INVENTORY OF CARBON & ENERGY (ICE)

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1 INVENTORY OF CARBON & ENERGY (ICE) Version 1.6a Prof. Geoff Hammond & Craig Jones Sustainable Energy Research Team (SERT) Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Bath, UK This project was joint funded under the Carbon Vision Buildings program by: Available from: eng/sert/embodied/ Peer Review Source: Hammond, G.P. and C.I. Jones, 2008, 'Embodied energy and carbon in construction materials', Proc. Instn Civil. Engrs: Energy, in press. University of Bath 2008

2 DISCLAIMER Whilst efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in the Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE), the content is subject to change and the University of Bath cannot guarantee its accuracy or currency. The University reserves the right to make changes to the information in ICE without notice. The information is consequently provided "as is" without any representation or warranty as to accuracy, currency, quality or fitness for purpose of any kind. You should independently verify any information contained in ICE before relying on it. The University of Bath does not make any representation nor give any warranty as to the ownership of the copyright of any material forming part of ICE and does not accept any liability for any direct, indirect, incidental or consequential losses arising from the infringement of any third party rights in relation to any material in ICE. University of Bath 2008

3 Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE) Welcome to the Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE) Version 1.6a. ICE is the University of Bath's embodied energy & embodied carbon database, and is the freely available summary of the larger ICE Database. The aim of this work was to create an inventory of embodied energy and carbon coefficients for building materials. The data has been collected from secondary resources in the public domain, including journal articles, Life Cycle Assessments (LCA s), books, conference papers...etc. There has been no use of subscription based resources due to potential copyright issues. To aid in the selection of 'best' coefficients it was required to create a database (called the ICE Database). This database stores relevant information from the literature (i.e. Country of data, year, boundaries, report specifics (Data source), notes...etc). At the time of writing the ICE Database contained over 1,700 records on embodied energy. The work presented here is a summary of the information contained within the larger ICE Database. This report has been structured into 34 main material groups (i.e. Aggregates, Aluminium...etc), a material profile was created for each main material. For an introduction to these profiles please see the ' Profiles Guide'. EMBODIED ENERGY (CARBON) The embodied energy (carbon) of a building material can be taken as the total primary energy consumed (carbon released) over its life cycle. This would normally include (at least) extraction, manufacturing and transportation. Ideally the boundaries would be set from the extraction of raw materials (inc fuels) until the end of the products lifetime (including energy from manufacturing, transport, energy to manufacture capital equipment, heating & lighting of factory, maintenance, disposal...etc), known as Cradle to Grave. It has become common practice to specify the embodied energy as Cradle to Gate, which includes all energy (in primary form) until the product leaves the factory gate. The final boundary condition is Cradle to Site, which includes all of the energy consumed until the product has reached the point of use (i.e. building site). Data on embodied energy & carbon data was not always determined to have complete boundary conditions (e.g. the energy not traced back to the earth, electricity not traced upstream etc). However, incomplete data often contained enough substance to have a useful role when estimating embodied energy coefficients. Cradle to Gate was the most University of Bath

4 commonly specified boundary condition and was selected as the ideal scope of this study. This has been revised from the previous ideal of cradle to site. It is now encouraged for the user to consider the impacts of transportation for their specific case. It should be noted that the boundary conditions for each material are specified within the material profiles. Data intricacies and inconsistencies made it very difficult to maintain the same boundary conditions for the entire inventory. In a few cases Cradle to Grave has been specified due to the original data resources. In many cases, and certainly for materials with high embodied energy and high density, the difference between Cradle to Gate and Cradle to Site could be considered negligible. Although this will certainly not be true for materials with a very low embodied energy per kilogram, such as aggregates, sand etc. ICE contains both embodied energy and carbon data, but the embodied energy coefficients carry a higher accuracy. One of the reasons for this was that the majority of the collected data was for embodied energy, and not embodied carbon. It was therefore necessary to estimate the embodied carbon for many materials. Ideally the embodied carbon would be derived from an accurate Life Cycle Assessment; however this was not normally the case. Many of the embodied carbon coefficients within ICE were estimated by the authors of this report. In these cases the embodied carbon was estimated from the typical fuel mix in the relevant UK industries. This method is not perfect, but it must be remembered that neither are the results from Life Cycle Assessments (the preferred source). It remains vastly superior to applying a common conversion factor from embodied energy to embodied carbon across the whole dataset. From analysing the ICE Database it was estimated that approximately 40% of the collected data either specified the embodied carbon, a global warming potential (or similar method of greenhouse gas measurement) or a fuel mix (from which the carbon emissions could be estimated). Of this 40% around half were the less useful (to estimating embodied carbon (dioxide)) GWP or fuel mix, therefore only 20% of authors were specifying a useful embodied carbon. Consequently the author had less data to verify embodied carbon coefficients. Another reason for greater uncertainty in embodied carbon was a result of different fuel mixes and technologies (i.e. electricity generation). For example, two factories could manufacture the same product, resulting in the same embodied energy per kilogram of product produced, but the total carbon emitted by both could vary widely dependent upon the mix of fuels consumed by the factory. The nature of this work and the problems outlined above made selection of a single value difficult and in fact a range of data would have been far simpler to select, but less useful to apply in calculations. There are several openly available inventories similar in nature to this one, and more subscription basis ones. Comparison of the selected values in these inventories would show many similarities but also many differences. It is rare that one single University of Bath

