Report on training and support structures for young SMEs in Italy

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1 Report on training and support structures for young SMEs in Italy Consorzio Lavoro e Ambiente last update 01/2010

2 Report on training and support structures for Background and methodology Work on the main sources of information and data for SMEs (GEM, ISTAT, Excelsior- UNIONCAMERE, ISFOL) Key findings from GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) 2008 report National Statistical Institute (ISTAT) Report Excelsior Information System Report on continuous learning The Italian association of Private Equity and Venture Capital Survival and growth of new firms born Evolution of the size of new firms Training and consultancy services for SMEs Reference websites of professional associations: Law 236/93 today The "Funds for the National Joint Interprofessional continuous learning" Growth Funds Joint Interprofessional and promotion of training plans public and private funding sources For.Te fund Development needs to support learning in SMEs Services for internationalization Other structures supporting P.M.I Chambers of Commerce Business incubators and the network of BIC (Business Innovation Center) Reconnaissance of the support structures for SMEs (stakeholders, decision makers, institutions, chambers of commerce) This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use, which may be made of the information contained therein. 2 2

3 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for Background and methodology Despite the initial support founders of new businesses get at the beginning of their business operations, many of them do not survive their third year of operation [OECD Outlook 2005]. This might be due to the fact that no structured and holistic support is provided to still young but already established SMEs (i.e. entrepreneurs already operating since more than 2 years), whose businesses develop successfully and would have the potential of growth, but whose owners are not sufficiently capable of managing this sudden growth and the problems and challenges it brings about. The present study has been carried out in the period of October 2008 until March 2009 in the framework of the network project SME-TraiNet which is financially supported by the Leonardo da Vinci programme of the European Commission and targeted at fostering the dialogue between European young businesses/ SMEs and European guidance and training providers so that the current training and support structures for this target group can be further developed and improved. This report summarises the results of a status-quo analysis which had the purpose to map the existing training and support structures for young SMEs, identify training and support institutions providing good practice in this field and to identify potential gaps or need for further improvement of the existing offer for young enterprises. This has been done in all countries involved in the project network, i.e. Austria, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Italy, Poland, Turkey, Slovenia and Slovakia. Thus study reports on the present training and support structures for young businesses and SMEs are available also for these countries at The information summarized in this report was gathered by extensive desk research. Where necessary, i.e. where little information in secondary sources was available, interviews with owners and directors of young enterprises were conducted in order to complement the findings of the desk research. The general research guidelines and questionnaires are part of the annex of this report. The present report consists of five main chapters: Chapter 2 gives a general overview on enterprise structure and entrepreneurship in Austria. Chapter 3 describes the existing training and support structures for SMEs and their special offers for young enterprises, if available. Chapter 4 is dedicated to current trends, needs and problems in special sectors and branches and the requirements on training and support offers, whereas Chapter 5 gives examples of institutions providing good practice in facing these problems. Chapter 6 is dedicated to the presentation of the main stakeholders, policy makers and multipliers that have to be involved in order to efficiently improve training and support to SMEs not only at national, but also at international level. 3

4 Report on training and support structures for Report on training young and support SMEs structures in Italy for 1. Work on the main sources of information and data for SMEs (GEM, ISTAT, Excelsior- UNIONCAMERE, ISFOL) 1.1 Key findings from GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) 2008 report The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) is the international search report which measures the propensity for entrepreneurship in 43 worldwide countries. In Italy the drafting of the report is realized by the Research Center for Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs of the Bocconi University in Milan. The rate of early-stage entrepreneurship in Italy - 13th place out of 19 countries in Europe The rate of early-stage entrepreneurship (TEA) in Italy in 2007 is based on a sample of 2,000 adults (aged between 18 and 64 years) in the country and measures the number of activities emerging (rising) and (new) in 2007 or, in other words, the number of individuals who have taken steps to launch a new business or are owners of an asset that has not paid salaries for more than three and half years. TEA in Italy in 2007 was 5.0%, a level that places the country in thirteenth position among the 19 GEM countries in Europe. This percentage is higher than that recorded in 2006 (when it stood at 3.5%) and less stable compared to 2005 (4.9%). Although this is a positive sign, it is necessary wait until the trend is confirmed in the coming years. Moreover, the rate of entrepreneurship started in Italy is equal to 5.6% and this figure is lower than the average European GEM, which is 6.0%. In this case Italy is positioned to twelfth place in the ranking of the 19 GEM countries in Europe. Regional distribution - The South and the Islands are most dynamic With reference to the regional distribution of early-stage entrepreneurial activity in Italy, the South and the Islands are the area's most dynamic and this is probably also linked to the lack of employment alternative. Features early-stage entrepreneur - Man, aged between 25 and 34 years and well educated The early-stage entrepreneurs in Italy is typically a man, aged between 25 and 34 years and well educated. While the first two characteristics (gender and age) are in line with other high income countries, early-stage entrepreneurs in Italy tend to be better educated than in other countries: 36% graduated. 4

