1 6TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CARBON NANOPARTICLE BASED COMPOSITES Dresden, GERMANY SEPTEMBER 22 TO 25, 2013 BOOK OF ABSTRACTS
2 Imprint Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V. Hohe Straße Dresden, Germany Phone: Fax: Layout Kerstin Wustrack Juliane Jeschke Printed by LKS - Lichtpaus & Kopier Studio, Dresden, Germany ISBN:
3 Preface CNPComp2013 continues a series of successful conferences on carbon based nanocomposites that originated from the European research network CNT-NET and has been organized every two years alternating between Hamburg and Cambridge, the base towns of the two main initiators of the conference series, Alan Windle and Karl Schulte. Due to the upcoming retirement of Karl Schulte, the conference 'moves up the Elbe river' and the meetings in Germany will be held in Dresden from now on. Again, the conference shall gather the international scientific community working in the field of carbon nanotube, graphene, or other nanocarbon filled composites. These materials are summarized as carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) which explains the change from the conference title CNTComp (so far) to CNPComp (starting in 2013). The conference provides the forum where the latest results and findings in the field will be presented and offers researchers from both academic institutions and industry a great opportunity to exchange knowledge, make contacts and engage in discussions. Participation of younger scientists, also with oral presentations, is explicitly encouraged. Topics Processing and characterisation of CNPs Dispersion in different matrices Surface treatment, functionalization, and interphase behaviour Preparation and processing of composites and blends Hybrid filler systems Hierarchical nano structured composites Modelling of CNPs and composites Properties: electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical Applications
4 Organization Organizing Institute Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V. Conference Chairpersons Petra Pötschke (IPF Dresden, D) Alan H. Windle (University of Cambridge, UK) International Scientific Committee L. Catherine Brinson (Northwestern University, USA) Tsu-Wei Chou (University of Delaware, USA) Ian Kinloch (The University of Manchester, UK) Tony McNally (University of Warwick, UK) Zbigniew Rosłaniec (West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, PL) Karl Schulte (Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, D) Milo Shaffer (Imperial College London, UK) H. Daniel Wagner (Weizmann Institute of Science, IL) Brian L. Wardle (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA) Robert Young (The University of Manchester, UK) Local Organizing Committee Petra Pötschke (IPF Dresden) Brigitte Voit (IPF and TU Dresden) Gert Heinrich (IPF and TU Dresden) Kerstin Wustrack (IPF Dresden) Juliane Jeschke (IPF Dresden) The organizers gratefully acknowledge the financial support by
5 General information Venue and registration/conference office Chemistry building CHE, Technische Universität Dresden, Bergstraße 66, Dresden The conference office is located in room E27. The lecture halls are called HÖRSAAL 1 and HÖRSAAL 2. Opening hours: Sun, September 22, 2013: from 16:30 to 19:30 Mon, September 23 to Wed, September 25, 2013: from 8:00 throughout all sessions Contact details of the organizing institution Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V. Hohe Straße 6, Dresden Phone: ; Fax: Kerstin Wustrack, Juliane Jeschke Coffee and lunch breaks Drinks and a lunch buffet are included and will be served close to the lecture halls and the poster displays in the foyers. Internet WLAN/WiFi access will be possible for participants during the meeting and is free of charge. Name of the wireless network: VPN/WEB Personalized login data may be obtained in the conference office. In addition, you may use an internet terminal at the conference office. Ticket for public transportation A ticket for tram and buses within Dresden, valid from Sept. 22 to 25, 2013, will be handed over to the participants with their conference bags. The ticket must be punched when you use it for the first time. Please note that it is not valid for suburban trains (S-Bahn). We appreciate to get back tickets you do not use. Book of abstracts The book of abstract includes the printed short abstracts of about 100 contributions and an USB card with the extended abstracts which you can find on the last page of the book. The printed version as well as the USB card have the ISBN number
6 Presentations Upload of presentations Please contact in the break before your presentation one of our student helpers in the session halls to upload your presentations. Posters and poster awards Posters should be mounted by the beginning of the lunch break on Monday at the latest and will be up during the entire duration of the meeting. Poster awards, sponsored by Wiley-VCH and the organizers, will be assigned to the best poster presentations and will be handed over to the awardees in the closing session of the meeting on September 25, Social events SOCIAL EVENTS Welcome mixer Sunday, September 22, 18:00 to 20:30, chemistry building CHE, E27 and foyers You may enjoy some snacks and drinks while having the first talks to your colleagues. Sightseeing and conference dinner Tuesday, September 23, 2011, 17:00 to 18:30 boat tour on the river Elbe Please make sure you are at the landing stage of the boat in time. The boat casts off at 17:00!! There will be a bus shuttle starting from the bus stop in front of the conference venue (opposite side of the street!) at 16:15. You will find detailed information about the landing place on your voucher. After enjoying the beautiful Elbe valley and riverside Dresden we get up to the Restaurant Chiaveri which is located in the attic of the building of Sächsischer Landtag (Saxon State Parliament) You may expect dinner in an informal and relaxing atmosphere and a spectacular view of the historic centre. No special dressing code. Registration is required (no extra charge for active participants, EUR 80 for accompanying persons) make sure you have the voucher in your conference bag and bring them along.
