Creating a business in the digital age developing entrepreneurship competencies for young Europeans through ementorship (CREBUS) PROJECT

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1 Creating a business in the digital age developing entrepreneurship competencies for young Europeans through ementorship (CREBUS) PROJECT PROJECT NUMBER: LLP RO KA3 KA3MP NATIONAL ANALYSIS: ITALY Promoter and Coordinator: Authors: Financed by:

2 ÍNDEX INTRODUCTION... 1 COUNTRY PROFILE... 1 NE DATA ANALYSIS... 3 ANALYZED VARIABLES ONE BY ONE... 3 Gender... 3 Business started... 4 Previous experience in running a business... 4 Preferred duration of the exchange... 5 Preferred country for the exchange... 5 Sectors... 6 Languages spoken... 7 Motivation... 7 Areas of interest in the exchange... 8 Expected outcome... 9 CROSS ANSWERING Age, gender and experience Gender, age and sector Gender and languages Gender and areas of interest Languages and experience Sector and experience Sector and languages Sector and motivation Sector and areas of interest Sector and expected outcome Sector, gender and motivation Sector, gender and expected outcome Motivation and duration of exchange Areas of interest and Languages Experience and expected results... 31

3 NE MAIN CONCLUSIONS HE DATA ANALYSIS ANALYZED VARIABLES ONE BY ONE Gender analysis Experience in running a business Duration of the exchange Preferred country for the exchange Sectors of activity Languages spoken, other than mother tongue Motivations Areas of interest Expected outcome CROSS ANSWERING Gender and experience Gender and sector Gender and languages Gender and areas of interest Languages and experience Sector and experience Sector and languages Sector and motivations Sector and areas of interest Sector, gender and expected outcome Sector, gender and motivation Motivation and duration of the exchange Experience and expected results HE MAIN CONCLUSIONS COMPARISON BETWEEN NES AND HES: RESULTS... 64

4 INTRODUCTION This paper aims to reveal the analysis of data gathered through the Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs EU programme. Said project will be used as reference information for the CReBUS project. COUNTRY PROFILE Official name: Italia Time Zone Area: GMT + 1 Location: South of Europe Area: square kilometers Population: 56,948 million (2000 census) ; 60,221 (wordbank, 2009) residing population Flag: Climate: Mediterranean climate with regional variations; Capital: Rome (Roma) population: 2,7 million. Official language: Italian 1

5 Country Map Administrative map: 2

6 NE DATA ANALYSIS Number of the respondents: 50 young / inexperienced / new / newly established / would be entrepreneurs ANALYZED VARIABLES ONE BY ONE Gender Data analysis for the variable gender reveals that the newly established or would be entrepreneurs are composed in majority by men: Italian respondents - gender analysis 68,00% 32,00% Age of the respondents: data gathered and analyzed show that most of the Italian young/would be/newly established entrepreneurs are between 30 and 35 years old (40%). The second most important share is of 30% and represents entrepreneurs having more than 35 years old, followed by 28% detained by entrepreneurs with an age comprised between 25 and 30. 2% of the Italian NEs is less than 25. Age of the inexperienced entrepreneurs Under 25 30,00% 2,00% 28,00% Between 25 and 30 Between 30 and 35 Over 35 40,00% 3

7 Business started The majority of the Italian respondents have already started the business; the newly established entrepreneurs still feel the need of being followed and of learning more about how to run their own companies. Business started 46,00% 54,00% Business started Business not started Previous experience in running a business information processed shows that 40% of the Italian NEs have no experience in running a business; however, 60% of them have an experience of at least one year; moreover, 24% of the overall number of respondents already have an experience as entrepreneurs comprised between over 3 and over 10 years. Experience in running a business 2,00% 2,00% 4,00% 4,00% 4,00% 2,00% 6,00% 14,00% 22,00% 40,00% No experience One year Two years Three years Four years Five years Six years Nine years Ten years More than 10 years 4

8 Preferred duration of the exchange Italian newly established or would be entrepreneurs prefer long durations: 38% of the respondents is interested in a six months experience; while 34% would like to have a 3 months relationship with an experience entrepreneur. A length of 4 or 5 months is less required, while 12% asks for a two months experience; and 10% for one month of learning experience. Duration of the exchange 38,00% 10,00% 34,00% 12,00% 1 month 2 months 3 months 4 months 5 months 2,00% 4,00% 6 months Preferred country for the exchange Italian newly established entrepreneurs prefer, for their great majority, other countries then the ones included in the CReBUS project (UK is one of the most desired countries for an exchange). However, 20% of them are interested in an exchange in Spain; and 2% in an exchange in Austria. Preferred country for the exchange 2,00% 20,00% 78,00% Austria Other Spain 5

9 Sectors The respondents are mostly interested in the sector of advertising and in the field of legal/fiscal and other consultancy (18% of the shares goes to said sectors) Sectors of activity Advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and Agricultural, forestry, horticultural, aquacultural and apicultural products and Architectural, construction, engineering and inspection Automotive industry Clothing, footwear, leather and textile, luggage articles and accessories Education and training Electrical machinery, apparatus equipment and consumables, lighting Energy, fuel, electricity and other sources of energy Food, beverages, tobacco and related products Health, beauty and social Hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness IT, office and communication equipment, and supplies Legal, fiscal and other consultancy Music, theatre, events and related cultural and entertainment Research and development equipment and 2,00% 18,00% 14,00% 2,00% 4,00% 6,00% 18,00% 6,00% 8,00% 10,00% 4,00% 2,00% 2,00% 2,00% 2,00% 6

