Karate casus in Poland towards sociology of martial arts

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1 OPINION ARTICLE Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts MEDSPORTPRESS, 2010; 1(2); Vol. 1, Karate casus in Poland towards sociology of martial arts Wojciech J. Cynarski 1, Jarosław Walczak 2 1 Department of Physical Education, University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland 2 Research Board, Polish Idokan Association, Rzeszów, Poland Key words: karate ways, martial art, combat sports, institutionalization, teaching, Poland the Podkarpacie Rzeszow Summary In the perspective of developing sociology of martial arts and the humanist theory of far eastern martial arts the authors present the sociological reflection on the case of institutionalization of karate in Poland and in particular in Rzeszow. They discuss the phenomenon of development and popularization of karate on the global, domestic, regional and local scale. They analyze the role of the pioneers and the leaders of a given style as well as the transmission channels of different schools. Karate is constantly changing, modifying and multiplying new varieties being in accordance with new concepts of teaching, technique and tactics of fight or sport are born, or they may result from other understanding of the sense of the karate way. New styles emerge according to the regularity of 'completing the program' of a school with new added contents by the creator of this school. The diversity of offers on the karate market is undoubtedly beneficial for a person interested in choosing the style suitable for him or her. Popularization and institutionalization of karate allows not only to practice different sporting varieties of karate on a high level, also in Rzeszow the capital of the Podkarpacie region but also valuable varieties of the way of karate rejecting sporting competition. On the regional scale, everything that concerns the cultural phenomenon of karate on the global scale is reflected. Introduction theoretical assumptions Based on theoretical assumptions of the developing new sub-branch of sociology, namely sociology of martial arts [1,2] and re fer ring to the hu ma ni stic sys tem the ory of mar tial arts of the Far East [3,4], the au thors pre sent the de scrip tion of ka - rate institutionalization in Poland, particularly in Rzeszów. Sociologic theories should by characterized by explanatory quality and predictive accuracy. It should anticipate the future of social reality [5, s. 176]. Therefore, after explanation of the phe no me non of ka ra te po pu la ri ty and in sti tu tio nal de ve - lop ment, an at tempt was ma de to in di ca te the fac tors al lo wing us to predict further organizational or customary changes in the European and Polish karate. The theory of cultural dialogue is interesting because of its cognitive and explanatory potential. Social and cultural studies of multicultural dialogues related to Asian martial arts are now fairly advanced and may add the deepened philosophic and sociologic interpretation to the humanistic martial arts theory [6,7]. Particularly, the described "secondary effect" of martial arts among western communities [8,9] is interesting as regards karate (as a cultural phenomenon). Karate, like other eastern mar tial arts and com bat sports is part of Far Eastern culture and directly transfers some specific ideas to our civilization, evoking interest in the entire original cultural con text of East Asian le ga cy. Ka ra te on a glo bal sca le The phe no me non of ka ra te and other eastern mar tial arts popularity on a global scale is very interesting from the perspective of sport sociology, or culture sociology and culture dialogues. The worldwide popularity of eastern martial arts in we stern cul tu re and other cul tu res re sults, first of all, from fa - scination with the technical perfection and utilitarian values of the East Asian sys tems [10]. The de ve lop ment of mar tial arts made western communities explore the entire cultural background of this phenomenon. This issue is interesting not only for sociologists and resear chers, but al so for the ka ra te ma sters who are experts in this field. For exam ple, ma ster Shi ge ru Ega mi, one of the best practitioners (apart from Gigo Funakoshi, Tekeshi Shimoda and Hi ro ka zu Ka na za wa) of the fa mo us me ijin Gi chi na 59