5 value could be universally agreed upon by researchers within this field of work. Uncertainty is unfortunately a part of embodied energy and carbon analysis and even the most reliable data carries a natural level of uncertainty. That said results from ICE have proved to be robust when compared to those of other databases. Caution must be exerted when analysing materials that have feedstock energy. Feedstock energy is the energy that is used as a material rather than a fuel, e.g. oil and gas can be used as a material to manufacture products such as plastics and rubber instead of direct combustion. When collecting data it was not always apparent if feedstock energy was included or excluded from the data. For this reason the values in the ICE Database are stored as reported in the literature, hence the records in the database needed to be manually examined. The database statistics may prove misleading in some instances (some records include feedstock energy, some exclude it and others were unknown). The feedstock energy in this inventory was identified and is included in the total embodied energy coefficients in this report. The next page explains the criteria for selection, which was used when estimating embodied energy & embodied carbon. For the authors contact details or to download further copies of this report please visit: eng/sert/embodied/ University of Bath

6 Selection Criteria The criteria used to estimate the embodied energy & carbon are displayed below. Due to the difficulties experienced when selecting these values the criteria needed to be flexible but maintain an ideal set of conditions. One of the main difficulties was inconsistent & poor specification of data in the literature, i.e. different and incomplete boundary conditions and authors not reporting enough detail on the scope of their study. Five criteria were applied for the selection of embodied energy and carbon values for the individual materials incorporated into the ICE database. This ensured consistency of data within the inventory. The criteria were: 1 Compliance with Approved Methodologies/Standards: Preference was given to data sources that complied with accepted methodologies. In the case of modern data an ideal study would be ISO 14040/44 compliant (the International standard on environmental life cycle assessment). However, even studies that comply with the ISO standards can have wide ranging and significant differences in methodology, as such further selection criteria were necessary, thus ensuring data consistency. A recycled content, or cut off approach, was preferred for the handling of (metals) recycling. 2 System : The system boundaries were adopted as appropriate for cradle togate embodiment. Feedstock energy was included only if it represented a permanent loss of valuable resources, such as fossil fuel use. For example, fossil fuels utilised as feedstocks, such as the petro chemicals used in the production of plastics, were included (although identified separately). However, the calorific value of timber has been excluded. This approach is consistent with a number of published studies and methodologies. The effects of carbon sequestration (for example carbon that was sequestered during the growing of organic materials, i.e. timber) were considered but not integrated into the data. For justification of this decision please see the timber material profile. Non fuel related carbon emissions have been accounted for (Process related emissions). 3 Origin (Country) of Data: Ideally the data incorporated into the ICE inventory would have been restricted to that emanating from the British Isles. But in the case of most materials this was not feasible, and the best available embodied energy data from foreign sources had to be adopted (using, for example, European and world wide averages). A much stronger preference was given to embodied carbon data from UK sources, due to national differences in fuel mixes and electricity generation. University of Bath

7 4 Age of the Data Sources: Preference was given to modern sources of data, this was especially the case with embodied carbon; historical changes in fuel mix and carbon coefficients associated with electricity generation give rise to greater uncertainty in the embodied carbon values. 5 Embodied Carbon: Ideally data would be obtained from a study that has considered the life cycle carbon emissions, for example via a detailed LCA, but there is often an absence of such data. In many cases substitute values therefore had to be estimated using the typical fuel split for the particular UK industrial sector. British emission factors were applied to estimate the fuel related carbon. Additional carbon (non energy related, i.e. process related carbon) carbon was included. In addition to these selection criteria the data primarily focused on construction materials. The embodied energy and carbon coefficients selected for the ICE database were representative of typical materials employed in the British market. In the case of metals, the values for virgin and recycled materials were first estimated, and then a recycling rate (and recycled content) was assumed for the metals typically used in the marketplace. This enabled an approximate value for embodied energy in industrial components to be determined. In order to ensure that this data was representative of typical products (taking timber as an example), the UK consumption of various types of timber was applied to estimate a single representative value that can be used in the absence of more detailed knowledge of the specific type of timber (i.e., plywood, chipboard, softwood,...etc.). Finally it was aimed to select data that represented readily usable construction products, i.e., semifabricated components (sections, sheets, rods etc. which are usable without further processing), rather than (immediately) unusable products such as steel billet or aluminium ingot. University of Bath