10 Languages spoken 100% of the Italian inexperienced entrepreneurs speak at least English. 10% of them speak 3 foreign languages. The second most spoken languages is French (28% of the respondents); followed by Spanish (20%); only 6% of the Italian NEs speak German. * the entrepreneur declaring that (s)he speaks English and Italian is not of Italian origin. Languages spoken English English, French 2,00% 2,00% 6,00% 2,00% 12,00% 6,00% 18,00% 50,00% English, French, German English, French, German, Spanish English, French, Spanish English, German English, Italian 2,00% English, Spanish English, other Motivation Weighted values only MOTIVATION IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER OPTION = 0,5 ALONE = 1 OVERALL POINTS OVERALL PERCENTAGE Create networks and business opportunities 10,5 1 11,5 23% Intercultural skills % Knowledge and support for business start up 1 1 2% Knowledge and experience on managing the company Knowledge and experience on promoting the company % 3 3 6% Technical knowledge specific to the sector 6,5 4 10,5 21% Other % TOTAL % The most encountered motivation is related to the acquisition of knowledge and experience on managing the company (34% of the respondents); the second one regards the creation of networks and business opportunities (23%); while the third concerns the acquisition of technical knowledge specific to the sector. 7

11 Motivation Create networks and business opportunities Intercultural skills 6% 21% 4% 34% 23% 2% 10% Knowledge and support for business start-up Knowledge and experience on managing the company Knowledge and experience on promoting the company Technical knowledge specific to the sector Other Areas of interest in the exchange Weighted values AREAS OF INTEREST IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER OPTION = 0,5 ALONE = 1 OVERALL POINTS OVERALL PERCENTAGE Administrative aspects Advertising 2 2 4,00% General management 5, ,5 65% Human resources management 0,5 0,5 1,00% Organization management 3,5 3,5 7,00% PR ,00% Taxes Other 2,5 7 9,5 19,00% TOTAL ,00% Italian young/inexperienced/would be entrepreneurs are mainly interested in learning more about the general management of the business. There seems to be no interest in the areas concerning administration or taxes. 8

12 Areas of interest 19,00% 4,00% 0 7,00% 1,00% 0 4,00% 65% Administrative aspects Advertising General management Human resources management Organization management PR Taxes Other Expected outcome Weighted values EXPECTED OUTCOME IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER OPTION = 0,5 ALONE = 1 OVERALL POINTS OVERALL PERCENTAGE Develop my entrepreneurial skills on managing a business ,00% Establish commercial partnerships ,00% Improve business idea and business plan 4 4 8,00% Knowledge on foreign markets ,00% Gain work experience 1,5 1,5 3,00% Improve foreign languages ,00% Other 1,5 2 3,5 7,00% TOTAL ,00% Most of the Italian young/would be entrepreneurs expect to develop their entrepreneurial skills on managing a business (32%); the second most expected outcome is establish commercial partnerships (28%); while the third regards the opportunity to acquire knowledge on foreign markets (14%). 3% of the young entrepreneurs also expect to gain work experience through the programme. 9

13 Expected outcome 3,00% 8,00% 7,00% 32,00% 14,00% Develop my entrepreneurial skills on managing a business Establish commercial partnerships Improve business idea and business plan Knowledge on foreign markets Gain work experience 8,00% 28,00% Improve foreign languages Other 10

14 CROSS ANSWERING Age, gender and experience Experience Age, Gender, Experience Gender 0 1 year 2 years 3 years 4 years 5 years 6 years 9 years Age under 25 1 Age between 25 and years Age between 30 and Age over Data gathered show that most of the Italian young/would be entrepreneurs are between 30 and 35 years old (40%). Within this segment of age, 50% of the entrepreneurs have no experience; the other 50% is composed of various degrees of experience. Women are numerically less (35%); however, they tend to have more experience than men (in years there is one women entrepreneur having 9 years of experience). The second most important share is 30% and represents entrepreneurs having more than 35 years old. Women are, here again, numerically less: the percentage is 20. The numbers of years in terms of experience is also reduced for women over 35. The third most important share is 28%, detained by entrepreneurs with an age comprised between 25 and 30. The spread between men and women is more equal: 14 overall, 8 men and 6 women (42,86% women). 2% of the Italian NEs is less than 25: only 1 entrepreneur is concerned one man having 1 year of experience. Over 10 years 11

15 Age, Gender, Experience 0 1 year 2 years 3 years 4 years 5 years 6 years 9 years 10 years Over 10 years Age under 25 Age between 25 and 30 Age between 30 and 35 Age over 35 12

16 Gender, age and sector AGE SECTOR FEMALE MALE TOTAL Age under 25 Agricultural, forestry, horticultural, aquacultural and apicultural products and 1 1 Food, beverages, tobacco and related products Electrical machinery, apparatus equipment and consumables, lighting 1 1 Legal, fiscal and other consultancy Hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness Age between 25 and 30 Health, beauty and social IT, office and communication equipment, and supplies 1 1 Age between 30 and 35 Age over 35 Agricultural, forestry, horticultural, aquacultural and apicultural products and 1 1 Advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and Energy, fuel, electricity and other sources of energy 1 1 Automotive 1 1 Architectural, construction, engineering and inspection Food, beverages, tobacco and related products 1 1 Hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness 2 2 Agricultural, forestry, horticultural, aquacultural and apicultural products and 2 2 Advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and Music, theatre, events and related cultural and entertainment 1 1 Clothing, footwear, leather and textile, luggage articles and accessories 1 1 Legal, fiscal and other consultancy Legal, fiscal and other consultancy Advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and 3 3 Architectural, construction, engineering and inspection 1 1 Education and training Hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness 2 2 Music, theatre, events and related cultural and entertainment 1 1 Research and development 1 1 TOTAL Sectors all well distributed over segments of age and gender: there seems to be a preference for men over 30 13

