number of SPE and SPEE (board) members who have a thorough understanding of the oil and gas regulations in a large number of jurisdictions. We combine our technical knowledge with regulatory intelligence to help you prepare optimal licence applications, including compiling the required documentation, assistance in presentations to authorities and further support during negotiations. Our wide project exposure to a wide range of oil and gas regions, settings and environments in different countries gives us in-depth knowledge of regulatory frameworks. This allows us to help you package your bid to meet the required standards and maximise your chances of success. Advertised licence bidding rounds Work programs and investment plans Screening and bidding on blocks in open licensing jurisdictions Optimum bid preparation through combination of regulatory intelligence and technical knowledge Multidisciplinary approach ensures a swift and efficient licence evaluation Competitive edge resulting from knowledge on most hydrocarbon areas globally 8

9 A&D and asset Valuation Petroleum Economics In the oil and gas industry, key decisions need to be made to optimise developments, production and transportation of hydrocarbons and other factors whilst meeting stringent environmental regulations. Petroleum economics lies at the heart of decision making processes and employs a number of techniques to determine economic inputs, evaluate investments and quantify risk. To develop and apply accurate economic models, a clear understanding of amongst others tax royalty systems, production sharing agreements, cash flow analysis, organisational challenges, price forecasting, cost drivers and risk management is required. At SGS Horizon, we combine our intricate understanding of all aspects of Petroleum Economics with our abilities to integrate technical, business and managerial skills to help you meet the challenges of the future and build your company s success. Our team has access to existing economic models and can develop new economic models, if required. As we are familiar with many industry standard models, we can run these models for you, or we can validate your economic models. Should you be in need of an economic model, we can advise on the most appropriate model to use for your needs. We are familiar with both tax royalty systems and production sharing agreements. We are in close contact with the market and are aware of recent and potential future changes. This means we can help you make decisions to optimise your investments. Our team has extensive experience with operators and as such can guide you on the use of economic models and advise you on the interpretation of model outcomes. Exploration Appraisal Development Reserves and resources Acquisition and divestment Licence bidding rounds Improved input data control resulting from integrated multidisciplinary team contribution Better decision making to optimise your investments Tailored advice through broad experience and market access 9

10 development & production studies Production & Reservoir Geophysics Production and Reservoir Geophysics is increasingly important in a time when major assets approach the end of their productive cycle and cost efficiencies drive strategic decisions in the oil and gas industry. Production and Reservoir Geophysics encompasses a range of geophysical methods that can be utilised for the characterisation and monitoring of producing reservoirs. The adequate well control and fundamental understanding of the rock physics in these reservoirs allow the application of target oriented geophysical constraints to reservoir modelling. At SGS Horizon, we design fit for purpose geophysical workflows that are focussed on analysing your reservoir uncertainties and mitigating the associated risks. On the basis of your needs we design tailor made geophysical workflows, typically a key element of our integrated reservoir studies, to add value to your reservoir management strategies. In support of the static modelling of your fields, we select and apply appropriate geophysical methods to reduce uncertainties. Amongst others, we focus our methods to enhance the development of structural models, better constrain the distribution of geostatistical properties, and (or) improve the assessment of fault interactions. Similarly, when addressing the dynamic behaviour of your reservoir and controlling factors such as reservoir compartmentalisation, fracture characterisation and fluid fill, we employ suitable methods to help you evaluate and (or) monitor the reservoir performance. The geophysical methods that we utilise for seismic reservoir characterisation include (but are not limited to): Seismic re-processing Velocity modelling Analysis of Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSPs) and checkshots Quantitative interpretation (QI) Attribute analysis (semblance, variance, ant tracking) Seismic petrophysics Pre-stack seismic inversion Amplitude vs. offset (AVO) analysis Full waveform inversion (FWI) Seismic forward modelling Time-lapse (4D) seismic monitoring Multicomponent (3C) seismic processing and interpretation High resolution cross-well seismic Microseismic monitoring of fractures Uncertainty analysis, both parametric, and involving multiple concepts Our Production and Reservoir Geophysics is also employed as part of data room reviews, due diligence studies and reserves redeterminations. Static and dynamic modelling Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) Production monitoring Fracture design and monitoring Drilling risk mitigation Reserves certification and asset evaluation Improved reservoir understanding through integration of geophysics with other disciplines resulting in better quality static and dynamic geomodels Enhanced understanding of key reservoir characteristics and therefore better selection of production strategies Auditable and reliable structural models 10