8 status: as of September 5, 2013 Monday, Sept 23th 2013 HÖRSAAL 1 HÖRSAAL 2 Chair: B. Voit, P. Pötschke 09:00 Opening CNPComp2013 Plenary Hierarchical nanoengineered structural advanced 09:15 composites - Fundamentals and applications Brian Wardle 10:00 Break Chair: J. Pionteck Chair: Z. Roslaniec 10:35 11:00 11:25 11:50 12:15 13:30 14:05 14:40 15:10 15:35 16:00 16:25 16:50 17:00 to 19:30 C 1 Polymer composites with graphene nanoribbons formed by unzipping... Maria C. Paiva C 2 Influence of cross-linking and impregnation techniques on the electrical and mechanical... Behnam Ashrafi C 3 Charge carrier transport and low electrical percolation threshold in multiwalled carbon... Mohammad Jouni C 4 Additive-assisted one-step melt mixing approach to disperse MWCNT into LLDPE Michael Thomas Müller Lunch Chair: A. Windle Keynote 1 Nanomaterials by design Nicole Grobert Keynote 2 Chemical functionalization of synthetic carbon allotropes Andreas Hirsch Break Chair: H.D. Wagner Chair: B. Wardle C 9 Modeling stress distribution in unidirectional carbon fiber composite with grown carbon... Valentin S. Romanov C 10 Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging applications for the investigation of carbon... Dieter Fischer C 11 Influence of shear deformation on electrical and rheological properties of combined fillers... Dirk Lellinger C 12 Microwave heating of polymers: Influence of carbon nanotubes and graphene dispersion... Break Posterdiscussion Adolfo Benedito Borrás C 5 Versatile and scalable approaches to chemical processing of nanocarbons Milo Shaffer C 6 Continuous wet-spinning of CNT composite fibers: Towards new low cost precursor... Célia Mercader C 7 The effect of CNT positioning on morphology and fracture toughness of multiphase epoxy... Mohammad Ali Aravand C 8 Preparation of conductive thermosetting composites using low contents of particles Radouane Sellak C 13 Influence of processing parameters on the electrochemical performance and aging of... Abderrahmane Benchirouf C 14 Mechanical properties of CNT and SiO 2 nano hybrid epoxy composites Mehmet Turan Demirci C 15 Carbon hybrid nanoparticles in polymer nanocomposites prepared by in situ... Sandra Paszkiewicz C 16 Multifunctional composites with nano/micro hybrid fillers Jinbo Bai
9 status: as of September 5, :30 09:05 09:40 10:10 10:35 11:00 11:25 11:50 12:15 13:30 13:55 14:20 14:45 15:10 16:15 17:00 18:45 Tuesday, Sept. 24th 2013 HÖRSAAL 1 HÖRSAAL 2 Chair: P. Pötschke Keynote 3 Does graphene increase T g of polymer nanocomposites? Chris Macosko Keynote 4 Processing of composites and blends containing carbon nanoparticles Tony McNally Break Chair: M. Paiva Chair: M. Klüppel C 17 SWCNT induced crystallization in amorphous and semi-crystalline poly(etherimide)s Maruti Hegde C 18 Dispersion of carbon nanutubes in melt-mixed polymer/carbon nanotube composites Arup R. Bhattacharyya C 19 Environmental friendly conductive nanocomposites Ana Luísa Delgado Lima C 20 Dispersion of carbon nanotubes and exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets in polypropylene Eunice Cunha C 21 Influence of carbon nanotubes surface oxidation on the properties of PC/ABS-MWCNT... Marcin Wegrzyn Lunch C 22 Effect of the processing conditions on the conductivity of thermoplastic polyurethane/... Jürgen Pionteck C 23 Graphenes as new active filler in elastomer composites with special features Markus M. Möwes C 24 Preparation and characterisation of graphene nano-platelet (GNP)/epoxy nanocomposite:... Swetha Chandrasekaran C 25 Graphene oxide as reinforcement filler in PMMA nanocomposites Cristina Valles C 26 Orientation effects and interfacial stress transfer in graphene-based nanocomposites Zheling Li Chair: E. Mäder Chair: M. Shaffer C 27 C 32 Effects of thermal-mechanical loading onto the Wide-area sensors based upon graphenepolymer piezo-resistive behaviour of CNT... composite coatings probed by... Niclas Wiegand Arun Prakash Aranga Raju C 28 The effect of grafting carbon