17 in the sector of advertising, promotion, printing, media etc. Age, Gender, Sector Agricultural, forestry, Food, beverages, Electrical machinery, Legal, fiscal and other Hotel, restaurant, Health, beauty and IT, office and Agricultural, forestry, Advertising, promotion, Energy, fuel, electricity Automotive Architectural, Food, beverages, Hotel, restaurant, Agricultural, forestry, Advertising, promotion, Music, theatre, events Clothing, footwear, Legal, fiscal and other Legal, fiscal and other Advertising, promotion, Architectural, Education and training Hotel, restaurant, Music, theatre, events Research and Age under 25 Age between 25 and 30 Age between 30 and 35 Age over 35 Gender and languages LANGUAGES FEMALE % MALE % English 9 36% 16 64% English, French 4 44,44% 5 55,56% English, French, Spanish 1 33,34% 2 66,65% English, French, German 1 100% English, Other 1 33,34% 2 66,65% English, German 1 100% English, Italian 1 100% English, Spanish 6 100% English, French, German, Spanish 1 100% 14

18 English, French, German, Spanish English, Spanish English, Italian English, German English, Other English, French, German English, French,Spanish English, French English Languages spoken are, overall, six. Women respondents are less than men, but all of them speak at least English. French is the second most spoken language for women. 15

19 Gender and areas of interest AREAS OF INTEREST MALE FEMALE Advertising, Organization management 1 Advertising, General management 1 2 General management 23 4 Human resources management, organization management 1 General management, Organization management 2 3 General management, Other 1 2 Other 5 2 PR 1 PR, other 2 TOTAL Gender and Area of Interest Advertising, Organization management General management General management, Organization management Other PR, other General management confirms the first position both for men and women; other has an interesting share; while the combination of general management and organization management is preferred by 10% of the respondents (6% of which are women). 16

20 Languages and experience EXPERIENCE LANGUAGES 0 MORE THAN 1 YEAR 2 YEARS 3 YEARS 4 YEARS 5 YEARS 6 YEARS 9 YEARS 10 YEARS 10 YEARS English English, French English, French, German 1 English, French, German, Spanish 1 English, French, Spanish 1 2 English, German 1 English, Italian 1 English, other English, Spanish TOTAL Languages and experience English English, French English, French, German English, French, German, Spanish English, French, Spanish English, German English, Italian English, other English, Spanish year 2 years 3 years 4 years 5 years 6 years 9 years 10 years more than 10 years The number of the respondents decreases as previous experience increases this is why the graphic analysis shows ever more reduced quotas; actually, no correlation is established between languages and experience. 17

21 Sector and experience SECTORS ANSWERS 0 Agricultural, forestry, horticultural, aquacultural and apicultural products and Advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and 1 YEAR YEARS YEARS YEARS YEARS YEARS YEARS YEARS Architectural, construction, engineering and inspection Automotive 1 1 Clothing, footwear, leather and textile, luggage articles and 1 1 accessories Education and training Electrical machinery, apparatus equipment and consumables, lighting 1 1 Energy, fuel, electricity and other sources of energy 1 1 Food, beverages, tobacco and related products Health, beauty and social 2 2 Hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness IT, office and communication equipment, and supplies 1 1 Legal, fiscal and other consultancy Music, theatre, events and related cultural and entertainment Research and development equipment and 1 1 Total 50 MORE THAN 10 YEARS In the sector of advertising, promotion, printing, media, etc. all respondents have at least one year of experience. In the legal sector 66,66% of the entrepreneurs have at least 1 year of experience. There are some sectors, like Music, Research and development, IT, Clothing, Automotive, where NEs have, all, some previous experience. 18

22 Sectors and experience more than 10 years 10 years 9 years 6 years 5 years 4 years 3 years 2 years 1 year 0 Research and development equipment and Music, theatre, events and related cultural and entertainment Legal, fiscal and other consultancy IT, office and communication equipment, and supplies Hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness Health, beauty and social Food, beverages, tobacco and related products Energy, fuel, electricity and other sources of energy Electrical machinery, apparatus equipment and consumables, lighting Education and training Clothing, footwear, leather and textile, luggage articles and accessories Automotive Architectural, construction, engineering and inspection Advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and Agricultural, forestry, horticultural, aquacultural and apicultural products and

23 Sector and languages All data gathered show no correlation between languages and sector or previous experience, etc. Languages are spoken transversally by people interested to participate to the Erasmus programme. Sector and motivation MOTIVATIONS IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER OPTION = 0,5 ALONE = 1 OVERALL POINTS OVERALL PERCENTAGE Create network and business opportunities 10,5 1 11,5 23,00% Intercultural skills ,00% Knowledge and experience on managing the company % Knowledge and support for business start up 1 1 2,00% Other ,00% Technical knowledge specific to the sector 6,5 4 10,5 21,00% Knowledge and experience in promoting the company 3 3 6,00% 20

24 Upon the basis of said table, we analyzed the most relevant motivations and sectors: SECTORS/ MOTIVATIONS Advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and CREATE NETWORKS INTERCULTURAL AND BUSINESS SKILLS OPPORTUNITIES KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE ON MANAGING THE COMPANY TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE SPECIFIC TO THE SECTOR OTHER KNOWLEDGE AND SUPPORT FOR BUSINESS START UP KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE IN PROMOTING THE COMPANY ANSWERS 3 0,5 3,5 1,5 0,5 9 Agricultural, forestry, horticultural, aquacultural and apicultural products and 1,5 1 0,5 1 4 Architectural, construction, engineering and inspection ,5 0,5 5 Automotive industry 1 1 Clothing, footwear, leather and textile, luggage articles and accessories Education and training 0,5 0, ,5 0,5 3 Electrical machinery, apparatus equipment and consumables, lighting 0,5 0,5 1 Energy, fuel, electricity and other sources of energy Food, beverages, tobacco and related products Health, beauty and social Hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness IT, office and communication equipment, and supplies Legal, fiscal and other consultancy 0,5 0,5 1 0,5 1 0, ,5 0, ,5 0, ,5 0,5 7 0,5 0,5 1 2,5 3 2,5 0,5 0,5 9 Music, theatre, events and related cultural and 0,5 1 0,5 2 entertainment Research and development equipment 0,5 0,5 1 and Total 11, ,

