1 NEOGEOGRAPHY AND THE PALIMPSESTS OF PLACE: WEB 2.0 AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF A VIRTUAL EARTHtesg_ MARK GRAHAM Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford, UK. Received: 21 November 2008; revised 15 May 2009 ABSTRACT Places have always been palimpsests. The contemporary is constantly being constructed upon the foundations of the old. Yet only recently has place begun to take on an entirely new dimension. Millions of places are being represented in cyberspace by a labour force of hundreds of thousands of writers, cartographers and artists. This paper traces the history and geography of virtual places. The virtual Earth is not a simple mirror of its physical counterpart, but is instead characterised by both black holes of information and hubs of rich description and detail. The tens of millions of places represented virtually are part of a worldwide engineering project that is unprecedented in scale or scope and made possible by contemporary Web 2.0 technologies. The virtual Earth that has been constructed is more than just a collection of digital maps, images and articles that have been uploaded into Web 2.0 cyberspaces; it is instead a fluid and malleable alternate dimension that both influences and is influenced by the physical world. Key words: Cyberspace, information and communication technologies (ICTs), Internet, neogeography, virtual Earths, Web 2.0 The ancients built Valdrada on the shores of a lake, with houses all verandas one above the other, and high streets whose railed parapets look out over the water. Thus the traveler, arriving, sees two cities: one erect above the lake, and the other reflected, upside down. Nothing exists or happens in the one Valdrada that the other Valdrada does not repeat, because the city was so constructed that its every point would be reflected in its mirror... At times the mirror increases a thing s value, at times denies it. Not everything that seems valuable above the mirror maintains its force when mirrored. The twin cities are not equal, because nothing that exists or happens in Valdrada is symmetrical: every face and gesture is answered, from the mirror, by a face and gesture inverted, point by point (Calvino 1974, p. 53). INTRODUCTION All places are palimpsests. Among other things, places are layers of brick, steel, concrete, memory, history, and legend (Whittlesey 1929; Donald 1997). The countless layers of any place come together in specific times and spaces and have bearing on the cultural, economic, and political characteristics, interpretations, and meanings of place (Crang 1996; Schein 1997; Cosgrove 1998; Duncan & Duncan 2003; Samuelson 2008). The term palimpsest was originally used to refer to medieval writing blocks that could be reused while still retaining traces of earlier inscriptions (Crang 1998). More recently the word has been used by authors, artists, poets, photographers and geographers to describe the multitude of present and past discursive and physical layers that are used by people to Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 2010, DOI: /j x, Vol. 101, No. 4, pp Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA
2 NEOGEOGRAPHY AND THE PALIMPSESTS OF PLACE 423 interpret place (c.f. Sizemore 1984; Bradshaw & Williams 1999; Huk 2000; Basu 2002; Marsh 2003; Mohr 2003; Lutz 2004; Alexander 2007; Mitin 2007). Yet, as many commentators have noted, places are increasingly shaped and defined by factors that are not only distant in time, but also in space. Advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) and transportation technologies have intensified the ability of non-proximate forces to have bearing on the here and now of any given space/time moment (c.f. Adams 1995; Kitchin 1998; Dodge & Kitchin 2001; Brunn et al. 2004; Massey 2005; Graham 2008). With the advent of the Internet, an entirely new dimension of layers has begun to be added to the palimpsest of place (Thrift & French 2002; Dodge & Kitchin 2004, 2005; Graham 2005; Zook & Graham 2007b, c). The virtual Earth and digital places are being constructed at a blistering pace in cyberspace. These cyberplaces are not simple floating and static mirrors of the physical world. They are instead often a component of the palimpsest of place. The virtual Earth and digital representations of place are often characterised by a reflexive relationship with their physical counterparts: they are shaped by, and, in turn, shape the physical world (Zook & Graham 2007a). This paper has two aims. First, it makes the case that the construction of a virtual dimension to our planet is an unprecedented feat of engineering. Hundreds of thousands of writers, cartographers, designers, technicians, engineers, photographers and artists have contributed their labour to creating digital representations of the physical world. The paper traces the brief history of this virtual dimension, and employs the term neogeography to understand the ways in which such an enormous labour force has been recruited. Second, the paper focuses on how representations of the virtual Earth have profound cultural, economic, and political consequences for the physical world and our interactions with it. FROM CYBERSPACE TO NEOGEOGRAPHY In the early days of the Web, cyberspace was the refuge of a small group of specialists (Abbate 2000). Creating online content was no easy task, and