2 Funakoshi, asked contemporary karatekas about the reasons of karate popularity. He also asked them about the purpose of training. According to him, "multiple groups" in European and Ame ri can co un tries over ta ke the "eastern way of thin king", there are however many schools that teach sole fighting techniques (karate-jutsu). He wrote: "The, instinct of aggression is ro oted in hu mans to al most the sa me extent as it is ro oted in ani mals, but in my opi nion, this has ve ry lit tle to do with a re al art [11, s. 17]. Be si des, Ega mi in di ca ted the ne ga ti ve ef - fect of mo vies and te le vi sion on hu man minds, de men ted the fal se be lief in "de adly ka ra te blows" and re fer red to the spi ri - tual aspects of karate, emphasized by Gichin Funakoshi. The mo vies pre sen ting mar tial arts fa vor the in cre ase in karate popularity, but sometimes do show its false image. Some "action" movies show karate as something sensational and my ste rio us as did the first fo un der of Po lish Ka ra te As - so cia tion Ja nusz Świer czyń ski [12], other as acts of ag - gres sion and vio len ce as Co lin G. Gold ner do es [13]. Apart from the is sue of ka ra te po pu la ri ty, which is ve ry in - teresting for the researchers, the problems of adaptation of this martial art, as well as transformation, institutionalization and pro mo tion of dif fe rent sty les sho uld al so be expla ined. The worl dwi de ran ge of ka ra te is as so cia ted with glo bal "in te - rac tion pro fu sion" [14]. The export of ka ra te from Ja pan to we - stern co un tries, con nec ted with the exo dus of in struc tors [15] originated a series of effects and feedbacks, resulting from karate engagement in the process of global cultural exchange. The chan ging phe no me non of ka ra te, as a glo bal is sue, requires analysis of the causes of such changes. Modifications and adaptations result mainly from confrontation with western culture and differences in mentality between the American and European population of the late 20th century [16,17,18,19]. Thus, karate undergoes transformation from a mar tial art and li fe sty le to sport and spec ta cu lar forms of combat [compare: 20,21,22,23,24]. Likewise, the above state ment may re fer to other mar tial arts, sub ject to cul tu ral glo - balization process. The changes resulting in karate transforma tion in to an Olym pic sport are espe cial ly no ted in ju do [25,26] and ta ekwon do [27], but the exam ples of ada pti ve chan ges may be al so fo und in tho se mar tial arts that do not involve contest, like aikijutsu [28]. Ka ra te is a "new bu do" [29]. It was in tro du ced to Ja pa ne - se mar tial arts by ma ster Fu na ko shi from Oki na wa. In cen tral Japan, the main styles of Japanese karate were developed, which we re mo di fied ver sions of the ori gi nal forms started on Okinawa. There, classic karate styles, such as shorin-ryu and uechi -ryu are still prac ti ced. Mo dern scho ols and sty les often combine the elements of the Okinawa Japanese, Korean and Chinese styles. Modification of the techniques and training programs may be due to the "prin ci ple of pro gram com ple men ta tion" be ing a certain regularity. According to this principle, the instructor who do es not know all the ide as of a gi ven sty le, com ple tes the program by incorporating the knowledge acquired somewhe re el se, this way cre ating a new scho ol. The scho ols we re de ve lo ped on Oki na wa by ad ding new ele ments to the lo cal experts' know led ge of new kung -fu ele ments. The clas si cal styles from Okinawa and Japan were developed in a similar way, and fol lo wing the se ru les, next scho ols and sty les we re popularized beyond Japan. The scale of karate institutionalization [30] as for its organizational development, is illustrated by a large number of schools, sports clubs, associations and federations. The diver si ty of ka ra te forms re sults in the di ver se mar ket of phy si - cal cul tu re and mar tial arts. On the other hand ho we ver, the differences in sport combat code as well as organizational breakup indicate immaturity of karate as a sport discipline. The national scale Po les we re qu ite often ma de to le arn ka ra te from Eu ro pe - an in struc tors. In the 70s of the 19th cen tu ry, the first ma sters of Polish shotokan and kyokushinkai karate leaders were Dutch, Ita