25 It is quite interesting to see that only in the architectural and legal sectors NEs are interested in acquiring knowledge and support for the business start up. The motivation related to knowledge and experience in promoting the company is also very weak among young/would be Italian entrepreneurs: the only ones to pick up such motivations are operating in the sectors of clothing; education and training; food and beverages; hotel, restaurant; and legal, fiscal and other consultancy. Management and the creation of networks/business opportunities are the most relevant motivations in all sectors, followed by technical knowledge sepecific to the sector. The only sectors not to choose create networks and business opportunities are: - automotive industry; - clothing, footwear, leather and textile, etc.; - education and training; - electrical machinery, apparatus equipment and consumables, lighting; - health, beauty and social ; and - IT, office, communication, equipment, and supplies. 22

26 Sector and areas of interest SECTORS/ AREAS OF INTEREST GENERAL ACCESS ORGANIZATION MANAGEMEN MANAGEMENT PR OTHER ADVERTISING TO T CREDIT ADMINISTRATI VE ASPECTS HR OVERALL RESPONDENTS IN THE SECTOR Advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and Agricultural, forestry, horticultural, aquacultural and apicultural products and 3,5 0,5 4 Architectural, construction, engineering and inspection Automotive industry 1 1 Clothing, footwear, leather and textile, luggage articles 0,5 0,5 1 and accessories Education and training Electrical machinery, apparatus equipment and consumables, lighting 1 1 Energy, fuel, electricity and other sources of energy Food, beverages, tobacco and related products Health, beauty and social Hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness 1 1 1,5 1 0, ,5 0,5 7 IT, office and communication equipment, and 1 1 supplies Legal, fiscal and other consultancy ,5 0,5 9 Music, theatre, events and related cultural and 1 0,5 0,5 2 entertainment Research and development equipment and 1 1 TOTAL 31,5 3,5 2 10,5 2 0,5 50 General management is, as we already know, the most relevant area of interest (independently from the sector). Other is, however, an important segment of the choices expressed this means that there are some areas which have not been correctly identified in the questionnaire; or maybe that Italian NEs have chosen other just in order not to be forced to identify a specific area of interest. It is compulsory to highlight that access to credit and administrative aspects are two areas which are completely irrelevant for the Italian young or would be entrepreneurs. Besides, PR and advertising which we assumed could be areas of strong interest revealed to actually be 23

27 extremely weak; this could be explained by a string preparation of NEs in such areas; or by their stronger interest in some other areas (management, organization, etc.). Sector and expected outcome SECTORS/ EXPECTED OUTCOME DEVELOP MY ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS ON MANAGING A BUSINESS ESTABLISH COMMERCIAL PARTNERSHIPS KNOWLEDGE ON FOREIGN MARKETS IMPROVE BUSINESS IDEA AND BUSINESS PLAN IMPROVE FOREIGN LANGUAGES GAIN OVERALL WORK OTHER RESPONDE EXPERIENCE NTS Advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and Agricultural, forestry, horticultural, aquacultural and apicultural products and Architectural, construction, engineering and inspection 2, , ,5 1,5 1 0,5 0,5 4 1,5 0,5 0,5 1 1,5 5 Automotive industry 1 1 Clothing, footwear, leather and textile, luggage articles and accessories 0,5 0,5 1 Education and training 1,5 1 0,5 3 Electrical machinery, apparatus equipment and consumables, lighting Energy, fuel, electricity and other sources of energy Food, beverages, tobacco and related products Health, beauty and social Hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness IT, office and communication equipment, and supplies Legal, fiscal and other consultancy Music, theatre, events and related cultural and entertainment Research and development equipment and 0,5 0,5 1 0,5 0, ,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 3 0,5 1 0,5 2 3, ,5 7 0,5 0,5 1 2,5 4,5 1 0,5 0,5 9 1,5 0, TOTAL ,5 3,5 50 With the exception of young entrepreneurs operating in the field of automotive industry; electrical 24

28 machinery; energy, fuel, electricity and other sources of energy; and research and development, all other entrepreneurs expect to develop their skills in managing a business (32% of the overall expected outcome is represented by develop my entrepreneurial skills in managing a business ). 28% of the expected outcome revealed to concern the creation of commercial partnerships: most young Italian entrepreneurs indicated such expected outcome, with the exception of NEs operating in the following fields: - automotive industry; - electrical machinery, apparatus equipment and consumables, lighting; - health, beauty and social ; and - IT, office and communication equipment, and supplies. The acquisition of knowledge on foreign markets is the 3 rd most relevant expected outcome: 60% of the sectors are correlated to said expectation (14% of the answers weighted calculation). Sector, gender and motivation Weighted answers, where 2 options indicated by the same respondent get 0,5 each see table below: SECTORS/GENDER /MOTIVATION GENDER CREATE NETWORKS AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIE S INTERCULT URAL SKILLS KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE ON MANAGING THE COMPANY TECHNICAL KNOWLEDG E SPECIFIC TO THE SECTOR OTHER KNOWLEDGE AND SUPPORT FOR BUSINESS START UP KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE RESPONDENT IN S PROMOTING THE COMPANY Advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and 2 0,5 2,5 1,5 0,5 7 Agricultural, forestry, horticultural, 0,5 0,5 1 aquacultural and apicultural products and 1 1 0,5 0,5 3 Architectural, construction, 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 2 engineering and inspection 1 0,5 0,5 1 3 Automotive industry 1 1 Clothing, footwear, leather and textile, 0,5 0,5 1 luggage articles and accessories Education and 0,5 1 0,5 2 25