8 Notes Transport In the previous versions of ICE the boundary conditions were ideally selected as cradle to site. This was based on the assumption that in many cases transport from factory gate to construction site would be negligible. Whilst this may be true for many materials, and normally true for high embodied energy and carbon materials, this is not exclusively the case. In the case of very low embodied energy and carbon materials, such as sand and aggregates, transport is likely to be significant. For these reasons the ideal boundaries have been modified to cradle to gate (from the previous cradle to site). This decision will also encourage the data users to estimate transport specific to their case in hand. This should act as a further check to ensure transporting the selected material many thousands of miles around the world does not create more energy and carbon than a local alternative. To estimate the embodied energy and carbon of transport it is recommended that users start with the following resources (in no particular order): DEFRA, Guidelines to Defra's GHG conversion factors for company reporting factors.pdf European Commission's information hub on life cycle thinking based data, tools and services. Data in LCA software and databases such as SimaPro, GaBi or Ecoinvent. Recycling Methodology (Particularly Metals) When applying the ICE data it is important to ensure that the ICE recycling methodology is consistent with the scope and boundaries of your study, especially for metals. It is particularly important that recycling methodologies are not mixed. This could occur with the use of data from different resources. If this is the case then care must be exerted to ensure that all of the data is applied in a consistent manner. Some of the ICE data (especially if classified as a Typical or General metal) has a pre selected recycled content and this conforms to the default ICE recycling methodology. The default ICE recycling methodology is known as the recycled content approach. However, the metal industries endorse a methodology that is often known as the substitution method. Each method is fundamentally different. The recycled content approach is a method that credits recycling, whereas the substitution method credits University of Bath

9 recyclability. This may be considered in the context of a building. Using the recycled content approach the incoming metals to the building could be split between recycled and primary materials. If this gives 40% recycled metals then the recycled content is set at 40%. This is a start of life method (i.e. start of life of the building) for crediting recycling. Using this method the materials entering a building takes the recycling credit (thus upstream of the building/application). The substitution method has the opposite school of thought. In this method it is the act of recyclability that is credited and therefore it is an end of life methodology. Using this methodology the recycled content of the materials entering the building is not considered in the analysis. Instead the ability for the materials to be recycled at the end of the products lifetime is considered. For example, in the case of metals this could feasibly be taken as, say, 85% recyclability. This implies that at the end of the buildings lifetime it is expected that 85% of the metals in the building will be recycled into new products. Therefore the building will be credited to the extent that 85% of the materials (metals) will be treated as recycled (and therefore it is a substitution of primary and recycled materials, hence the name). Such a methodology may be approximated by applying a recycled content of 85%. It is clear that the application of each methodology will yield very different results; this is particularly true for aluminium. Recycled aluminium can have a saving of 85 90% in its embodied impacts over primary aluminium. It is therefore important that an appropriate methodology for the study in hand must be selected. The methodology must be consistent with the goal and scope of the study. The authors of this work remain convinced that for construction, where lifetimes are large ( years in the residential sector), the recycled content approach is the most suitable method. The present authors consider that it reflects a truer picture of our current impacts and that the substitution method may run the risk of under accounting for the full impacts of primary metal production. They believe that the advantages of the recycled content methodology fit in more appropriately with the (normal) primary motivation for undertaking an embodied energy and carbon assessment. This is normally to estimate the current impacts of its production. However if the purpose of the study is different then it may be desirable to apply a different recycling methodology. Essentially, each method suffers from its own pitfalls and neither may be applicable under all circumstances. The ICE data is structured to identify the difference between recycled and primary metals. The user is therefore free to apply any recycling methodology. University of Bath