5 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for The proportion of women than men, is comparable with other European countries between contractors earlystage (50 women per 100 men), this proportion declines significantly if one considers the established entrepreneurs (only 23 women per 100 men). Here, the Italian proportion is among the lowest in the world. Early-stage entrepreneurs in Italy are mainly driven by new opportunities (rather than need) and this is in line with other high income countries. About half is driven by the desire to increase their income, while the other half looking for more independence. Sectors early-stage entrepreneurship Especially Services More than two thirds of the new activities are in the services sector: in particular, 37.5% of assets in 2007 offered earlystage consumer services (retail shops, restaurants, insurance, design and medical) and a further 31.3% offering services to other businesses (market research, transportation, telemarketing, translation and cleaning). Growth potential and financial resources - expectations of low growth, limited technology, difficulties in raising funds The area in which Italian entrepreneurs are lagging behind our European colleagues is that of the growth potential of their business. Although early-stage entrepreneurs often consider to be innovative and offer new product-market combination, Italian businesses have very low expectations about the growth of their business. Expectations of high growth are smaller than other countries. An explanation is given by low technology of new business and this finds its roots in the specialization in traditional sectors, the small size of holdings and the difficulty in finding financial resources. This latter figure is confirmed in the questionnaires administered by GEM national experts and businessmen (NES), which shows that in Italy it is difficult to find financial resources, and the fact that problems related to difficulties in finding financial resources are the main reason entrepreneurs decide to close its activities in Italy. Another reason may be given by the low expectations of export (Italy is below the European average). Perception of entrepreneurship by individuals good choice - Becoming an entrepreneur is considered a The research also analyzes the perception that individuals have about entrepreneurship. Becoming an entrepreneur in Italy is considered a good career choice, compared with other countries. Moreover, in Italy the index of propensity for innovation (innovation confidence index) shows positive results. That means, customers are willing to purchase new products or services and to try products and services that use new technologies. In Italy people think they have the skills to become entrepreneurs more than in other European countries (Italy is third in the standings). However, this is not confirmed by interviews with experts (NES survey, in fact, Italy is ranked in 18th place) and this indicates that people are overly optimistic about their own abilities. Furthermore, the results see Italy lagging behind other European countries with reference to the status and reputation of entrepreneurs in society 5

6 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for (Italy is tenth), the media attention devoted to entrepreneurship (twelfth) and the personal knowledge of an entrepreneur (ninth place). The countries with the highest TEA generally report better results in these indicators. Moreover, in Italy is high the fear of failure (Italy is in fourth place) and there is little optimism in relation to new opportunities in the next six months (Italy is ninth). This helps explain why early-stage entrepreneurship in Italy is below the European average. Reference website: Ricerca/ 1.2 National Statistical Institute (ISTAT) Report 2009 ISTAT (National Institute of Statistics) is a public research institution. Since 1989 Istat plays a role of guidance, coordination, technical assistance and training within the national statistical system. It performs a series of investigations by subject matter (Population - Family and Society - Education and Labor - Health and welfare - Agriculture - Environment and territory). Last published by ISTAT is the yearbook of 2009 and includes data from In 2006 Italian companies of the industry and market services (excluding monetary and financial sector) are 4,338,766. They employ 16.6 million workers (11.1 million employees) and have a combined value added about 677 billion euros. In 2006 Italian companies of the industry and market services (excluding monetary and financial sector) are 4,338,766. They employ about 16.6 million workers (11.1 million employees) and have a combined value added about 677 billion Euros. The Italian productive structure continues to be characterized by a predominance of small companies with limited presence of large companies. The average size of Italian companies remains, even in 2006, about 3.8 employees and it is higher in industry (5.9 employees) than in services (3.1 employees). In industry there are around 1.1 million businesses that account for 6.6 million workers (with 39.7 percent of total employment), 46.1 percent of employees overall and produce around 309 billion Euros in value added (45.6 per cent of the total). Within the industry, the construction sector recorded a number of businesses amounted to about 595 thousand units, which provide employment to 1.8 million employees and an added value of 63.3 billion Euros, while the manufacturing sector is characterized from 514 thousand units, which account for 4.6 million people and contribute 219 billion Euros to the creation of value added. In market services, companies involved are about 3.2 million, accounting for about 10.0 million workers (60.3 per cent of total employment). They produce around 368 billion euro of value added, equal to 54, 4 percent of that total. In this area appear to be relevant trades (1.2 million firms, 3.4 million people and 116 billion of value added) and that of the real estate business, renting, research and other professional activities and business (1.1 million firms, 2.8 million people and 108 billion of added value). 6