nanotubes on carbon fibers on the fiber/matrix interface Niels De Greef C 29 Interfacial strength and nanocomposite toughness from a pull-out mechanism H. Daniel Wagner C 30 The interfacial shear strength between CNTF and epoxy Xiaomeng Sui C 31 Glass fibre surface and composite interphase with carbon nanoparticles Shanglin Gao Departure for sightseing and dinner Steam boat tour Dinner at restaurant Chiaveri C 33 Nancomposites with high CNT loading fractions and tailored microstructure produced via... Tomi M. Herceg C 34 Glass-carbon fiber woven multiwall carbon nanotube dopped epoxy hybrid nanocomposites Okan Demir C 35 Development of hierarchical composites with extremely high CNTs content via wet powder... Mohd Shukur Zainol Abidin C 36 Effect of ph on the solution stability of non-covalently modified carbon nanotubes:... Ajay S. Panwar
10 status: as of September 5, :00 09:25 09:50 10:15 10:40 11:05 11:30 12:05 12:40 12:50 Wednesday, Sept. 25th 2013 HÖRSAAL 1 HÖRSAAL 2 Chair: G. Heinrich Chair: M. Claes C 37 C 42 Nanocomposites from styrene-butadiene rubber Integration of single-walled carbon nanotubes and multiwall-carbon nanotubes: Morphology... (SWCNTs) into lignin phenol-formaldehyde... Donald R. Paul Fuyong Cheng C 38 Elastomer composites based on carbon nanotubes and ionic liquid Kalaivani Subramaniam C 39 Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) localization in ternary rubber blends Hai Hong Le C 40 Heterogeneous strain amplification in carbon black reinforced natural rubber as studied by... Arnaud Vieyres C 41 Development of graphene-chitosan nanocomposites for electrochemical biosensors Miroslawa El Fray Break Chair: T. McNally Keynote 5 Carbon nanotubes composites: Commercially available solutions for improving sustainability Michael Claes Keynote 6 Carbon nano-particle based hybrid filler systems in elastomers Manfred Klüppel Lunch Poster Award Closing C 43 Elastomer/ carbon nanotubes nanocomposites for photo-actuation and sensing systems Matej Mičušík C 44 Self-monitoring composite laminates containing screen printed piezoresistive fabrics Francesca Nanni C 45 Unique water sensors based on carbon nanotube-cellulose composites Haisong Qi C 46 Film formation, curing and properties of carbon nanotube-modified coatings for aircraft... Ingo Alig
11 List of posters status: as of September 5, 2013 No 1 Multi-functional graphene composites for aerospace Gaoxiang Cao, Ian Kinloch 2 Study the influence of the type, percentage and Mónica Campo Gómez, A. Jiménez-Suárez, functionalization of MWCNT on the ageing behaviour M. Sánchez, A. Ureña of epoxy nanocomposites 3 Plasma role in synthesizing highly biocompatible carbon coated magnetic nanoparticles by chemical vapor deposition 4 Peroxides as functional additives for PP-MWCNT composites 5 Poly(ionic liquid) for porous shaped nitrogen-doped functional carbons 6 Activated carbons from coal pitches and by-products of commercial polymer production 7 Fast microwave-assisted synthesis of carbon nanofibrous structures 8 New nanostructured carbon materials in melt-mixed PP composites 9 Rubber reinforcing efficiency of different carbon allotropes ranging from crystalline diamonds to amorphous carbon black 10 Nano-scale morphological analysis of graphemerubber composites by 3D transmission electron microscopy Eslam M.M. Ibrahim, Silke Hampel, Jürgen Thomas, R. Klingeler, Vyacheslav O. Khavrus, Christine Täschner, Albrecht Leonhardt, Bernd Büchner Patrick Weiss, Shyam Sathyanarayana, Christof Hübner, Petra Pötschke Sebastian Soll, Qiang Zhao, Simon Prescher, Yongjun Men, Juan Manuel Balach, Yan Yang, Markus Antonietti, Jiayin Yuan B. Tsyntsarski, B. Petrova, T. Budinova, N. Petrov, Urszula Szeluga, S. Pusz, S. Czajkowska, B. Nagel Almut M. Schwenke, Steffi Stumpf, Stephanie Hoeppener and Ulrich S. Schubert Titus Gärtner, Petra Pötschke, Brigitte Voit Sankar Raman Vaikuntam, Sandip Rooj, Amit Das, Dieter Fischer, Regine Boldt, Klaus Werner Stöckelhuber, G.B. Nando and