10 Things to Consider Functional units: It is inappropriate to compare materials solely on a kilogram basis. Products must be compared on a functional unit basis, a comparative study should consider the quantity of materials required to provide a set function. It is only then that two materials can be compared for a set purpose. For example, what if the quantity of aluminium that is required to provide a square meter of façade versus the quantity of timber? Lifetime: Ideally the functional unit should consider the lifetime of the product. For example, what if product A lasts 40 years and product B only lasts 20 years? This may change the conclusion of the study. Waste: The manufacture of 1 kg of product requires more than this quantity of material. The quantity of waste must be considered. Additionally what happens to the wasted materials? Is it re used, recycled, or disposed? Maintenance: What are the maintenance requirements and how does this impact on the energy and material consumption? Does the product require periodical attention, e.g. re painting? Further processing energy: Highly fabricated and intricate items require manufacturing operations that are beyond the boundaries of this report. In the case of a whole building such a contribution could be assumed to be minimal, however the study of an individual product may require this energy to be investigated. The following pages contain the main ICE data University of Bath

11 The Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE) Main Data Tables University of Bath

12 s Aggregate General Aluminium General Virgin Recycled Cast Products Virgin Recycled Extruded Virgin Recycled Rolled Virgin Recycled Asphalt General EE = Embodied Energy, EC = Embodied Carbon 13.8 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included). Assumes UK ratio of 25.6% extrusions, 55.7% Rolled & 18.7% castings. Worldwide recycled content of 33% MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included). Worldwide recycled content of 33% MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included). Worldwide recycled content of 33% MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included). Worldwide recycled content of 33% MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) Road & Pavement MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included), reference 123 EXAMPLE: Road 2,672 MJ/Sqm 134 KgCO2/Sqm 906 MJ/Sqm Feedstock Energy (Included) Bitumen General (?) MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included). Feedstock taken as typical energy content of Bitumen, uncertain carbon dioxide emissions Brass General Virgin Recycled Bricks General (Common Brick) EXAMPLE: Single Brick Facing Bricks EXAMPLE: Single Facing Brick Limestone Bronze poor data availability, largely dependent upon ore grade. Very poor carbon data, uncertain of estimates, which were taken from average quoted emissions per MJ energy Assuming 2.8 kg per brick Very small sample size Assuming 2.8 kg per brick General (?) Reference 155 Carpet General Carpet For per square meter see material profile Felt (Hair and Jute) Underlay Reference 77 Nylon 67.9 to to 7.31 Very difficult to select value, few sources, large range, value includes feedstock's Polyethylterepthalate (PET) includes feedstock's Polypropylene includes feedstock's, for per square meter see material profile Polyurethane includes feedstock's Rubber Saturated Felt Underlay (impregnated with Asphalt or tar) 67.5 to to Reference 77 Wool For per square meter see material profile, References 57,166 & 234 Cement General (Typical) INVENTORY OF CARBON & ENERGY (ICE) SUMMARY Fibre Cement Mortar (1:3 cement:sand mix) Mortar (1:4) Mortar (1:6) Mortar (1:½:4½ Cement:Lime:Sand mix) Mortar (1:1:6 Cement:Lime:Sand mix) Embodied Energy & Carbon Data EE - MJ/kg EC - kgco2/kg MJ per brick MJ per brick ICE V1.6a (?) 4.39 (?) 1.1 (?) kgco2 per brick kgco2 per brick? Portland Cement, CEM I Values estimated from the ICE Cement, Mortar & Concrete Model Mortar (1:2:9 Cement:Lime:Sand mix) Soil-Cement % Cementitious Replacement 0% 25% 50% 0% 25% 50% Note 0% is a 'standard' CEM I cement General (with Fly Ash Replacement) Portland Cement General (with Blast Furnace Slag Replacement) Portland Cement University of Bath