29 training 0,5 0,5 1 Electrical machinery, apparatus equipment and consumables, lighting Energy, fuel, electricity and other sources of energy 0,5 0,5 1 0,5 0,5 1 Food, beverages, 0,5 0,5 1 2 tobacco and related products 0,5 0,5 1 Health, beauty and 1 1 social 0,5 0,5 1 Hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel 0,5 0,5 1 and wellness 1 0, ,5 6 IT, office and communication equipment, and supplies 0,5 0,5 1 Legal, fiscal and other consultancy 0,5 1,5 0,5 0, ,5 2 0,5 6 Music, theatre, events and related 0,5 0,5 1 cultural and entertainment 0,5 0,5 1 Research and development equipment and 0,5 0,5 1 Total 2,5 1 5,5 3,5 1 2, , ,5 34 TOTAL 11, , respondents are not motivated by the acquisition of knowledge and support for the business start up; on the other hand, only one woman picked up said answer. The main motivations for men are the following: - knowledge and experience on managing the company; - create networks and business opportunities; - technical knowledge specific to the sector. 26

30 Men / motivations Create networks and business opportunities Intercultural skills 21% 0% 1% 6% 26% Knowledge and experience on managing the company Technical knowledge specific to the sector 34% 12% Other Knowledge and support for business start-up Knowledge and experience in promoting the company For women, the main motivations are the same, but in a different order: - knowledge and support on managing the company; - technical knowledge specific to the sector; - create networks and business opportunities. This gives an indication concerning the fact that women feel more insecure when it comes to the specific knowledge necessary to start the business. Women / motivations Create networks and business opportunities Intercultural skills 6% 16% 0% 22% 16% 6% 34% Knowledge and experience on managing the company Technical knowledge specific to the sector Other Knowledge and support for business start-up Knowledge and experience in promoting the company 27

31 Sector, gender and expected outcome Weighted answers, where 2 options indicated by the same respondent get 0,5 each see table: SECTORS/GENDER/ EXPECTED OUTCOME GENDER DEVELOP MY ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS ON MANAGING A BUSINESS ESTABLISH COMMERCIAL PARTNERSHIPS KNOWLEDGE ON FOREIGN MARKETS IMPROVE BUSINESS IDEA AND BUSINESS PLAN IMPROVE FOREIGN LANGUAGES OVERALL GAIN WORK EXPERIENCE OTHER RESPOND ENTS Advertising, promotion, printing, media and 0,5 1 0,5 2 related products and ,5 0,5 7 Agricultural, forestry, horticultural, 0,5 0,5 1 aquacultural and apicultural products and 0,5 1 0,5 0,5 0,5 3 Architectural, construction, engineering and inspection Automotive industry Clothing, footwear, leather and textile, luggage articles and accessories Education and training Electrical machinery, apparatus equipment and consumables, lighting Energy, fuel, electricity and other sources of energy Food, beverages, tobacco and related products Health, beauty and social Hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness 1 0,5 0,5 2 0,5 0,5 0,5 1, ,5 0,5 1 1,5 0,5 2 0,5 0,5 1 0,5 0,5 1 0,5 0, ,5 0,5 2 0,5 0,5 1 0,5 0,5 1 0,5 0,5 1 0,5 0, ,5 1,5 6 IT, office and communication equipment, and 0,5 0,5 1 supplies Legal, fiscal and other 1 1 0,5 0,5 3 consultancy 1,5 3,5 0,5 0,5 6 Music, theatre, events and related cultural and 1 1 entertainment 0,5 0,5 1 Research and development

32 equipment and TOTAL FEMALE 7 2 2, ,5 16 MALE , , TOTAL ,5 3,5 50 Men seem to expect more than women to establish commercial partnerships; their most expected outcomes are the following (in order): - establish commercial partnerships (35,29%); - develop my entrepreneurial skills on managing a business (26,47%); - knowledge on foreign markets (13,23%). Women have the same main expectations, but with a different order: - develop my entrepreneurial skills on managing a business (43,75%); - knowledge on foreign markets (15,62%); - establish commercial partnerships and improve business idea and business plan (12,5% each). Men in the sectors of advertising, agriculture, electrical machinery and especially hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness expect to improve foreign languages. In equal share (50% each), men and women expect to improve their business idea and business plan: - men in the fields of: advertising; agriculture; health, beauty and social ; and hotel, restaurant, tourism, etc.; - and women in the fields of: food, beverages, tobacco and related products; health, beauty and social ; hotel, restaurant, tourism, etc.; and legal, fiscal and other consultancy. 29

33 Motivation and duration of exchange Young / would be entrepreneurs interested in a relationship of one month are motivated by: - the acquisition of technical knowledge specific to the sector; - the creation of networks and business opportunities; - the acquisition of knowledge and experience in managing a business; - the acquisition of intercultural skills. NEs interested in an experience of two months declare the same motivations, but knowledge and experience in managing a business is at the top, together with technical knowledge specific to the sector. MOTIVATION / DURATION OF THE EXCHANGE 1 MONTH 2 MONTHS 3 MONTHS 4 MONTHS 5 MONTHS 6 MONTHS OVERALL RESPONDENTS PER SECTOR Create networks and business opportunities 1,5 0,5 4 0,5 5 11,5 Intercultural skills 0,5 1,5 1,5 1,5 5 Knowledge and experience on managing the company 1 2 6,5 0,5 0,5 6,5 17 Technical knowledge specific to the sector ,5 3 10,5 Other 0,5 1,5 2 Knowledge and experience on promoting the company 1 0,5 0,5 1 3 Knowledge and support for business start up 0,5 0,5 1 Overall respondents For other numerically relevant lengths (3 and 6 months), the answers reveal the following motivations: - knowledge and experience in managing a business; - technical knowledge specific to the sector; and - intercultural skills. Areas of interest and Languages Languages, as data showed before, are not connected to other variables; all young / would be entrepreneurs participating to the EYE programme speak at least one foreign language. 30