Gert Heinrich René Jurk, Amit Das, Regine Boldt, Klaus Werner Stöckelhuber, Dieter Jehnichen, Dieter Fischer and Gert Heinrich 11 Investigation of surface properties of carbon nanoparticle Anastasia Sobolkina, Doreen Piasta, Viktor Mechtcherine, Stefan Spange, Frank Simon, Cornelia Bellmann 12 CNT dispersion and electrical conductivity of thin films of polymer/mwcnt composites applying different strategies of preparation 13 Formation of β-phase and mechanical reinforcement in poly (vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposites: role of functionalized carbon nanotubes Ulrike Staudinger, Beate Krause, Petra Pötschke, Brigitte Voit Kai Ke, Petra Pötschke, Dieter Fischer, Dieter Jehnichen, Brigitte Voit 14 Laser beam activation of CNT filled polymer blends A. Barz, J. Bliedtner, M. Möhwald, Martin Uebel, Petra Poetschke, Beate Krause, Marco Liebscher 15 Enhancement of tensile strength of polymer-based CNT Yutaka Honda, Toshiyuki Yasuhara, composites by surface treatment Hiroki Akasaka, Naoto Ohtake 16 Functionalized polymer surfaces by integration of carbon Jens Liebich, Holger Althues, Stefan Kaskel nanotubes 17 Graphene nanoplatlets coated glass fibres and composite interphases with multifunctional properties Yinhu H. Deng, Jianwen Liu, Edith Mäder, Gert Heinrich, Shang-Lin Gao
12 List of posters 18 Ethanol molecules used as pressure transmission median shock waves applied to modify single wall carbon nanotubes surfaces 19 Influence of Filler Surface Modification on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Elastomer Nanocomposites Victor Chávez-Herrera, E. Orozco, L. Bucio, C. Renero-Thions, E. Martinez, A. Herrera-Gomez, G. González, J. Ocotlan-Flores Frank Fleck, Markus Möwes, Manfred Klüppel 20 Surface Energetic Heterogeneity of Carbon-based Nanomaterials 21 Excellent nano hybrid dispersed fibers for the adsorption of chromium from aqueous solution 22 Preparation and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene nanocomposites 23 Rheological property of PE/CNT composite for foaming process 24 Liquid sensors based on carbon nanotubes containing composites 25 Variation of the viscosity ratio of PC / SAN blends with MWCNTs: Investigation on morphology, electrical and rheological properties 26 Hybrid nanostructured interphases of glass fiber polymer composites with unique mechanical and electrical properties 27 Hierarchical structure of high density polyethylene/ multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite with novel nanohybrid shish-kebab molded via gas-assisted injection molding 28 Investigation of functionalized carbon nanotubes effect on thermal destruction of polypropylene with quantum chemistry methods 29 Producing coloured pigments with amorphous arrays of black and white colloidal particles 30 Preparation, structural studies and thermal properties of the molybdate materials 31 Nanotube-polymer composites: Fracture behavior and dispersion 32 Effect of dispersion state on electrical properties of CNF filled PTFE composite film 33 MWCNT/semifluorinated polymethacrylate co-polymer nanocomposites as new materials for sensors Jürgen Dienstmaier, Dan Burnett, Robert Menzel, Milo S. P. Shaffer Adem Yar, Tugay Ustun, Serife Parlayici Karatas, Ahmet Avci, Erol Pehlivan Eneko Pillado, M.Dolores Fernández, M.Jesús Fernández Chulee Kang, Ho-chul Shin, Man-woo Jung, Geun-chang Ryu Jana Tabačiarová, Matej Mičušík, Petra Pötschke, Jürgen Pionteck, Mária Omastová Marco Liebscher, Petra Pötschke Lazaros Tzounis, Edith Mäder, Manfred Stamm Long Wang, Ming-Bo Yang Viktor V. Reshetnyak, Viktor E. Vaganov, Evgenia V. Nefedova Yukikazu Takeoka, Shinya Yoshioka, Atsushi Takano, Shigeo Arai, Nueangnoraj Khanin, Hirotomo Nishihara, Midori Teshima, Yumiko Ohtsuka, Takahiro Seki Imane Mebarka Benguechoua, D. Benbertal and M. B. Taouti Roey Nadiv, Michael Shtein and Oren Regev Kazuki Enomoto, Kazuhiro Hishikawa Sebastian Stein, D. Pospiech, L. de Morais Schmittgens, H. Komber, S. Kinder, A. Korwitz, D. Jehnichen, L. Häußler, B. Krause, P. Pötschke, S. Kripotou, C. Pandis, P. Pissis