13 s INVENTORY OF CARBON & ENERGY (ICE) SUMMARY Embodied Energy & Carbon Data EE - MJ/kg EC - kgco2/kg EE = Embodied Energy, EC = Embodied Carbon Ceramics General Very Large data range, difficult to select best value. Fittings Reference 1 Refractory products Sanitary Products Tile Very large data range Clay General (Simple Baked Products) Tile Vitrified clay pipe DN 100 & DN 150 Vitrified clay pipe DN 200 & DN 300 Vitrified clay pipe DN 500 Concrete General General simple baked clay products (inc. terracotta) Use of a specific concrete specification is preferred to gain greater accuracy. 1:1:2 Cement:Sand:Aggregate (High strength) 1:1.5: (used in floor slab, columns & load bearing structure) 1:2: (Typical in construction of buildings under 3 storeys) 1:2.5:5 1:3: (non-structural mass concrete) 1:4: REINFORCED CONCRETE For reinforcement add to selected coefficient for each 25kg rebar Add for each 25 kg Steel per m3 concrete EXAMPLE: Reinforced RC30 (below) Block - 8 MPa Compressive Strength Block - 10 MPa Block -12 MPa Block -13 MPa Autoclaved Aerated Blocks (AAC's) NOMINAL PROPORTIONS METHOD (Volume), Proportions from BS 8500:2006 (ICE Cement, Mortar & Concrete Model Calculations) CONCRETE BLOCKS (ICE CMC Model Values) Estimated from concrete block mix proportions. Not ICE CMC model results MISCELLANEOUS VALUES Prefabricated Concrete Literature resources suggest this value, unknown why so high! Fibre-Reinforced Concrete Road & Pavement EXAMPLE Road Wood-Wool Reinforced ,085 MJ/Sqm KgCO2/Sqm - Reference 12 % Cement Replacement - Fly Ash 0% 25% 50% 0% 25% 50% Note 0% is a standard concrete GEN Compressive Strength C6/8 MPa GEN C8/10; Mass Concrete, mass fill, mass foundations GEN C12/15 GEN C16/20 RC C20/25 RC C25/30 RC C30/37; (Strong) foundations RC C35/45; Ground floors RC C40/50; Structural purposes, in situ floors, walls, superstructure RC C50 PAV C25/30 PAV C28/35 % Cement Replacement - Blast Furnace Slag 0% 25% 50% 0% 25% 50% Note 0% is a standard concrete GEN Compressive Strength C6/8 MPa GEN C8/10; Mass Concrete, mass fill, mass foundations GEN C12/15 GEN C16/20 RC C20/25 RC C25/30 RC C30/37; (Strong) foundations RC C35/45; Ground floors RC C40/50; Structural purposes, in situ floors, walls, superstructure RC C50 PAV C25/30 PAV C28/35 COMMENTS ICE V1.6a ( * 4) ( * 4) 0.28 to The first column represents standard concrete, created with 100% Portland cement. The other columns are estimates based on a direct substitution of fly ash or blast furnace slag in place of the cement content. The ICE Cement, Mortar & Concrete Model was applied. It was assumed that there will be no changes in the quantities of water, aggregates or plasticiser/additives due to the use of cementitious replacement materials. University of Bath

14 s Copper General Virgin INVENTORY OF CARBON & ENERGY (ICE) SUMMARY Recycled from high grade scrap Recycled from low grade scrap Glass General Fibreglass (Glasswool) Toughened Insulation Embodied Energy & Carbon Data EE - MJ/kg EC - kgco2/kg 40 to to 3.83 (?) 70 (?) 3.83 (?) 17.5 (?) 0.96 (?) 50 (?) 2.75 (?) ICE V1.6a EE = Embodied Energy, EC = Embodied Carbon Conflicting data, possibly due to large variations in ore grade. Assumes recycled materials of 46%. See material profiles for further details Large data range, very difficult to select possibly due to large variations in ore grade and therefore embodied energy and carbon. Poor data availability on recycled glass. Virgin Glass releases Kg CO2 during production processes (Additional to energy emissions) this has been factored in (Fact taken from British Glass). Recycling rate from British glass report towards sustainable development 2004, difficult to select embodied carbon Only three data sources General Insulation Estimated from typical market shares, Feedstock Energy 16.5 MJ/kg (Included) Cellular Glass Reference 48 Cellulose Cork 0.94 to Reference 49 Fibreglass (Glasswool) Poor data difficult to select appropriate value Flax (Insulation) Reference 2, 5.97 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) Mineral wool Rockwool (stonewool) Paper wool Reference 2 Polystyrene See Plastics See Plastics see plastics Polyurethane See Plastics See Plastics see plastics Woodwool (loose) Reference 168 Woodwool (Board) Reference 49 Wool (Recycled) References 57,166 & 234 Iron General (?) Uncertain Lead General Virgin Recycled Virgin If produced with zinc to to 1.25 Allocated (divided) on a mass basis, assumes recycling rate of 61.5% Allocated by system expansion (i.e. energy contributable to zinc by other processes) Lime General Embodied carbon was difficult to estimate Linoleum General Data difficult to select, large data range. Miscellaneous Asbestos Reference 4 Calcium Silicate Sheet Reference 49 Chromium Reference 21 Cotton, Padding Reference 34 Cotton, Fabric Reference 34 Damp Proof Course/Membrane Felt General Flax Reference 2 Fly Ash Grit Reference 92 Carpet Grout Reference 139 Glass Reinforced Plastic - GRP - Fibreglass Reference 1 Lithium Reference 92 Mandolite Reference 1 Mineral Fibre Tile (Roofing) Reference 1 Manganese Reference 21 Mercury Reference 21 Molybedenum Reference 21 Nickel Reference 92 Perlite - Expanded Reference 92 Perlite - Natural Reference 92 Quartz powder Reference 92 Shingle Reference 62 Silicon Reference 138 Slag (GGBS) Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) Silver Reference 124 Straw References 57,166 & 234 Terrazzo Tiles Reference 1 Vanadium Reference 21 Vermiculite - Expanded Reference 92 Vermiculite - Natural Reference 92 Vicuclad 7 - Reference 1 University of Bath