34 Experience and expected results EXPERIENCE/EXPECTED OUTCOME DEVELOP MY ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS ON MANAGING A BUSINESS ESTABLISH COMMERCIAL PARTNERSHIPS KNOWLEDGE ON FOREIGN MARKETS IMPROVE BUSINESS IDEA AND BUSINESS PLAN IMPROVE FOREIGN LANGUAGES GAIN WORK EXPERIENCE OTHER OVERALL RESPONDENTS Experience: 0 7 3,5 2 2,5 2,5 1 1,5 20 Experience: 1 year 3, ,5 1 0,5 1,5 11 Experience: 2 years 1,5 3,5 1 0,5 0,5 7 Experience 3 years 1 1,5 0,5 3 Experience 4 years 0,5 1 0,5 2 Experience: 5 years 0,5 0,5 1 Experience: 6 years 0,5 0,5 1 Experience: 9 years 1 1 Experience: 10 years 0,5 1 0,5 2 Experience: more than 10 years 1,5 0,5 2 Overall respondents ,5 3,5 50 Contrarily to our expectations, even experienced entrepreneurs (with over 5 years of previous experience) still select develop my entrepreneurial skills in managing a business); this proves that the perception of the capacity to run his/her own business is very low young / would be Italian entrepreneurs do not feel ready nor prepared enough for such a challenge. 31

35 NE MAIN CONCLUSIONS Gender, Age, Experience, Countries preferred, Languages spoken Data analysis indicates that women entrepreneur wishing to participate to the programme are numerically less than men: 32% only is represented by women. This proves the need of policies meant to promote entrepreneurial culture among Italian women. With respect to the age of the respondents, data gathered reveal that the majority of the would be /young entrepreneurs (40%) is between 30 and 35 years old. Two other important categories are well represented: over 35 (30%) and between 25 and 30 (28%). Only 2% of the Italian NEs is less than 25 years old (a man). The gender age correlation shows that women participation is stronger in the category of age that goes from 25 to 35. Even if a significant part of the Italian NEs already started their business (54%), data show that the majority of respondents has little or no experience in running a business (76% between o and 2 years experience). The gender experience examination allows to say that women generally have less experience than men. In the three categories of age where the two genders are represented, women have less experience than men. As far as the countries preferred for the exchange are concerned, most Italian would be / newly established entrepreneurs are interested in countries which are not represented in the CReBUS project; however, 20% of them would like to go to Spain; and 2% to Austria (1 entrepreneur). The majority of the respondents are interested in long duration experiences: 78% would like to have a relationship longer than 3 months. Languages, as explained, are not connected to age, gender, sectors of activity, etc. Italian entrepreneurs who participate to the Erasmus programme speak at least one foreign language (English). The second most spoken language is French (28% of the respondents); followed by Spanish (20%). Sector of activity, experience, motivation, areas of interest, expected outcome The main sectors of activity, as data show, are the following: - advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and (18%); - legal, fiscal, and other consultancy (18%); - hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness (14%); - architecture (10%). 32

36 Sectors are well distributed among categories like age and gender (keeping in mind that women respondents are less than men); there seems to be a slight preference for women over 35 for the sector of education and training ; as well as a preference for men over 30 for the sector of advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and. Concerning the area of interest, data examination reveals that all respondents have a strong interest in the area of general management; when crossing information with gender variable, results show that men are much more interested than women in such area (67,65% of men and 25% of women). The variable experience crossed with sector illustrates that in the sector of advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and all respondents have at least one year of experience. Also, in the legal sector, 66,66% of the entrepreneurs have at least one year of experience. Regarding motivation, analysis shows that the most important motivations for Italian NEs are the following: - knowledge and experience in managing a business (34%); - creating networks and business opportunities (23%); - technical knowledge specific to the sector (21%). When crossing data with the variable sector, results show that all sectors confirm the trend; knowledge and experience in promoting the company is selected only by entrepreneurs who work in the fields of: - clothing, footwear, leather and textile, luggage articles and accessories; - education and training ; - food and beverages, tobacco and related products; - hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness; and - legal, fiscal and other consultancy. Expectations of Italian NEs are also very concentrated: three are the main selected expected outcomes, as follows: - develop my entrepreneurial skills in managing a business (32%); - establish commercial partnerships (28%); and - knowledge on foreign markets (14%). 33

37 HE DATA ANALYSIS Number of the respondents: 50 experienced entrepreneurs ANALYZED VARIABLES ONE BY ONE Gender analysis Data indicate that, in the case of experienced entrepreneurs, the unbalance is quite strong almost three quarters of them are men. Experienced entrepreneurs - gender analysis Experience in running a business The majority of Italian entrepreneurs (74%) has more than 10 years experience in running a business. Years of experience for Italian entrepreneurs 3-5 years 5-10 years Over 10 years 34

38 Duration of the exchange The majority of the respondents is interested in a duration of 3 or 6 months (32% each of the indicated categories). Preferred duration of the exchange for experienced entrepreneurs 32% 10% 16% 1 month 2 months 3 months 8% 32% 4 months 5 months 2% 6 months Preferred country for the exchange Italian experienced entrepreneurs are generally interested in countries which are not covered by the CReBUS project (60%). However, almost a third is interested in exchanges with Spain (32%); 4% are interested in exchanges with Romanian young entrepreneurs; while Austria and Latvia get 2% of the preferences each. Preferred country for the exchange - experienced entrepreneurs 2% 2% 4% 60% 32% Austria Latvia Romania Spain Other 35