13 List of posters 34 Thermoelectric energy harvesting with highly conductive CNT-filled polycarbonate composites prepared by melt-mixing 35 Influence of mixing conditions on the shortening and curling of CNTs in composites with polycarbonate Marco Liebscher, Lazaros Tzounis, Wolfgang Jenschke, Michael Thomas Müller, Manfred Stamm, Petra Pötschke Beate Krause, Jérôme Carval, Petra Pötschke 36 Electrical and thermal properties of MWCNT filled PA6 or Beate Krause, Lisa Noack, Petra Pötschke PA66 composites and PA6/PA66 blends 37 Thermal and flammability properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) Eneko Pillado, M.Jesús Fernández, graphene nanocomposites M.Dolores Fernández 38 Effect of the resin stoichiometry on moisture Yadienka Martinez-Rubi, B. Ashrafi, absorption-desorption cycles of SWCNT-modified M.B. Jakubinek, A. Johnston, B. Simard epoxy adhesives 39 Mechanical properties of graphene reinforced polyethylene Oana M. Istrate, J. N. Coleman terephthalate composites 40 Influence of the structure of anthracite fillers on their Urszula Szeluga, Sławomira Pus, dispersibility and interaction with epoxy matrix Sylwia Czajkowska, Bogumiła Nagel, Henryk Galina 41 Mode I and mode II fracture toughness of PP and PU foams Oksana Shishkina, Y. Fu, J. Escudero, reinforced with nanoclays A. Lopez-Gil, M.A. Rodriguez-Perez, L. Gorbatikh, S.V. Lomov, I. Verpoest 42 Charpy impact fracture toughness of nano SiO 2 epoxy composite 43 Roles of sp2 and sp3 regions on graphene oxide luminescence and electronic states 44 Mechanical properties of electrospun PMMA micro-yarns: Effects of NaCl mediation and yarn Twist Mehmet Turan Demirci, Necmettin Tarakçıoğlu, Ahmet Avcı Takaaki Taniguchi, Hiroyuki Yokoi, Asami Funatsu, Yasumichi Matsumoto Xiaomeng Sui, Erica Wiesel and H. Daniel Wagner 45 Tensile properties of electrospun nano-fibers Xiaomeng Sui and H. Daniel Wagner 46 Real-time health monitoring of composite materials with Suvam Nag Chowdhury, I. Pillin, M. Castro, conductive polymer nanocomposite piezo-resistive P. Longrais, J. F. Feller interphase sensors 47 Multiwall carbon nanotube/segmented polyurethane composites with large strain sensing capabilities 48 Carbon nanotube based polymeric thermoelectrics and stretchable sensory conductors 49 Application of carbon nanotubes in the field of electroactive polymers and their usability for actuators and sensors Jose Roberto Bautista-Quijano, Francis Avilés, Juan Valerio Cauich-Rodriguez Petr Slobodian, P. Riha, R. Olejnik, P. Saha Tilo Köckritz, Irene Jansen, Andreas Richter
15 Plenary lecture
17 HIERARCHICAL NANOENGINEERED STRUCTURAL ADVANCED COMPOSITES - FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS Prof. Brian L. Wardle Director, Nano-Engineered Composite aerospace STructures (NECST) Consortium NECSTlab, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA Nanostructured materials offer tremendous opportunity for re-inventing bulk materials, but there remain interesting challenges both in terms of characterization, design, processing, and scaling. The community has evolved towards architectures that rely on morphology-control of the nanoscale element, such as fibers that are organized at the nm-scale and extend to the m- and kmscales. Hierarchical architectures of nano and micro materials, combining top-down and bottomup processing, are showing the most technological promise (see Fig. 1). This presentation will focus on recent work developing nanoengineered hierarchical advanced structural (polymeric) composites with a special focus on enhancing mechanical properties, including in-plane strength. Examples are drawn from recent work and are presented in the context of extant work in the field. These hybrid advanced composites employ aligned nanowires (in our work, carbon nanotubes, CNTs) in several architectures to enhance laminate-level bulk properties of existing aerospace-grade