15 s INVENTORY OF CARBON & ENERGY (ICE) SUMMARY Embodied Energy & Carbon Data EE - MJ/kg EC - kgco2/kg Water Reference 139 Wax Reference 139 Wood stain/varnish Reference 1 General Wool Reference 155 Yttrium Reference 21 Zirconium Reference 21 Paint General EXAMPLE: Single Coat EXAMPLE: Double Coat EXAMPLE: Triple Coat Paper Paperboard (General for construction use) Fine Paper Wallpaper Plaster General (Gypsum) Plasterboard Plastics General ABS General Polyethylene High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) HDPE Pipe Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) LDPE Film Nylon 6 Nylon 6,6 Polycarbonate Polypropylene, Orientated Film Polypropylene, Injection Moulding Expanded Polystyrene General Purpose Polystyrene High Impact Polystyrene Thermoformed Expanded Polystyrene Polyurethane PVC General PVC Pipe Calendered Sheet PVC PVC Injection Moulding UPVC Film Rubber ICE V1.6a MJ/Sqm 0.53 kgco2/sqm 20.4 MJ/Sqm 1.06 kgco2/sqm 30.6 MJ/Sqm 1.60 kgco2/sqm EE = Embodied Energy, EC = Embodied Carbon Large variations in data, especially for carbon emissions. Assuming 6.66 Sqm Coverage per kg Assuming 3.33 Sqm Coverage per kg Assuming 2.22 Sqm Coverage per kg Excluding CV of wood, excludes carbon sequestration Excluding CV of wood, excludes carbon sequestration Problems selecting good value, inconsistent figures, West et al believe this is because of past aggregation of EE with cement 35.6 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included). Determined by the average use of each type of plastic used in the European construction industry 48.6 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 54.4 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included). Based on average use of types of PE in European construction 54.3 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 55.1 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 51.6 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 55.2 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 38.6 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 50.7 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 36.7 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 55.7 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 54 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 46.2 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 46.3 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 46.4 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 49.7 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included). Poor data availability of feedstock energy 28.1 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included). Assumed market average use of types of PVC in the European construction industry 24.4 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 24.4 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 35.1 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) 25.3 MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) General MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included). Assumes that natural rubber accounts for 35% of market. Difficult to estimate carbon emissions. Synthetic rubber MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included). Difficult to estimate carbon emissions. Natural latex rubber MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included). Feedstock from the production of carbon black. Difficult to estimate carbon emissions. Sand General Sealants and adhesives Epoxide Resin MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included) Mastic Sealant Melamine Resin 62.3 to Reference 77 Phenol Formaldehyde 87 to Urea Formaldehyde Soil General (Rammed Soil) 40 to to University of Bath