7 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for In micro-enterprises with fewer than 10 employees, or 64.3 percent of employment is made up of independent work. In them are concentrated, 94.9 percent of firms, 47.7 percent of the workforce, 25.4 percent of employees, 28.9 per cent of turnover and 33.8 percent of value added. The larger companies (250 or more employees) are, however, account for 3320 units and 18.6 percent of total employees, 27.7 percent of employees, 28.8 per cent of turnover and 27, 7 percent of total value added (Table 24.11). In 2006 continued the trend of growth in the services sector, which achieves stable now than 50 percent of the total added value and it absorbs for the first time more than 60 percent of total employment in enterprises. Firms with 1-9 employees were approximately 4.1 million (75.8 per cent in services) with a total of 7.9 million people (2.8 million employees) and a value added of about 229, 2 million Euros. They are mainly characterized by sole proprietorship and self-employed. The largest number of enterprises is concentrated in trade (29.4 percent) and real estate, computer and professional (25.2 percent) that contribute to the creation of added value compared to 25.9 per cent and for 27,1 per cent. Less important are the manufacturing industry (10.4 per cent of firms, 13.7 percent of value added) and the construction sector (13.7 per cent of firms, 14.2 percent of value added). Companies with employees, amounting to about 22 thousand units, have helped to absorb about 2.1 million people and create million Euros of added value, with a presence mainly in the industrial sector which accounts for 54, 1 per cent of enterprises, 53.4 per cent of the employees and 59.8 percent of value added. Businesses with 250 or more employees are thousand and gave employment to about 3.1 million people and accounted for million Euros for the creation of added value. The weight of the industrial sector appears to be of 46.5 per cent in terms of business, 37.4 per cent in terms of employees and found to be 50 percent in value added. Graph 1. Employment and value added product for macro-economic activity - Years (%) Employment macro-economic Value for macro-economic Industry Constructions Services 7

8 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for Graph 2. Employees, turnover and value added by class of employees of enterprises Years Workers Turnover Value Reference website: Excelsior Information System The Excelsior Information System is a research carried out by Unioncamere in collaboration with the Ministry of Labor based on an annual survey covering about 100 thousand farms with at least one employee assigned. Decreasing employment in 2009 and critical for SMEs The data for 2009 shows a decline of employment in industry and services accounted for almost 213 thousand units compared to the stock of late 2008, with a corresponding change in relative terms is 1.9%. Going to a larger retail sector, in the manufacturing emerge a negative signals among the companies specializing in certain products leading Made in Italy as the "Italian style" furnishings, household goods and time free, more exposed to developments in the international economy. Among the services sectors, the most marked reduction in employment is expected from firms in the transport (-2.5%) and from those in the tourism industry (-1.9% for hotels, restaurants and tourist services), followed by those operating in wholesale, private education, in credit and insurance, other personal services. 8

9 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for En particularly very small businesses (less than 10 employees), including those which are small-scale, show the most intense job losses (-2.2%), mostly among the units manufacturing (-3.1%). However beyond the specific sectoral trends and dimensions it is possible to highlight the tendency of companies to make every effort to retain employees. The vocational and training needs of businesses The smaller labor demand expected in 2009 suggests some caution in our industrial and service companies in the implementation of the integration of new staff, waiting for stronger signs of recovery in domestic demand and international starting from the autumn. The share of industrial and service companies providing recruitment stands today in fact to 19.8% (against 28.5% in 2008), with a maximum value of 31.4% on the core business (representing 22% of total) who scored an increase in sales in Compared to last year, the share of firms hiring is particularly limited (between 13 and 16 percentage points less of total) in the manufacturing sector and among small and mediumsmall size (between 10 and 249 employees). As for the professional and technical areas of reference for hiring high-skill, we can see how the grouping of professions in the world of school and education (by teachers in secondary schools for nursery school teachers and those supporting), and internal training to companies exceed the 9600 recruitment in 2009, equal to 8, 5% of all high-skill occupations that will be recruited during the The ever greater emphasis on skills (not just "formal", as stated, but non-formal) of the figure is confirmed by an incoming orientation of most companies to recruit staff with previous teaching experience (57.5%, approximately 2 percentage points more than forecast last year). A condition that is bound to definitely need to shorten as much as possible the time of entry into the operating company and to maximize the investment in new human resource. Reference website: Report on continuous learning 2008 The Report on continuous learning is annually presented to Parliament by the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy and it is a reconstruction of the national education system: one dedicated exclusively to workers. Vocational training and the weakness of SMEs The latest available data on continuous training in the Italian firms, shows the persistence of differences in behavior and attitudes toward learning between large companies and micro-small business realities (73% are large enterprises engaged in training, compared to 17% of microenterprises). In micro enterprises (up to ten employees) the rate of entry into training is 9