advanced composites. Intrinsic and scale-dependent characteristics of the nanowires are used to engineer bulk property improvements focusing on critical laminate strengths such as open-hole compression (OHC) and tension bearing. Nanocomposites, as a representative volume element (RVE) of such hierarchical assemblies, are studied to understand their contribution(s) to bulk properties. Building multifunctionality into laminates beyond the mechanical property improvements includes thermal and electrical conductivity enhancement for damage detection and ice protection, among others. Such multifunctional attributes of nanoengineered laminates are progressing these technologies in terms of scale and adoption. In the direction of multifunctionality, tailoring of properties at the nanoscale can also be used to tailor active materials and materials for energy storage and transport. Case examples from recent polymer nanocomposite work on electoactive polymer actuators and supercapacitors suggest additional tailoring opportunities in other even more diverse fields, e.g., biomems (microelectromechanical systems).  Van Noorden, R., Chemistry: The trials of new carbon, Nature, vol. 469, pp , doi: /469014a  Science Feb 1;339(6119): doi: /science Carbon nanotubes: present and future commercial applications.de Volder MF, Tawfick SH, Baughman RH, Hart AJ.  B. L. Wardle et al., Chapter 4: Advanced Nanoengineered Materials, ed. by B.N. Bhat, Aerospace Materials and Applications, to be published by AIAA Education Series, 2013.
19 Keynote lectures
21 K1 NANOMATERIALS BY DESIGN Nicole Grobert University of Oxford, Department of Materials, UK Abstract was not submitted in time.
22 K2 CHEMICAL FUNCTIONALIZATION OF SYNTHETIC CARBON ALLOTROPES Andreas Hirsch University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy and Institute of Advanced Materials and Processes (ZMP), Henkestrasse 42, Erlangen, Germany Chemical functionalization of new C-allotropes is of fundamental interest and opens the door to unprecedented materials applications. In principle, the physical and chemical properties of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are related to each other, although their levels of development vary considerably. In order to efficiently explore the reactivity of the less developed CNTs and especially that of graphene it is our goal to provide a unifying approach for the chemistry of all three new carbon allotropes. The fullerenes present the first family of synthetic carbon allotropes. Since their availability in macroscopic quantities numerous investigations with respect to their physical characterization and chemical functionalization have been carried out. CNTs - the second new family of C-allotropes - exhibit at least the same potential for unprecedented applications. Their chemistry, however, is much less developed. Although many protocols for covalent and non-covalent CNT functionalization have been published there are still many fundamental problems to be solved. This includes inter alia the highly selective functionalization of metallic- or semiconducting SWNTs, the high throughput isolation of SWNTs with single helicity, the development of general concepts allowing for tunable doping of individualized tubes with single helicity or least defined transport characteristics (metallic semiconductive). Finally, the youngest representative in the list of new C-allotropes is graphene and the exploration of its chemistry has just begun to start. So far only investigation on the functionalization of defect rich graphene oxide (GO) but not intact graphene itself have been published. Compared to the various flavours of CNTs (broad variation of helicities, single walled, multi walled) graphene is a much more uniform material. This will facilitate the development of its chemistry considerably. We will present a series of new results of covalent and non-covalent functionalizations of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene.