lian or French. In west Eu ro pe an co un tries al so the leading Japanese instructors worked, who were representatives of the five main karate styles. Kondratowicz [31], Miłkowski [32], Fech ner and Ru ciń ski [33], Cy nar ski [4,8] and others wro te abo ut ka ra te tra vel: from Ja pan to Eu ro pe and Po land. Be fo re it was po ssi ble to tra vel to the "ori gins" of this mar tial art, and karate schools worldwide, two rival karate styles were introduced in Poland shotokan and kyokushinkai. Based on these techniques, Polish Karate Association was established se at with its in War saw (in 1980). This as so cia tion, as a sports organization, developed (and continues to develop) kara te, ma in ly in its sport form [34,35]. Its le aders are Wa cław Antoniak and Andrzej Drewniak. The sho to kan sty le was pro mo ted, among others by Mił - kow ski [32] and Skur ska [36]. As for kyokushinkai style, the published handouts were mo stly used by the clubs pro mo ting this sty le. Fo re ign pu bli - cations serve Polish karate pioneers to acquire knowledge abo ut this mar tial art. Al so so me pi ra te co pies of Oy ama's, Fu na ko shi' s and other au thor's bo oks on ka ra te we re in cir cu - la tion. The re was a split in sho to kan sty le worl dwi de and in Po - land, shortly after the death of Masatoshi Nakayama, regarded (beside Egami) the official leader of this style. Nakayama already cau sed the split in the sty le, pro mo ting sport ka ra te, whi le Ega mi still fa vo red the art in the form of ka ra te -do. Also after Oyama's death, organizational split was still observed in kyokushinkai style [37,38]. American fractions or the derivatives of both these styles, such as ITKF In ter na tio nal Tra di tio nal Ka ra te Fe de ra tion fo - un ded by Hi de ta ka Ni shiy ama (prac ti cing, as they say a "tra - ditional" style) and oyama karate (World Oyama Karate Organization) founded by Shigeru Oyama. In Poland, the leader of Po lish oy ama ka ra te, Jan Dy duch (7 dan) is the pre si dent of Polish Karate Federation, founded beyond and in opposition to Polish Karate Association. Previously he had cooperated for ma ny years with A. Drew niak from Kra kow. The re is ano - ther se pa ra te or ga ni za tion Po lish Tra di tio nal ka ra te As so - cia tion with the se at lo ca ted in Łódź, with Wło dzi mierz Kwie - ciń ski the le ader. 60

3 No wa days in Po land the re is a wi de spec trum of ka ra te scho ols and sty les, mo re or less known worl dwi de. This plu - ralistic mosaic structure includes both the styles of karate oriented towards spectacular forms and Olympic status the World Ka ra te Fe de ra tion (WKF) and S. Oy ama dre amed of, as well those based on totally different prerequisites. Among the ma in trends, the fol lo wing "phi lo so phies" of karate should be mentioned: Karatedo practiced for personality development without sport con test [39,40,41,42]; 1. Karate different forms of sport competition; shotokan and related (differences in sport fight rules) [32,36]; ky oku shin and re la ted (con tact forms, the knock -down formula) [43,44,45]; all-style karate and kick-boxing [46], rejecting philosophy; 2. Karate practiced for the purpose of self-defense only (karate-jutsu) [20]; 3. Recreational karate, practiced mostly for fun or for health reasons, etc. The regional scale Institutionalization and functioning of official and legal institutions karate associations requires further exploration and description [47]. There were few monographs reporting the sport achie ve ments of dif fe rent clubs and di strict as so cia - tions in Podkarpacie, however these papers lack reflections and interpretation of regional institutions dealing with karate from the po int of view of so cio lo gy. As ear ly as wi thin a few years fol lo wing the fo un da tion of the ve ry first ka ra te scho ols in Po land in Łódź, Szcze cin and Kra kow, at tempts we re ma de to in cor po ra te this art in Rze - szów the ca pi tal of Pod kar pa cie. Ja cek Wołk, who vir tu al ly bro ught this mar tial art to Rze szów, was the pio ne er of sho to - kan sty le. His in te rest in ka ra te star ted when he was a stu dent at the Ma ria Skło dow ska Uni ver si ty of Lu blin, whe re a gro up of students practiced amateur karate based on Funakoshi's book "Karate-do Kyohan". Next, in Szczecin his instructors were Kazimierz Krukowski (the main