10 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for reduced to 10%, rising to 22% in companies with up to 50 employees. An indicator deal with the difficulties in access to training by workers employed in small firms than large. The differences persist in the participation of employed adults by type of enterprise, the relevant territories and areas of belonging. The greater the propensity training in the "services", particularly in the North-East, followed by North-West, with a clear distance, the more difficult to reduce in the short term, the reality located in the South. In the area of employees trained differences and inconsistencies remain. Despite the positive signal of an increase of almost three percentage points for employees trained through structured courses (it went from 18.5% in 2005 to 21.2% in 2006), we still shows a disconnect between large companies (41.3% plan involving the Company) and micro business realities (still 8, 8%). The potential demand for continuous learning of Italian firms The potential demand for continuous learning of Italian firms is growing compared to previous years. About a fifth of firms (20%), without having done training in 2007, have responded positively to the action promotional funds Interprofessional looking for supporting to manage and organize training for their employees. Interprofessional Funds as tools to promote lifelong learning, seem to show some capacity to stimulate the demand still influenced by structural factors of the production system, affecting poorly its distribution across regions and sectors. The stimulation of demand, realized through the training policies should focus more in the South and the manufacturing sectors. Reference website: The Italian association of Private Equity and Venture Capital We found that one of the main problems of entrepreneurship in our country is due to the difficulty of finding the necessary funding to business development. The use of the institutions of Private Equity and Venture Capital is still not very well known but it could represent an opportunity. The AIFI ( is the Italian Association of Private Equity and Venture Capital. It is a nonprofit organization that does not perform any operational activity, which then invests in business projects, but it develops, coordinates and represented in the institutional actors in the Italian market investing in venture capital. In terms of organizational and operational structure, in the AIFI there are finance companies, holdings, advisory companies, international banks which have a division dedicated to the activity of private equity, financial regional public companies for the birth and development of business activities. Other member associated with AIFI are associations, organizations, research institutes, professional firms, audit firms and consulting interested in the development of the Italian brand of venture capital

11 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for AIFI provides: Analysis of the Italian market for private equity and venture capital for the different years ( books, research papers, information guides on private equity and venture capital the series of "Papers on the investment in Venture Capital. Reference website:

12 Report on training and support structures for Report on training young and support SMEs structures in Italy for 2. Survival and growth of new firms born The Unioncamere Study Centre (Centro Studi Unioncamere), in the sheet 's year 2008 found 36 thousand firms in the previous year, which represents the worst balance of the last 6 years. In red industry and agriculture, growing business services, construction and tourism, give individual enterprises hold the artisans, increase capital companies and cooperatives. The year-end balance is the result of the difference between the 410,666 registrations (less brilliant performance in the last five years) and 374,262 closures (the second worst result since 2003 after the record of 2007 when, to close their doors, were 390mila companies). In percentage terms, the balance between companies 'born' and 'dead' translates into a growth rate of 0.59% (was 0.75% in 2007), bringing the total of existing businesses at the end of December to 6,104,067 units. The greatest effect was the negative outcome of individual companies (16 thousand units less), but a value that could be twice as successful without the contribution of businesses opened by immigrants (15 thousand in the twelve most recent months). Among the small, take the total trades (+5,500), although it is precisely among the craftsmen who will record greater losses (- 5,000 units) of the manufacturing sector. The corporations covered the gap of the reduction of smaller companies. They increased by 49 thousands units at a rate of 4% on an annual basis. The areas that have contributed most to the increase of the stock companies in 2008 were those of the Center (+1.2%) and North-West (+0.9%). Growth in the South (+0.32%) was half the national average, whereas it was almost stationary north-east (+0.06%). The latest report by ISTAT on the demography of business disseminates indicators relate to Considered the current economic situation, stop to 2007 is also the most reasonable thing to do to make assumptions on demographic trends of Italian companies. In the graph below shows the survival rates for macro-sector of births in 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, during the years In 2007, one year after birth, only 86.4 on 100 firms were still active. This value is the lowest among those recorded in the period