23 K3 DOES GRAPHENE CHANGE T G OF POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES? Ken-Hsuan Liao 1,3, Shigeru Aoyama 1,4, Shingo Kobayashi 1,5, Hyunwoo Kim 1,6, Ahmed Abdala 2,7, Christopher W. Macosko 1 1 Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 3 DuPont Central Research & Development, Experimental Station, Wilmington, Delaware, USA 4 Toray Industries, Films & Film Products Research Laboratories, 1-1, Sonoyama 1- chome, Otsu, Shiga, Japan 5 Department of Chemistry, Yamagata University, Yamagata, Japan 6 Dow Chemical, Midland, Michigan 7 Department of Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez University, Suez, Egypt Some researchers have reported a large increase in polymer glass transition with the addition of graphene. For example Brinson and coworkers [Nature Nano. 2008] reported an increase in Tg for polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) of 29 C with 0.05 wt% of thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRG). However, others report much smaller or even no increase in Tg even at much higher loading. To resolve this conflict we have repeated the literature experiments. TRG and also pristine graphene (PG) were combined with isotactic PMMA (i-pmma) and syndiotactic-rich atactic PMMA (a-pmma) by solvent blending in THF. PMMA/TRG composites were also formed by in situ polymerization of MMA monomer in THF. A broad literature survey summary agrees with our results. We found no changes in Tg for over 20 different graphene/polymer nanocomposites synthesized via physical blending processes such as solvent or melt blending, except aqueous blending. In contrast, chemical blending processes such as in situ polymerization or chemically modified fillers yielded significant Tg increases in graphene/polymer nanocomposites. The results are caused by interfacial interactions between matrix polymers and fillers. Physical blending such as solvent blending processes cannot provide enough interaction at the interfaces, whereas chemical blending processes such as in situ polymerization can yield strong covalent bonds. Aqueous blending of graphene oxide or reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with water soluble matrix polymers also cause Tg increases, even though the blending processes involve no chemical reactions. The reason for this exception is that hydrogen bonds form between oxygen groups on graphene and water soluble matrix polymers.
24 K4 PROCESSING OF COMPOSITES AND BLENDS CONTAINING CARBON BASED NANOPARTICLES Tony McNally WMG, University of Warwick, UK Despite almost two decades of research on composites of carbon nanoparticles and polymers, their widespread exploitation has yet to be fully realised. This in the main is a consequence of the combined challenges of achieving effective dispersion and distribution of nanoparticles in polymer melts and of fully characterizing and modelling the interface between particle and polymer. The parameters which govern nanoparticle dispersion during melt mixing have been studied intensively for a small number of polymer/cnt systems and less so for composites of polymers and graphene. CNT dispersion in polymer melts follows three distinct mechanisms; infiltration of the melt into CNT primary agglomerates, agglomerate rupture and erosion of CNTs from agglomerate surfaces, all governed by the melt temperature and forces acting on the melt during mixing. Typically, the relationship between varying processing parameters and nanoparticle dispersion is investigated using a combination of microscopic techniques and interpreted by assessing nanoparticle network formation from electrical and rheological data. Processing variables as well as thermodynamic considerations play a role in the localization of CNTs in immiscible polymer blends. The majority of the published literature has focused on understanding the factors which effect nanoparticle dispersion during mixing. However, the as-extruded composite or blend can then experience a second thermo-mechanical cycle as in injection moulding. Furthermore, secondary processing in the solid state and quasi-solid state, as in thermoforming, of composites of polymers and carbon nanoparticles has largely been ignored. Efforts are also on-going to improve nanoparticle dispersion by using a combination of processing techniques, including using a three roll mill after melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. The presentation will provide an overview of processing of composites polymers and carbon based nanoparticles, with a focus on carbon nanotubes.
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