16 s Steel INVENTORY OF CARBON & ENERGY (ICE) SUMMARY General (average of all steels) Virgin Recycled Embodied Energy & Carbon Data EE - MJ/kg EC - kgco2/kg EE = Embodied Energy, EC = Embodied Carbon Estimated from UK mix of materials. Worldwide recycled content of 42.7% Could not collect strong statistics on mix of recycled steels Bar & rod Recycled content 42.7% Virgin Recycled Engineering steel - Recycled Pipe - Virgin Recycled Not Typical Production Route Plate - Virgin Recycled Not Typical Production Route Section Recycled content 42.7% Virgin Recycled Sheet - Virgin Recycled Not Typical Production Route Sheet - Galvanised - Virgin Wire - Virgin Stainless MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included). This data has been difficult to select, there is highly conflicting data, finally selected world average data from institute of Stainless Steel Forum (ISSF) due to the large extent of the study. Values specified are for the most popular grade (304). Stone General Stone Gravel/Chippings Data on stone was difficult to select, with high standard deviations and data ranges Granite 0.1 to 13.9! 6 to Reference 22 Limestone Marble Marble tile Shale Reference 36 Slate 0.1 to to Large data range Timber All timber values exclude the Calorific Value (CV) of wood. Timber values were particularly difficult to select! General Estimated from UK consumption of timber Glue Laminated timber Hardboard Laminated Veneer Lumber (?) (?) Ref 126 MDF Only 4 data sources Particle Board Very large data range, difficult to select best value Plywood Sawn Hardwood Sawn Softwood Veneer Particleboard (Furniture) Tin Tin Coated Plate (Steel) Tin Titanium Virgin Recycled lack of modern data, large range of data lack of modern data, large range of data, small sample size lack of modern data, large range of data, small sample size Vinyl Flooring General MJ/kg Feedstock Energy (Included), Same value as PVC calendered sheet Vinyl Composite Tiles (VCT) Reference 77 Zinc General Virgin Recycled ICE V1.6a to to to uncertain carbon estimates, currently estimated from typical fuel mix University of Bath

17 s INVENTORY OF CARBON & ENERGY (ICE) SUMMARY Embodied Energy & Carbon Data EE - MJ/kg EC - kgco2/kg EE = Embodied Energy, EC = Embodied Carbon Miscellaneous: Embodied Energy - MJ Embodied Carbon - Kg CO2 PV Modules Monocrystalline Polycrystalline ThinFilm Windows 1.2mx1.2m Single Glazed Timber Framed Unit 1.2mx1.2m Double Glazed (Air or Argon Filled): Aluminium Framed PVC Framed Aluminium -Clad Timber Framed Timber Framed Krypton Filled Add: Xenon Filled Add: MJ/sqm Kg CO2/sqm 4750 (2590 to 8640) 242 (132 to 440) 4070 (1945 to 5660) 208 (99 to 289) 1305 (775 to 1805) 67 (40 to 92) MJ per Window 286? to to to to to to Assumed typical industrial fuel mix to estimate CO2 Assumed typical UK industrial fuel mix to estimate CO2 -- University of Bath

18 Guide to the Profiles The following worksheets contain profiles of the main materials within this inventory. The inventory was created through manually analysing the separate ICE-Database, which stored data on each value of embodied energy/carbon (i.e. Data source and where possible a hyperlink to the report, year of data, boundary conditions, fuel mix, specific comments...etc). The full ICE database contains far more detail than available in this inventory. These profiles have been created to present a summary of the database and to present the embodied energy & carbon values. Below you will find an example of a profile (largely blank) which has been separated into smaller segments to allow a clearer annotation of each section. Section 1: Database statistics The materials were broken down into sub-categories, which reflected how the data is stored within the database. Most materials have a general category, and are possibly broken down into more specific forms i.e. Aluminium general, Aluminium extruded etc. Each of the sub-categories are then broken down into further classifications according to the recycled/virgin content of the material. In many cases the authors of the data sources have not specified this data, hence it was required to create an unspecified classification. Here are simple statistics from the main ICE-Database. They include the number of records within the database, which represents the sample size that was used to select this data. This may be used as a (simple) indicator of the quality and reliability of the selected values. Additional statistics include the average embodied energy (EE) from the literature; this should not be used in place of the selected values. The ICE database stored the data as published by the original author, hence each record had different boundary conditions or were for a very specific/rare form of the material. These facts can not be represented by statistics but only with manual examination of the ICE-Database records. However, in many cases these statistics are similar to the selected 'best' values. Finally, the standard deviation and a full data range are presented to maintain an openness to this inventory. Profile: Example Main No. Records Average EE Standard Deviation Minimum EE Maximum EE on the Database Statistics: Sub- Category 100% Recycled 50% Recycled Other Specification Unspecified Virgin Section 2: Selected (or 'Best') values of embodied energy & carbon The values of embodied energy are presented here; the example below is only for materials that can be recycled, i.e. metals. The format of presentation has minor variations according to the needs of the data being presented. The 'general' material classification is the value that should be used if unsure of which value to select. The primary material is for predominantly virgin materials and secondary for predominantly recycled materials i.e. many authors allow a slight fraction of recycled material under a primary classification, but these are not always stated. Alternatively a recycled content could be assumed and these values can be used to estimate the embodied energy for any given recycled content. The embodied carbon has been presented separately. Again the values distinguish between primary (virgin) materials, secondary (recycled) materials and the average value typical of the UK market place. The best range is what the author of this work believes to be a more appropriate range than the full range given in the database statistics (presented in section 1, above). The selection of the range and the 'best' values of embodied energy was not an easy task, especially with so many holes in data provided by authors, but they provide a useful insight into the potential variations of embodied energy within this material. The selected coefficient of embodied energy may not fall within the centre of the range for a number of reasons. The selected value of embodied energy tries to represent the average on the marketplace. However, variations in manufacturing methods or factory efficiency are inevitable. Embodied Energy - MJ/Kg Embodied Carbon - Kg CO2/Kg Best EE Range - MJ/Kg UK Typical Primary Secondary UK Typical Primary Secondary Low EE High EE Specific General Cast Products Extruded Rolled Cradle to Gate (+/-30%) University of Bath