13 Report on training and support structures for Report on training young and support SMEs structures in Italy for Tab 1. Survival rates of births in 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, during the years for macro (Source: ISTAT) macroeconomic activity Date of birth Industry ,8 77,9 69,3 62,0 55, ,6 78,1 69,1 61, ,7 78,7 68, ,4 78, ,8 Constructions ,1 75,0 66,6 59,3 52, ,0 75,6 65,7 58, ,9 74,5 63, ,0 73, ,6 Trade ,0 73,0 63,4 55,9 49, ,3 73,2 63,0 55,4 Other Services ,8 73,6 62, ,1 72, , ,9 75,4 66,6 60,0 54, ,6 76,2 67,2 60, ,4 76,6 66, ,1 75, ,5 Total ,9 74,9 65,9 58,9 53, ,2 75,4 65,9 58, ,9 75,6 64, ,5 74, ,4 5-year survival 4-year survival 3-year survival 2-year survival 1-year survival The trend in the rate of survival is clear in all areas, although it is fairly diversified by sector of economic activity. As in previous years, the highest rates are found in industry excluding 13 13

14 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for construction, to confirm the stability of the sector, where there is greater difficulty entering the market (relatively lower birth rates), but a higher probability of survival. The lower rates are in Commerce, where five years after birth, only 49.7 percent of new born is still active. The main explanation is that too many young people who open and close company with the same speed. Remain on the market today is no longer enough improvisation and for this, the financial measures to be complemented by a solid training on the management culture. Graph 3. Survival rates of births in the industry between 2000 and 2004 (Source: Cerved BI) Youngcompanies Other Soleproprietorships Partnership CapitalCompanies However this gap is reduced with increasing complexity of the company and the financial resources needed to start production reality. In fact according to studies CNA-YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS of Perugia, it is estimated that 50% of new businesses close during the first three years from date of creation and finding a certain fragility in many entrepreneurial young firms, which are in need of mentoring and Accompanying the delicate phase of start-up. The graph below shows the survival rates from birth to 3 years, a period that allows us to see a time series long enough, and we built a graph showing the percentage of "death" of the companies that survived the second year of life were closed before the completion of the third year of age

15 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for Graph 4. Rates of "mortality" of companies that survived the second year of age and not to third (Source: ISTAT) The graph shows that there is an increasing rate of "mortality" of births in 2002, 2003 and 2004 and who ceased their activity between the second and third years of life for all sectors of production. These are times when he had not yet shown the economic crisis that is going on in Burma to this day, so we can consider the growing enterprise deaths as a worrying and not dependent on an economic downturn. The analysis across regions confirms what already observed in previous years. In 2002, survival rates are higher in regions were the Northeast (always above the national average) and North- West, and Central and South and Islands are the areas with lower average survival rates

16 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for Graph 5. Survival rates at one, two, three, four and five years of births in 2002 to geographical areas (Source: ISTAT) 2.1 Evolution of the size of new firms Enterprises born in 2002 and still active in five years after birth, show a significant increase in the average size from the initial value of 1.6 assigned to one of 2.8 employees in In all the major categories the number of employees of businesses surviving increases from the first year of life. Industry is the sector showing the highest growth in all five-year survival (from 2.2 to 4.7 employees average), while trade is recording the lowest average size both at birth (1.3 employees) and after five years (2.2 employees)

17 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for Graph 6: Survival rates and average size of births in 2002 and surviving in 2007 by sector of economic activity (Source: ISTAT) Survivalrates Averagedimension Industry Constructions Trade Services Even at regional level there some differences. While at birth the average size of companies is almost the same between the different territorial divisions, after two years we find the first significant differences. For example, companies born in 2002 and in 2004 the average size was 2.6 employees in the Northwest, versus 2.1 in the Northeast, a difference that persists until Growth and survival appear to be linked by a strong positive relationship (the correlation coefficient is around 0.9), which indicates how smaller companies have on average a lower probability of survival in the market where they operate