founder of shotokan in the north Po land) and Jo zef Zveřina from for mer Cze cho slo - va kia (that ti me the first dan) du ring the tra ining camp in Mrzeżyno in Jacek Wołk organized first shotokan training, be ing the on ly in struc tor of this form of ka ra te in Rze - szów (III Com pre hen si ve High Scho ol, Stu dents Sports Club at the Uni ver si ty of Tech no lo gy of Rze szów, "Stal" sports club in Rzeszów). The above mentioned first karate schools in Rze szów we re fo un ded in 1975, and a year la ter, the first of - ficial karate clubs were officially registered. Based on the three gro ups tra ining this sty le, the Rze szów Ka ra te Club was es ta bli shed in Its first pre si dent was Ma rek No sal [48, 49]. Among the leading karatekas, practicing this style there we re: R. Ko la no, M. Ka za now ski and M. Her ba. The tra ining con tacts with W. Kwie ciń ski (the la ter 6 dan) and I. Jor ga (pre - sen tly 8 dan) re sul ted in 1 dan awar ded to R. Ko la no the ka - rate instructor in In 1991 Poland joined the Traditional Karate Federation Fu do kan and chan ged the club na me to Rze szów Club of Tra - ditional karate. In sport competitions, the trainees of sensei Ry szard Ko la no (4 dan) won mul ti ple me dals in ITKF to ur na - ments of the hi ghest rank. Among the best ka ra te kas we re M. Niewczas, S. Garbacki, M. Kazanowski, A. Czyrka and A. Przy dro żny [50], as well as C. Stan kie wicz. Ko la no ga ined the status of an international referee. For se ve ral years, Mar ta Nie wczas has be en run ning the Karate Academy, representing, as a competitor, the Rzeszów University Sports Club [51]. Among her numerous achievements we sho uld men tion win ning ITKF World Cup twi ce in War saw (1993 and 1995). She is al so an ef fec ti ve sport ac ti - vist and organizes ITKF European Championships (Rzeszów, June 2006). So on after the in tro duc tion of sho to kan in Rze szów at the University Club of Rzeszów University of Technology, the kyoku shin kai sty le be gan to be prac ti ced. We may owe this to Jerzy Świderski (later1 dan) and his Krakow masters Andrzej Drew niak (pre sen tly 7 dan) and Le sław Sa mi tow ski (5 dan). Du ring that ti me, eve ry bo dy who wan ted to prac ti ce one of eastern mar tial arts, but was not in te re sted in sport ju do, had an op por tu ni ty to se lect one of the abo ve ka ra te sty les. Even several hundred karatekas trained at one gymnasium. This was the pe riod of ka ra te bo om in Po land, in i tia ted by the films with Bruce lee. The University Club section-based Rzeszów Ky oku shin kai Ka ra te Club was ac ti ve in la te 80s and ear ly 90s (abo ut ) of the pre vio us cen tu ry. Among its best karatekas were: Jacek Melkowski, Krystian Niemiec, Włodzimierz Cupryś, Wiktor Bajor, Piotr Kozak, Bogdan Gajecki and Wojciech Cynarski. La ter sen sei Świ der ski left Rze szów and part of the par ti - cipants decided to train oyama karate. The leaders of this form of ka ra te we re P. Ko zak and K. Nie miec, who was la ter awarded 2 dan. The District karate Association, organized by Roman Woźniak (4 dan), the kyokushinkai instructor from Iwo nicz and Kro sno, still co or di na tes on be half of Po lish ka - rate Association running such clubs in Podkarpacie. However, the do mi nant po si tion in this re gion is oc cu pied by ITKF traditional karate with its clubs in Rzeszów, Lubaczów (C. Stan kie wicz 4 dan) and other ci ties. Making karate a combat sport (tournament system, leagues) is connected with the process of progressive commerciali za tion of mar tial arts [52,4]. In the era of pro gres si ve and extreme sport commercialization, karatekas fight to win the Hunyadi-Express All-Style Sportkarate Cup [53] or train at "Mul ti farb Rze szów" club (the for mer Rze szów Club Of Tra di - tional Karate). The commercial "Karate Academy" organizes karate tournaments and promotes "traditional karate". Is sport karate the only possible way? Isn't it manifestation of western influence and regression from the level of "moral evolution to strength com bat sport [com pa re: 20,18,4,26]? An interesting hybrid of traditional spiritual "peaceful hand way" karate principles (zendo karate tai-te-tao) created by Pe ter K. Jahn ke was ad op ted in Rze szów by W. Cy nar ski [54, 42]. To acu ire this know led ge, he tra ve led to hon bu the 61