39 Sectors of activity Most Italian experienced entrepreneurs work in three fields of activity: - advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and (20%); - education and training (14%); and - IT, office and communication equipment, and supplies (10%). Sectors of activity - experienced entrepreneurs Advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and Agricultural, forestry, horticultural, aquacultural and apicultural products and Architectural, construction, engineering and inspection Clothing, footwear, leather and textile, luggage articles and accessories Community, social and personal Crafts, art materials and accessories Distribution and retail sector Education and training Energy, fuel, electricity and other sources of energy Food, beverages, tobacco and related products Health, beauty and social Hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness Industrial machinery production, installation, repair and maintenance IT, office and communication equipment, and supplies Legal, fiscal and other consultancy Music, theatre, events and related cultural and entertainment Transport and Logistics Water distribution, sewage, refuse, cleaning and environmental 2% 4% 10% 2% 4% 4% 20% 6% 6% 14% 6% 6% 2% 4% 2% 4% 2% 2% 36

40 Languages spoken, other than mother tongue English spoken by Italian experienced entrepreneurs: 90% of the respondents speaks English; the remaining 10% speaks at least one other foreign language. English spoken by Italian experienced entrepreneurs 10% 90% English spoken English not spoken Languages spoken, all combinations: LANGUAGES SPOKEN % English 48% English, French 20% English, French, German 4% English, French, Other 2% English, French, Spanish 6% English, German 2% English, German, Spanish 2% English, Spanish 6% Spanish 8% Other 2% TOTAL 100% 37

41 Languages spoken by Italian experienced entrepreneurs English 2% 6% 2% 6% 2% 4% 20% 8% 2% 48% English, French English, French, German English, French, Other English, French, Spanish English, German English, German, Spanish English, Spanish Spanish Other Motivations Weighted values only 0,5 points for motivations picked up in combination with another motivation; 1 points for motivations picked up alone. MOTIVATIONS IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER OPTION = 0,5 ALONE = 1 OVERALL POINTS OVERALL PERCENTAGE Acquire technical knowledge specific to the sector 3 3 6,00% Create networks and business opportunities ,00% Exchange of opinions and information 8,5 4 12,5 25% Develop innovative projects in my company 5,5 4 9,5 19,00% Helping young entrepreneurs to develop their business 5,5 3 8,5 17,00% Intercultural skills 0,5 0,5 1,00% TOTAL ,00% 38

42 Analysis shows that the most important motivations are the following: - create networks and business opportunities (32%); - exchange of opinions and information (25%); - develop innovative projects in my company (19%). It is interesting to note that 17% of the experienced entrepreneurs declare to have altruistic motivations; and that no Italian entrepreneur picked up other. Motivations of experienced entrepreneurs Acquire technical knowledge specific to the sector 19% 17% 1% 25% 6% 32% Create networks and business opportunities Exchange of opinions and information Develop innovative projects in my company Helping young entrepreneurs to develop their business Intercultural skills Areas of interest Weighted values only o,5 points for options picked up in combination; and 1 point for options alone. AREAS OF INTEREST IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER OPTION = 0,5 ALONE = 1 OVERALL POINTS OVERALL PERCENTAGE Administrative aspects Advertising 2,5 2,5 5,00% General management % Human resources management Organization management ,00% PR 1,5 1,5 3,00% Taxes Other ,00% TOTAL ,00% The area of general management is the most important one, representing 56% of the answers; other important shares belong to other (22%); and organization management (14%). 39

43 Areas of interest for experienced entrepreneurs 0% 3% 14% 22% 0% 5% 56% Administrative aspects Advertising General management Human resources management Organization management PR Taxes 0% Other Expected outcome Weighted values only. EXPECTED OUTCOME IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER OPTION = 0,5 ALONE = 1 OVERALL POINTS OVERALL PERCENTAGE Contribute to the society and to future entrepreneurs 6,5 3 9,5 19,00% Establish commercial partnerships 14,5 9 23,5 47,00% Identify potential employees % Acquire knowledge on foreign markets ,00% Other Total ,00% The three most expected outcomes are the following: - establish commercial partnerships (47%); - acquire knowledge on foreign markets (24%); - contribute to the society and to future entrepreneurs (19%). 40

44 Expected outcome - experienced entrepreneurs 0% Contribute to the society and to future entrepreneurs 24% 19% Establish commercial partnerships 10% 47% Identify potential employees Acquire knowledge on foreign markets Other CROSS ANSWERING Gender and experience GENDER EXPERIENCE BETWEEN 3 AND 5 % EXPERIENCE BETWEEN 5 AND 10 % EXPERIENCE OVER 10 YEARS % OVERALL RESPONDENTS 4 100,00% % 26 70,27% ,00% % 11 29,73% 13 TOTAL 4 100% 9 100% % 50 The percentage of men participating in the programme is higher than the percentage of women for all segments of experience. The number (and, obviously, the percentage) of women gets higher as experience increases. 41

45 Gender and experience Experience between 3 and 5 Experience between 5 and 10 Experience over 10 years Experience between 3 and 5 0% 100% 42