18 Report on training and support structures for Report on training young and support SMEs structures in Italy for 3. Training and consultancy services for SMEs The associations are, in relation to training and advice, a point of reference for businesses. They are in fact organized structures and are capable of responding to different needs of the parties productive, fulfilling many service activities. Perform services for training, orientation training, information for all companies and workers of various industries, promote and manage at local level, initiatives for training and skills in collaboration with the Region and other competent bodies. Reference websites of professional associations: Confartigianato ( union organization that brings together more than 500 thousand craft businesses. Confcommercio ( one of the largest associations of business owners in the area of trade, tourism, services, professions and businesses, with more than 800 thousand members. Cna. ( the National Confederation of Crafts and Small and Medium Enterprises, with its 600 thousand members, representing the Italian companies, particularly small craft, to SMEs and all forms of self-employment. Confapi ( Italian Confederation of Small and Medium Enterprises, which employs about 50 thousand member companies, with approximately one million people, playing the role of a representation and the proposal for small and medium industries. Confesercenti ( one of the major business associations in Italy, which represents more than 260 thousand enterprises in trade, tourism, services and crafts. Confindustria, ( the largest association of industrial enterprises in Italy. Assofranchising franchise. ( ), Association of the Italian representative of the ABI ( Italian Banking Association, which represents, protects and promotes the interests of the banking and financial system. Confetra ( Italian General Association of Transport and Logistics, which represents the entrepreneurial class operating in the transport, shipping, logistics and warehousing services. Casartigiani ( Autonomous Unions Confederation Craftsmen. Legacoop ( National League of Cooperatives and mutuals. It is the oldest Italian cooperative organization, with over 7 million members working in different sectors. Confcooperative ( Confederation Italian Cooperation. It is the main organizations representing care and protection of the cooperative movement and social enterprises

19 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for Coldiretti ( the largest association of family farmer. 3.1 Law 236/93 today The level of resources allocated by the Ministry of Labor through the measures 236/93 has not suffered significant declines in recent years, despite the support system for continuing education has seen since 2004 the entry into the scene of the Joint Interprofessional Funds. The funding mechanism of the funds has, if anything, allowed a major increase in resources available in different territories. This has represented, depending on how you watch, an important aspect of novelty and full of potential, and the opportunity to face out the structural problems that often result in a difficulty to absorb resources. Considering the period , the amount of resources put out to tender by the regions is around 386 million, compared to an availability of 464 million by the Ministry of Labor in the same period. The amount of resources not yet "used" (about 78 million) is not excessive in view of the fact that the last measure 236/93 dates back to 2007 and not all regions have done a notice relating to there. Add to this the amount of resources made available by the regions in the territories has grown just in the last two years, reaching 108 million respectively for 2007 and 132 for This concentration is due to both the objective consistency of the last two measures of the Ministry of Labor (which add up to around 350 million euros) and the different dynamics of the commitment made at the regional level. In the distribution by size class is particularly high percentage of small businesses involved in learning activities is very low while the proportion of medium and large businesses which use the funds to achieve L.236/93 training activities. Tab 2. Distribution of firms by size class Size Class absolute % numerical , , , , ,0 500 and over 754 5,4 Data not available 149 1,1 Total In the period 2004/2008 the distribution by size class is particularly the percentage of small businesses involved in learning activities is very low while the proportion of medium and large enterprises using funds from the L. 236/93 to implement educational activities

20 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for Graph 7. Local units have achieved provincial training through courses in the years , by size business plan (%) Unioncamere Ministry of Labor - Sistema Informativo Excelsior 3.2. The "Funds for the National Joint Interprofessional continuous learning" Funds for the National Joint Interprofessional continuing education are bodies of association promoted by organizations representing the social partners through specific interconfederal agreements concluded by trade unions of employers and workers most representative at the national level. The Joint Interprofessional Funds are designed as service facilities to facilitate the use of economic resources and multiply the impact on businesses and workers, as the second pillar of the system. For.Te. is focused on widespread dissemination of a culture of lifelong learning, overcoming differences in size, sector and regional and combining the character of mutual action with the real expectations of firms and workers, and having in mind the role of bilateralism. Joint Interprofessional Funds may be established for each of the sectors of industry, agriculture, service and Crafts; interconfederal Agreements may provide for the establishment of funds for different sectors and, within them, the establishment of a special section for the training of managers. In 2003, with the establishment of the first ten Joint Interprofessional Funds, it is realized as provided by law 388 of 2000 which allows companies to allocate the share of 0.30% of 20 20