4 headquarters of dojo where, since January1993, he had been tra ined by the le ader of this sty le as his "in ter nal prac ti tio - ner" (uchi -de shi). Me ijin Lo thar Sie ber (10 dan) fur ther pro mo - ted Cy nar ski to 4 dan in zen do ka ra te tai -te -tao, al so cal led idokan karate [55,56].It was incorporated in Rzeszów through Polish Idokan Association and shibu (an official agency, domestic headquarters) promoting this style [47,41]. Master L. Sie ber was the first hol der of 10 dan. In 1997, he or ga ni zed an in ter na tio nal tra ining in the form of "Sum mer Ju jut su / Ka - rate School" [57].The spiritual idokan style rejects, according to its cre ator Pe ter K. Jahn ke con test in fi gh ting. In turn, it ac - cepts competition of spectacular technical forms. The style, com bi ned with ju jut su is part of ido kan yoshin -ryu sys tem. Summing up Ka ra te is most often tau ght as the ide as of dif fe rent scho - ols or sty les. The fu tu re pio ne ers are tra ined in dif fe rent cen - ters to in i tia te the ir own sec tions or clubs in the ir ho me towns. Sometimes the new style pioneers are taught by foreign masters to become future national leaders. The principle of "program complementation" results in the establishment of new schools. This way Japanese styles were ori gi na ted and mo dern forms of this mar tial art we re cre ated bey ond Ja pan. The new ide as and qu ali ties are so me how against tradition, developing in different directions, according to different concepts of karate philosophy understanding. Emancipation of karate instructors causes that the practitioners of na tio nal or lo cal le aders do not al ways con ti nue the ir pre - vious style and their understanding of karate changes too. Sometimes they chose their own way private business or other organization. The new leaders, practicing new styles, in the past practi ced the on ly sty les ava ila ble in Pod kar pa cie and Rze szów one of the two sty les po pu lar in Po land that ti me. Institutionalization of karate particularly pertains to the acceptance of new structures (regional and national sport associations, organizations or federations) and the systems of competition (regional and national championships). This also pertains to awarding grades and instructor's licenses, instructors' competence, and the dependency on association authorities and karate style school leaders. On the re gio nal sca le, this is re flec ted by ade qu ate pro - portions of everything which pertains to the cultural phenomenon of ka ra te on the glo bal sca le. The se re la tions, as well as the already mentioned regularities, will be probably preserved thro ugh two next de ca des. References 1. Cynarski WJ, Obodyński K. Socjologiczna refleksja nad współczesnym fenomenem sztuk walki. W: Dziubiński Z, red. Społeczny wymiar sportu. Warszawa: SALOS RP; str Cynarski WJ, Obodyński K. Modern sociology and sports philosophy in theface of socio-cultural issues offar Eastern martial arts based on Polish and German papers from theyears W: Anders G, MrazekJ, Norden G, Weiss O, editors. European Integration and Sport. Münster: LIT; str Sterkowicz S. Systemowa i kulturowa analiza sztuk walk w ujęciu Cynarskiego WJ. Przegląd Naukowy IWFiZ UR 2001; 4: Cynarski WJ. Teoria i praktyka dalekowschodnich sztuk walki w perspektywie europejskiej. Rzeszów: UR; Misztal B. Teoria socjologiczna a praktyka społeczna. Kraków: Universitas; Tokarski S. Sztuki walki. Ruchowe formy ekspresji filozofii Wschodu. Szczecin: Glob; Cynarski WJ. Sociological Aspects of Far Eastern Martial Arts. Research Yearbook. Studies in Physical Education and Sport 2005; 11: Cynarski WJ. Sztuki walki budō w kulturze Zachodu. Rzeszów: WSP; Cynarski WJ. Globalizacja a spotkanie kultur. Rzeszów: UR; Cynarski WJ. Sociological and anthropological conditions ofthe Far Eastern fighting arts on the example of Japanese budō. Research Yearbook. Studies in the Theory of Physical Education and Sport 1999; 6: Egami Shigeru. Droga karate. (I wyd. 1976) Bydgoszcz: Diamond Books; Swierczyński J. Karate. Warszawa: Goldner CG. Fernöstlische Kampfkunst - Karate, Taekwon-Do, Kung-Fu, Kempo, Kick-Boxing, Nin-Jutsu etc; zur Psychologie der Gewalt im Sport. München: AHP; Urry J. Societies and the Global. W: Global Complexity. Cambridge; Polity Press; str Nakayama M. Auszug aus 50 Jahren Geschichte des Karate-Clubs der Takushoku-Universität 1932/33. Karate Magazin 1987; Förster A. The Naturę ofthe Martial Arts andtheir Change in the West. W: Kleinman, red. Mind and Body: East Meets West. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics; str Donohue JJ. Warriors Dreams. The Martial Arts and the American Imagination. Westport, Connecticut - London: Bergin & Garvey; Orlando B. Martial arts America: a Western approach to Eastern arts, Berkeley (Calif): Frog, North Atlantic Books; Cynarski WJ, Sieber L, Litwiniuk A. Perception, Understanding and Adaptation of Asian Martial Arts in the West: a Sociological Analysis. Archives of Budo [periodyk onlinej 2005; 1: [6 ekranów]. Dostępny pod adresem 20. Mattson GE. The Way of Karate. Tokyo: Higaonna M. Traditional Karate-dō: Okinawan Gōjū-ryū. T.1. Tokyo: Alexander GW. Okinawa - Island of Karate. West Palm Beach: Bishop M. De essentie van Karate. Leraren stijlen en geheime techniken van Okinawa Karate. Utrecht-Antverpen:

5 24. McCarthy P. Współczesne style, sport a stare systemy. Karate KungFu 1999: 4: Carr KG. Making Way: War, Philosophy and Sport in Japanese Jūdō. Journal of Sport History 1993; 20 (2): Villamón M, Brown D, Espartero J, Gutierrez C. Reflexive Modernization and the Disembedding of Jūdō from 1946 to the 2000 Sydney Olympics. International Review for the Sociologyof Sport 2004; 2: Hartl J, Faber U, Bögle R. Taekwon-Do im Westen. lnterviews und Beiträge zum kulturellen Schlagabtausch. München: Mörchseulen- Verlag; Cynarski WJ, Obodyński K. Martial Arts in the process of institutional and ideological change on the example of Aikijutsu. International Journal of Eastern Sports & Physical Education 2005; 3(1): Draeger DF. The Martial Arts and Ways of Japan (vol. 3). Modern Bujutsu & Budo. Wyd II. New York- Tokyo: Weatherhill; Cynarski WJ. The Institutionalization of Martial Arts. European Journal for Sport and Society 2006; 3(1): Kondratowicz K. cykl Karate ", ode. nr 7 (Przenikanie karate do krajów europejskich i rozwój w Polsce). Żołnierz Polski Miłkowski J. Karate. Wiadomości podstawowe. Warszawa: Fechner P, Ruciński M. Karate-Do. Pokonać samego siebie. Warszawa: Sikora J. Karate - walka sportowa. Karate 1984; Miłkowski J. Karate sportowe. T.1-7. Warszawa: Wyd. Czasopisma Wojskowe"; Skurska J. Karate - droga doskonalenia. Łódź: Szeligowski P. Kyokushinkai Karate w dwa lata po śmierci Masutatsu Oyama. Samurai 1997; Dyduch J. Oyama Karate w Polsce. Karate KungFu 2001: 1: Funakoshi G Ryūkyū kenpō-karate. Tokyo: Funakoshi G. Karate-Do. My Way of Life. Philadelphia: AWHA; Bachmeier J, Uebrück F. Zendo Karate Tai-Te-Tao Kata. Regensburg; Sanjuro Selbstverlag; Sieber L, Cynarski WJ. Peter K. Jahnke i zendō karate tai-te-tao. Rocznik Naukowy Idō - Ruch dla Kultury / Movementfor Culture 2002; 3: Oyama M. This is Karate, Tokyo: Japan Publications Inc.; Oyama M. Mas. Oyama's Essentiał Karate. New York: Sterłing Publishing Co., Inc.; Oyama M. The Kyokushin Way. Mas. Oyama 's Karate Philosophy. Tokyo: Japan Publications Inc.; Palacz A. Wszechstylowe karate. Karate 1983; Cynarski WJ. Działalność Stowarzyszenia Idōkan Polska na terenie Podkarpacia. W: Malikowski M, red. Społeczeństwo Podkarpacia na początku XXI wieku. Studia socjologiczne. Rzeszów: Mana; 2003 b. str Zabierowski W. W stylu shotokan. Rozmowa z Markiem Nosalem, prezesem Rzeszowskiego Klubu Karate. Nowiny 1984; 15 października. 49. WołkJ. Wywiad, konsultacje. Rzeszów: Huzarski M. Powstanie i działalność Rzeszowskiego Klubu Karate Tradycyjnego. Idō - Ruch dła Kultury / Movement for Culture 2000; 1: FiłipiukJ. Kolekcjonerka medali. Karate KungFu 2001; 1: SeydelJ. Budo und Kommerz. Budo International 1989; 2: Palacz A, Piotrkowicz T. Hunyadi-Express Ałl-Styłe Sportkarate Cup. Karate 1983; Sieber L. Zendo Karate Tai-Te-Tao, Budo-Info DDBV1992; Sieber L. Charakterystyka idōkan karate. Idó - Ruch dła Kultury / Movement for Culture 2001; 2: Cynarski WJ, Obodyński K, Litwiniuk A. Tourist Ways ofmartial Arts in Europę - a Draft from the Borderland ofsociology oftourism and Cultural Anthropology. W: Cynarski WJ, Obodyński K, editors. Tourism and Recreation in the Process of European Integration. Rzeszów: PTNKF: str Cynarski WJ, Soke L. Sieber 10. dan karate. Samurai 1997; 2: 28. Address for correspondence: Wojciech J. Cynarski Wydział Wychowania Fizycznego, Uniwersytet Rzeszowski, Rzeszów, Poland ul. Zawale 27, PL Strzyżów Tel

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