46 Experience between 5 and 10 22% 78% Experience over 10 years 30% 70% 43

47 Gender and sector Women are better represented in the sector of education and training. The field of crafts, art materials and accessories is covered only by women entrepreneur. SECTOR MALE % FEMALE % OVERALL PERCENTAGE OVERALL RESPONDENTS Advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and 8 16% 2 4% 20% 10 Agricultural, forestry, horticultural, aquacultural and apicultural products and 3 6% 6% 3 Architectural, construction, engineering and inspection 2 4% 1 2% 6% 3 Clothing, footwear, leather and textile, luggage articles and accessories 1 2% 2% 1 Community, social and personal 1 2% 2% 1 Crafts, art materials and accessories 2 4% 4% 2 Distribution and retail sector 1 2% 2% 1 Education and training 1 2% 6 12% 14% 7 Energy, fuel, electricity and other sources of energy 3 6% 6% 3 Food, beverages, tobacco and related products 2 4% 4% 2 Health, beauty and social 1 2% 2% 1 Hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness 3 6% 6% 3 Industrial machinery production, installation, repair and maintenance 1 2% 2% 1 IT, office and communication equipment, and supplies 5 10% 10% 5 Legal, fiscal and other consultancy 1 2% 1 2% 4% 2 Music, theatre, events and related cultural and entertainment 1 2% 2% 1 Transport and Logistics 2 4% 4% 2 Water distribution, sewage, refuse, cleaning and environmental 1 2% 1 2% 4% 2 Total 37 74% 13 26% 100% 50 44

48 Gender and sector % % 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% Water distribution, sewage, refuse, Transport and Logistics Music, theatre, events and related cultural Legal, fiscal and other consultancy IT, office and communication Industrial machinery production, Hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel Health, beauty and social Food, beverages, tobacco and related Energy, fuel, electricity and other sources of Education and training Distribution and retail sector Crafts, art materials and accessories Community, social and personal Clothing, footwear, leather and textile, Architectural, construction, Agricultural, forestry, horticultural, Advertising, promotion, printing, media and Gender and languages LANGUAGES SPOKEN OVERALL PERCENTAGE MALE % MALE FEMALE % FEMALE English 48,00% 20 54,06% 4 30,77% English, French 20,00% 7 18,92% 3 23,08% English, French, German 4,00% 1 2,70% 1 7,69% English, French, Other 2,00% 1 2,70% English, French, Spanish 6,00% 3 8,12% English, German 2,00% 1 7,69% English, German, Spanish 2,00% 1 7,69% English, Spanish 6,00% 2 5,40% 1 7,69% Spanish 8,00% 2 5,40% 2 15,39% Other 2,00% 1 2,70% Total 100,00% ,00% ,00% All experienced entrepreneurs speak at least English. 84,61% of the women entrepreneur speak at least English; 54% of the total women respondents speak at least two languages. 45

49 60,00% 50,00% 40,00% 30,00% 20,00% 10,00% Gender and languages spoken % % 0,00% English English, French English, French, German English, French, Other English, French, Spanish English, German English, German, Spanish English, Spanish Spanish Other Gender and areas of interest Weighted values only: AREAS OF INTEREST/GENDER AREAS OF INTEREST MALE FEMALE TOTAL IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER OPTION = 0,5 ALONE = 1 OVERALL ANSWERS % IN COMBINATIO N WITH OTHER OPTION = 0,5 ALONE = 1 OVERALL ANSWERS % OVERALL ANSWERS Administrative aspects Advertising 2 2 5,41% 0,5 0,5 3,85% 2,5 General management ,75% ,85% 28 Human resources management Organization management ,52% ,38% 7 PR 1,5 1,5 4,05% 1,5 Taxes Other 6,5 1 7,5 20,27% 3,5 3,5 27% 11 Total ,00% ,00% 50 46

50 AREAS OF INTEREST MALE FEMALE Administrative aspects Advertising 2 0,5 General management 21 7 Human resources management Organization management 5 2 PR 1,5 Taxes Other 7,5 3,5 TOTAL Gender and area of interest Other Taxes PR Organizatio n managemen t Human resources managemen t General managemen t Advertising Administrati ve aspects and area of interest Administrative aspects Advertising General management Human resources management Organization management PR Taxes Other 47

51 an area of interest Administrative aspects Advertising General management Human resources management Organization management PR Taxes Other Both men and women have a strong interest in the area of general management. No significant differences are revealed by the gender related analysis. Languages and experience The same can be noticed in the gender language correlation, or in the language experience connection: no relevant data come out from the exam. All entrepreneurs speak at least one foreign language, but languages are spoken transversally, independently from experience, age, gender, etc. 48

52 Sector and experience SECTOR EXPERIENCE BETWEEN 3 AND 5 YEARS EXPERIENCE BETWEEN 5 AND 10 YEARS EXPERIENCE OVER 10 YEARS Advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and 1 9 Agricultural, forestry, horticultural, aquacultural and apicultural products and 3 Architectural, construction, engineering and inspection 3 Clothing, footwear, leather and textile, luggage articles and accessories 1 Community, social and personal 1 Crafts, art materials and accessories 2 Distribution and retail sector 1 Education and training 1 6 Energy, fuel, electricity and other sources of energy 2 1 Food, beverages, tobacco and related products 2 Health, beauty and social 1 Hotel, restaurant, tourism, travel and wellness 1 2 Industrial machinery production, installation, repair and maintenance 1 IT, office and communication equipment, and supplies 2 3 Legal, fiscal and other consultancy 1 1 Music, theatre, events and related cultural and entertainment 1 Transport and Logistics 2 Water distribution, sewage, refuse, cleaning and environmental 1 1 TOTAL Sector and experience Experience between 3 and 5 years Experience between 5 and 10 years Advertising, promotion, Agricultural, forestry, Architectural, construction, Clothing, footwear, Community, social and Crafts, art materials and Distribution and retail sector Education and training Energy, fuel, electricity and Food, beverages, Health, beauty and social Hotel, restaurant, Industrial machinery Experience over 10 years IT, office and communicatio Legal, fiscal and other Music, theatre, events and Transport and Logistics Water distribution, I 11 sectors (out of 18), the majority of entrepreneurs have an experience superior to 10 years: - advertising, promotion, printing, media and related products and ; 49

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