21 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for contributions paid to INPS (the "contribution required for involuntary unemployment ") to the training of their employees. Employers will be able to apply to transfer to INPS contribution to a Joint Interprofessional Fund, which will finance training activities for employees of member companies. Funds Joint Interprofessional finance company training plans, sectoral and territorial, which companies decide on an individual basis or in combination to achieve for their employees. In addition to finance, in whole or in part, the corporate training plans, sectoral and territorial, with the changes introduced by article 48 of Law 289/02, the Interprofessional Funds will also support individual training plans, as well as additional activities preparatory to or otherwise connected to training initiatives. Since 2000, much has changed in the field of learning, both from a regulatory / institutional, both from the aspect of financial resources. We can speak of a new era, whose recent speeches are quite recent, motivated by the need to overcome the historical limitations of our system of continuous training: the low turnout to insufficient demand for training to SMEs in particular the gap between Center-North and South. Currently, funds, initially 10 and now 14, are the managers of about half the resources to support interventions for lifelong learning, thanks to the gradual accession of business. The organizational model - based on membership, primarily national and sectoral levels, characterized by strong, independent allowed to intervene with potentially complementary and alternative arrangements to those of regional governments. With the Constitutional Law 3/2001, completing the reform and decentralization of institutions, the regions have reinforced their autonomy in matters of vocational training, for which they have exclusive jurisdiction. 3.3 Growth Funds Joint Interprofessional and promotion of training plans The increase in membership, both in number of employees of firms, funds the Joint Interprofessional which is highlighted between 2006 and 2007 data recently reclassified by the INPS, tells us that 6 million workers each year expect to be able to participate in training plans agreed between the parties. Collective bargaining is completed, session after session, "recognition" of Joint Interprofessional made so far as is re-emphasizing the choices with respect to contractual bilateral but still does not integrate, in general, with the novelty of the Funds. The Italian funds are funds confederal and the role of collective agreements, is played primarily in the development stage of the plans, particularly its sector and local show there are limits that many now see and think they need some funds to overcome with strategies articulated those made so far in the game. There are also limitations of objective and subjective experiences in the business plans for the limited experience of planning the development of human resources of our smaller companies and about the lack of specific training expertise present in the trade unions at enterprise level since the HR are selected and elected on the basis of criteria that generally do not include the ability to be "facilitators" or "delegates of the training

22 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for Fund name Internet site organisation Fondimpresa CONFINDUSTRIA (Confederazione Generale dell'industria Italiana), CGIL (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro), CISL (Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori), UIL (Unione Italiana del Lavoro). Fondo Dirigenti PMI Fondo Formazione PMI it CONFAPI (Confederazione Italiana della Piccola e Media Industria), FEDERMANAGER (Federazione Nazionale Dirigenti Aziende Industriali). CONFAPI (Confederazione Italiana della Piccola e Media Industria), CGIL (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro), CISL (Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori), UIL (Unione Italiana del Lavoro). FONDIR CONFCOMMERCIO (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Commercio, del Turismo, dei Servizi e delle PMI), ABI (Associazione Bancaria Italiana), ANIA (Associazione Nazionale fra le Imprese Assicuratrici), CONFETRA (Confederazione Generale Italiana dei Trasporti e della Logistica), FENDAC (Federazione Nazionale dirigenti e quadri del commercio, trasporti, turismo, servizi e terziario avanzato), FEDERDIRIGENTICREDITO (Federazione Nazionale personale area direttivo del credito), SINFUB (Federazione Nazionale Sindacati Autonomi Personale del Credito, Finanza e Assicurazioni) e FIDIA (Federazione Italiana Dirigenti Imprese Assicuratrici). FOR.TE CONFCOMMERCIO (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Commercio, del Turismo, dei Servizi e delle PMI), CONFETRA (Confederazione Generale Italiana dei Trasporti e della Logistica), CGIL (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro), CISL (Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori), UIL (Unione Italiana del Lavoro). Fondirigenti CONFINDUSTRIA (Confederazione Generale dell Industria Italiana), FEDERMANAGER (Federazione Nazionale Dirigenti Aziende Industriali). FON.TER. CONFESERCENTI (Confederazione Italiana Esercenti Commercio, Turismo e Servizi), CGIL (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro), CISL (Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori), UIL (Unione Italiana del Lavoro). Fondoprofession i CONSILP-CONFPROFESSIONI (Confederazione Sindacale Italiana delle Libere Professioni), CONFEDERTECNICA (Confederazione Sindacati Nazionali Libere Professioni Tecniche), CIPA 22 22