11 development & production studies Quantitative Interpretation Conventional techniques in exploration seismology are primarily concerned with the imaging of the subsurface in order to identify potential hydrocarbon traps. Given the challenges associated with identifying and developing hydrocarbon reservoirs (e.g. greater depths, structural complexity), innovative seismic interpretation techniques are required to accurately delineate the reservoir architecture in order to minimise project risks. Quantitative interpretation (QI) is one such technique that focuses on characterising the reservoir, including its geometry, elastic and geomechanical properties, lithology and fluid content. QI involves the identification, prediction and quantification of amplitude changes in a given seismic volume in order to delineate rock and fluid properties and associated geological variations. SGS Horizon has developed a powerful QI workflow that can be applied to help you reduce uncertainties in your projects. The application of our workflow enables improved structural and facies mapping, which will ensure better prediction of the make-up of your conventional reservoir. Also, in unconventional plays the application of our workflow facilitates the enhanced prediction of shale properties that allows the delineation of sweet spots through assessment of the Brittleness index and pressure gradient. Our QI workflow contains the following elements: Full cycle of well-seismic calibration (logs calibration, well tie, well-seismic resolution analysis, wavelet phase assessment, etc.) Seismic (post-stack and pre-stack simultaneous) inversion Full and extended elastic impedance inversion Time-lapse impedance inversion Converted wave (PP-PS) inversion AVO modelling and analysis Rock physics diagnostics (FRM analysis, rock physics scenario and model analysis) Special seismic attributes (nonlinear instantaneous spectral attributes) Spectral decomposition & thin layer inversion The predictive benefits of QI can be used to improve property model building and (or) improved history matching or for exploration prospect derisking in both conventional and unconventional plays. This may include enhancement of your structural interpretation, improvement of your lithofacies definition, enhanced fluid and rock property prediction and sweet spot determination in shale plays. In addition, the use of QI as a simple resolution enhancement tool has proven to significantly reduce the uncertainty of study deliverables and thus create added value for your projects. The full cross-disciplinary integration of our QI workflow in our overall project workflow ensures both a high quality (optimally calibrated) QI result and its effective practical application. Geomodelling (structural interpretation, lithofacies, fluid and rock property definition) Exploration and development Unconventional resources characterisation ( sweet spot determination) Resources and reserves estimation Enhanced structural interpretation and lithofacies definition leading to a more robust reservoir model Better prediction of fluid and rock properties allowing improved history matching Greater confidence (and less uncertainties) in reservoir model through incorporation and integration of multidisciplinary expertise Stable and consistent results using industry standard software for QI workflow 11