19 Guide to the Profiles Section 3: Scatter Graph and Fuel split & embodied carbon split There is a scatter graph for each material (Sometimes more than one scatter graph where it is beneficial). The scatter graph plots the year of data versus the value of embodied energy for each data point in the database. This maintains the transparency of this inventory and highlights any historical variations in data values, which may be a result of technological shifts. It could also be determined whether a small number of data points distort the above database statistics. The fuel split is presented here along with the fraction of embodied carbon resulting from the energy source (or additional carbon released from non-energy sources). Ideally this data will be specified by authors completing a detailed study, but this was seldom the case and in many cases this data was estimated from the typical fuel mix within the relevant UK industry which was obtained from the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). In several cases it was not possible to provide a fuel mix or carbon breakdown. Here the typical embodied carbon was estimated based on values specified by authors in the literature. Where possible the historical embodied carbon per unit fuel (energy) use was calculated as an index of 1990 data. This data is general and was estimated from the typical fuel split in the most appropriate industry. It was not a detailed analysis, in that it is generalised for the entire industry and not for specific products. It illustrates any improvement in carbon emissions since 1990 and the variation in carbon contributions by (fuel) source. This section does not appear on all profiles Scatter Graph EE Scatter Graph - Aggregate Energy source % of Embodied Energy from energy source % of embodied carbon from source Coal LPG Oil Natural gas Electricity Other Total Fuel Split & Embodied Carbon : Historical embodied carbon per unit fuel use Embodied carbon contributions per unit energy use for Aggregates, sand & gravel Embodied carbon contribution per unit energy use =100 index Year Coal Manufactured fuel 1 LPG Gas oil Fuel oil Natural gas Electricity Section 4: Properties (CIBSE Data) Data extracted from the most recent CIBSE guide (Volume A) is presented here for each material. The list of materials here was in many cases more specific than there is data available on embodied energy. But it may be possible to estimate the appropriate embodied energy from the most similar material in the inventory or to use the general category. Properties (CIBSE Data) Condition Thermal conductivity (W-m-1 K-1) Density (kg m -3) Specific heat (J kg-1 K- 1) Thermal Diffusivity (M^2 S-1) E-05 Galvanised E-05 University of Bath

20 Main No. Records Average EE Standard Deviation Minimum EE Maximum EE on the Database Statistics: Aggregate Aggregate, General Predominantly Recycled None Unspecified Virgin Embodied Energy - MJ/Kg Profile: Aggregate Embodied Carbon - Kg CO2/Kg Best EE Range - MJ/Kg Low EE High EE Specific General Aggregate Cradle to Gate None It should be noted that the scatter graph does not display all of the data that needs to be considered when selecting a best value, e.g. the boundary conditions (cradle to site, cradle to gate...etc), these are stored in the database but they are not represented in the scatter graph. Transport will likely be significant for aggregates. Scatter Graph EE Scatter Graph - Aggregate Energy source % of Embodied Energy from energy source % of embodied carbon from source Coal LPG Oil Natural gas 19.8% Electricity 65.3% Other 22.7% 14.9% 12.6% 64.7% Total Fuel Split & Embodied Carbon : The embodied carbon was estimated by using the UK typical fuel split in this industry, the resulting value is in agreement with other results in the literature. Historical embodied carbon per unit fuel use Embodied carbon contributions per unit energy use for Aggregates, sand & gravel Embodied carbon contribution per unit energy use =100 index Year Coal Manufactured fuel 1 LPG Gas oil Fuel oil Natural gas Electricity Properties (CIBSE Data) Condition Thermal conductivity (W-m-1 K-1) Density (kg m -3) Specific heat (J kg-1 K-1) Thermal Diffusivity (M^2 S-1) aggregate aggregate (sand, gravel or stone) Undried E-07 Oven dried E-07 University of Bath

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