23 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for (Confederazione Italiana Professionisti e Artisti), CGIL (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro), CISL (Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori), UIL (Unione Italiana del Lavoro). FOND.E.R. AGIDAE (Associazione Gestori Istituti Dipendenti dall'autorità Ecclesiastica), CGIL (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro, CISL (Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori), UIL (Unione Italiana del Lavoro). FonAr.Com. è stato costituito a seguito dell accordo nazionale firmato da: C.I.F.A. (Confederazione Italiana Federazioni Autonome), CONF.S.A.L. (Confederazione Sindacati Autonomi Lavoratori) For.Agri. CONFAGRICOLTURA (Confederazione Generale dell'agricoltura Italiana), Coldiretti (Confederazione Nazionale Coldiretti), CIA (Confederazione Italiana Agricoltori), CGIL (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro), CISL (Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori), UIL (Unione Italiana del Lavoro) e CONFEDERDIA (Confederazione Italiana Dirigenti, Quadri e Impiegati dell Agricoltura). FONDAZIENDA CONFTERZIARIO (Confederazione nazionale del terziario e della piccola impresa), CIU (Confederazione Italiana Unionquadri), CONFLAVORATORI (Confederazione Italiana Lavoratori) Fondo Banche Assicurazioni razioni.it ABI (Associazione Bancaria Italiana), ANIA (Associazione Nazionale fra le Imprese Assicuratrici), CGIL (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro, CISL (Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori), UIL (Unione Italiana del Lavoro). Formazienda CONF.S.A.L. (Confederazione Sindacati Autonomi Lavoratori) e SISTEMA COMMERCIO E IMPRESA (Confederazione Nazionale Autonoma Italiana del Commercio, del Turismo, dei Servizi, delle Professioni e delle Piccole e Medie Imprese). Fonditalia FEDERTERZIARIO-CLAAI (Federazione Italiana del Terziario, dei Servizi, del Lavoro Autonomo e della Piccola Impresa Industriale, Commerciale ed Artigiana), UGL (Unione Generale del Lavoro). Fondo formazione servizi pubblici Fon.Coop op/ CONFSERVIZI (Confederazione Nazionale dei Servizi), CGIL (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro, CISL (Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori), UIL (Unione Italiana del Lavoro). AGCI (Associazione Generale Cooperative Italiane), CCI (Confederazione Cooperative Italiane), CGIL (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro), CISL (Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori), UIL (Unione Italiana del Lavoro)

24 Report on training and support structures for Report on training and support structures for Fondo Artigianato Formazione nato.it/ CONFARTIGIANATO (Confederazione Generale dell'artigianato e delle Imprese), CNA (Confederazione Nazionale Artigianato e della Piccola e Media Impresa), CASARTIGIANI (Confederazione Autonoma Sindacati Artigiani), CLAAI (Confederazione delle Libere Associazioni Artigiane Italiane), CGIL (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro), CISL (Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori), UIL (Unione Italiana del Lavoro)

25 Report on training and support structures for Report on training young and support SMEs structures in Italy for 4. public and private funding sources At the level of public intervention in 2008 ended a series of policies to encourage enterprises based primarily on responses such as "generalized" or driven generic accumulation of private capital without or with little specialization and selectivity. From 2000 to 2007 through the numerous business support activated by both central and regional administrations have been granted in favor of the national fabric business more than 70 billion euros in benefits (about 53 billion by the central government), of which about 55 billion allocated to small and medium size. The actual transfer (disbursements) of such reductions to companies amounted, in the same period, about 50 billion euros (38 billion for SMEs). Regarding the resources specifically aimed at SMEs, around 10 billion euros have been devoted to professional development and technological innovation, while the remaining 45 billion have aimed to support productive investments and assistance for the financial consolidation and access to credit Sites of reference for any funding from public bodies: Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico ( (Institute for Industrial Promotion) in the sections devoted to "productive activities": Regions ( Province ( Comuni (

26 Report on training and support structures for Graph 8. Facilitation approved according to businesses size ( ) Source IPI SMEs OTHERS Graph 9: Facilitation approved for SME s according to the purpose of industrial policy source IPI - Investmentsupport/financialstrengthening andcreditaccess Research,developmentandtechnologicalinnovation Possibilities of private funding 26 26

27 Report on training and support and structures support for young structures SMEs in Italyfor In recent decades our country has been developing the financial activity through which private equity investors collect the shares in a company is acquiring the shares, either by making new capital. This is done by so-called institutional investors, who have a deep experience based on a multitude of different business realities and have an enviable experience. The activities of private equity firm, has distinguished between venture capital and buy out. In the first category are two specific types of investments: the early stage financing, basically the set of financing (seed financing and start-up financing) to support business in the early stages of life; the expansion financing, the series of interventions in existing businesses that need capital to consolidate and speed up the growth. The replacement capital (capital replacement) is about the chance to measures which, without going to increase the share capital of the company, have the goal of replacing the company's shareholder base is no longer involved in the activity. All operations oriented to the total change in ownership, both for managers within the same company (management buy out) that external managers (management buy-in), with the frequent use of leverage as a means of acquisition (leveraged buy out), are generally grouped into the category of "buy out". Turnaround is about investments for restructuring companies in crisis and bridge financing with respect to efforts from the time of their implementation, in accompanying the company in the stock market. Investment activity in venture capital contributes thus significantly to the development of the industrial system and the economy as a whole, selecting companies to rapid growth and providing them the necessary capital to develop. The economy is feeling the effects of the current international financial crisis that manifested itself on the Italian market private equity and venture capital has reached record figures in

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