12 development & production studies Petrophysical Evaluation Petrophysics involves the study of physical, electrical and mechanical rock properties in order to understand the subsurface geology. The Petrophysical Evaluation of rock and fluid properties such as porosity, permeability, fluid saturation and lithology and integration of geological and geophysical information form the basis for the formation evaluation of reservoir rock and fluid contents. The insights gained are essential for the determination of hydrocarbon reserves, hydrocarbon reservoir producibility, well design, well placement and completion, and long-term field development planning. SGS Horizon employs quantitative log evaluation and integrates all available information from other geosciences disciplines to develop the most accurate Petrophysical Evaluations in support of successful hydrocarbon exploration and development. We provide a full range of Petrophysical Evaluation services that cover fully integrated multiwell studies to single well evaluations. For every project, we set up a database to assure the data quality of all logging and petrophysical information. Subsequently a fit for purpose workflow is designed that involves the integration of other appropriate available data, such as sedimentology, facies, burial history, diagenesis, mineralogy and core data. Depending on reservoir complexity and data availability, we employ a probabilistic or deterministic approach to develop a solid petrophysical model. Typically this includes (but is not restricted to) the following topics: Quantitative log evaluation: application of deterministic log analysis using total and effective porosity concepts; multimineral probabilistic analysis; amalgamation with core data, borehole image data and production data Borehole image interpretation: processing, interpretation and integration of borehole image data Permeability modelling: building permeability predicting models; integration of core data with facies information and wireline evaluation results and available test information Saturation modelling based on capillary pressure curve data or on evaluated logs Pressure data analysis: delineation of possible permeability ranges through integration of pressure data, including drill stem test data, and all geological information Error analysis: optimisation of results and reduction of uncertainties through Monte Carlo error analysis Our petrophysics professionals are frequently involved in exploration and development projects and have experience in a wide range of: Geological settings, e.g. deepwater turbidites and tight formations Lithologies e.g. clastics, (fractured) carbonate and chalk Exploration and appraisal wells Integrated reservoir studies Field development planning Reserves calculation and certification Equity determination / unitisation Enhanced hydrocarbon reservoir characterisation Reduced risks and better defined uncertainties through solid petrophysical modelling Vital input for cost-efficient well test design and completion 12

13 development & production studies Production & Reservoir Geology Understanding the geology of a hydrocarbon reservoir is essential for planning its development, production and management strategy (including volumetric evaluation). Conceptual 3D models of the reservoir that capture its structural architecture, depositional concept, petrophysical property distribution and fluid fill are an integral part of the decision-making process along the way to efficient extraction of oil and (or) gas. SGS Horizon s multidisciplinary subsurface team provides fully integrated evaluations and solutions that support you in optimising your data. We use both in-house technologies and industry standard applications to ensure that your reservoir development and production activities will be driven by the right decisions. Typically, we carry out reservoir geology studies as part of integrated multidisciplinary subsurface studies. However, we can also conduct (single-discipline) geological studies with a focus on the practical impact of our models and inherent uncertainties on field and reservoir appraisal and development. At the initiation of each study, we conduct a project framing session with your team focussed on identifying key process steps in order to ensure efficient use of time and optimise the deliverables. We design a fit for purpose workflow that is driven by project objectives and tailored to the available data. In general this involves the integration of all pertinent stratigraphic, structural and petrophysical analyses in your preferred software platform. We build 3D static geomodels on the basis of our evaluation of the reservoir architecture (stratigraphy and fault network) and facies distribution (sedimentology and diagenesis). This process also involves the completion of detailed well correlations and quantification of reservoir parameters (from petrophysical logs, core analyses, etc.) that contribute to determining the key characteristics important for the production of the reservoir. Our geology professionals focus on delivering reliable qualitative and quantitative results by employing a wide variety of process steps. As an integral part of our workflow, we conduct welldefined quality assurance checks at the completion of each stage. Our workflows commonly comprise one or more of the following elements: Analog field analysis Mudlog analysis and (or) core description and interpretation Analysis and interpretation of borehole imagery (including FMI) Thin section and mineralogy analysis Regional / field scale and single well correlations Sedimentological studies Fault seal analysis Structural concept analysis Fracture description and analysis 3D static model building (including geostatistics and mapping) Calculation of hydrocarbon volumes Uncertainty analysis (parametric and involving multiple concepts) Our studies can be applied both in the exploration and development realm and can cover the full range of scales from single well evaluations to basin scale studies. Hydrocarbon reserves estimation and certification Appraisal well planning Field development and re-development planning Mature field opportunity selection Coherent understanding of geological framework for reduced uncertainty and better appraisal Better decision making on the basis of our auditable 3D static geomodels and clearly defined uncertainties Optimised production resulting from fully integrated nature of our studies 13

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