# Procon Engineering. Technical Document PELR TERMS and DEFINITIONS

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7 TIPPING WEIGHTS: special incremental weights used to determine the weight display change points. TOLERANCE: a value fixing the limit of allowable error or departure from the true performance or value, as established from experience in the field of application. Tolerances are usually expressed as percentages. Smaller tolerances imply more accurate performance. TRACEABILITY: an accounting for, or statement of, the relationship of a device s calibration to the appropriate primary standard. Traceability is usually a step-by-step process, a master standard within the organization first being taken to the primary reference standard location (e.g. NPL or accredited Test House) and calibrated. This standard then acts as a transfer standard against which instruments within the organization are calibrated. They are then used for day-to-day calibration of load cells or other devices WEIGHING RANGE see MAXIMUM CAPACITY. WEIGHT: 1. The force with which a mass is attracted towards the centre of the earth. 2. An object usually of metal and usually having a definite mass, designed for testing purposes, such as a Test Weight. Technically, load cell weighing systems measure the force exerted by an object and the result should therefore be expressed in newtons. However in common parlance the term weight is accepted as the force and is expressed in kg. To eliminate air buoyancy effects the first definition should strictly be realised in a vacuum, and the result will be slightly less in air. It also explains why the weight of an object varies with height above sea level. There is also a variation with latitude, due both to the fact that the world spins on its axis and because it is not a perfect sphere, but flattened at the poles. Weighing systems are usually calibrated at their point of operation, using known traceable loads, and therefore variances in gravity are eliminated. ZERO-LOAD OUTPUT (load cell): the output signal from a load cell with no load applied, usually expressed as a percentage of rated output. ZERO TRACKING (Automatic): a means for automatically maintaining the weighing system output at zero within specified limits. ZERO TRACKING WINDOW: the limits (+ and -) over which the zero tracking device operates, typically ± 2% of span. 7

8 Appendix Fig 1: Representation of combined error based on best straight line through zero 8

9 Fig 2: Representation of combined error based on terminal straight line 9

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