people generally needed some knowledge of a markup language (HTML) in order to upload information to the Internet. Cyberspace was conceived of as an ethereal, alternate dimension; a space in which geographic constraints could be transcended, and a virtual realm that would have little feedback on the physical world. Futuristic and fantastic predictions about cyberspace were constantly being made: it would allow new moments in human consciousness to be realised; it would create a global panopticon; would bring about world peace; and of course it would cause distance to die and spell the end of geography as we know it (Gillespie & Williams 1988; Cairncross 1997; Anderson 2005). This is not to say the virtual representations of physical places were not being created. But, in contrast to current constructions of the virtual Earth, early attempts at digital representation of place were largely constructed under an entirely different paradigm. Early geographic representations in cyberspace People have always been possessed by a desire to represent our surrounding environment. Celestial maps dating back to BC have been found the walls of the Lascaux caves in France, and the first map of terrestrial area dates to 6500 BC (Geller 2007). As such, it is likely that Internet users uploaded some form of representation of the physical world into cyberspace not long after its invention. However, it is large, centralised organisations such as National Resources Canada and Xerox that took the lead in representing attributes of the physical world in cyberspace (Geller 2007). Mapping and the representation of the offline world did not really take off until 1996 when Mapquest and MultiMap (focusing respectively on the US and the UK) were launched. These websites both offered comprehensive databases covering large areas, address matching and routing services. In the decade following the launches of Mapquest and MultiMap, the population of, and the content on, the Internet grew at an astonishing pace. In 1996, less than one per cent of the world s population (sixteen million people) had ever accessed a website; while the latest figures available (June 2008) indicate that
3 424 MARK GRAHAM almost 1.5 billion people are now online (or 21.9% of the global population; Internet World Stats 2008). During this period, a host of services to deliver static and dynamically created maps on the Internet were launched, including: the US Online National Atlas, the UMN MapServer, Terraserver USA and NASA World Wind. Most of these projects (the exceptions will be discussed later in this paper) operated under a similar paradigm for the distribution of information. Obtaining spatial data, and designing and distributing digital maps required large amounts of capital investment and technical knowledge, and was out of the reach of most Internet users. The serving of maps online thus, was characterised by a one-to-many 1 system of communications: with most Internet-users being consumers rather than producers of representations of place. Web 2.0 While the Internet has, in many ways, always been characterised by a many-to-many relationship, it is only recently that the distribution of the production of spatial data have followed the same paradigm. This move towards a more dispersed system of the production of geographic content occurred with a concomitant shift in the production of information on the Internet more generally. Prior to this shift, the two important features characterised the Internet. First, much like traditional methods of representation (photography, video, print media, etc.) the content of information and text was almost always linked to its form. Early web pages constructed in HTML defined their own content and appearance: they were essentially tied to fixed locations in cyberspace. With the widespread adoption of extensible markup language (XML), cascading style sheets (CSS), and really simple syndication (RSS), form and content could be separated, thus allowing for automated data exchange. XML is a standard which allows custom markup languages to be created. It was designed to describe data rather than display it (in other words, it deals with semantics instead of form). The markup language thus allows information to be clearly described so that it can be easily ported across systems and across the Web (Walsh 1998; Harold & Means 2004). An RSS feed is a common type of XML document. RSS files are stored on servers and periodically updated. The RSS feed can be subscribed to by entering the address of the RSS feed into a program (e.g. a browser, news ticker or mobile phone application) or another website. The program (or code embedded in other websites) then periodically checks the RSS file to see if it has changed. If any changes have been made, the latest information contained within the file is then displayed to the person viewing the RSS-enabled website or using the RSS-compatible program. CSS, in contrast, is purely a style language that defines how information is presented on the Web (Briggs et al. 2004). By storing styling information in an external CSS file, markup files can focus solely on intention and meaning rather than form and layout. Thus, like XML, CSS also assists in the separation of form from content by allowing the independent styling of any markup (i.e. XML or semantic HTML). The move away from a Web constructed upon HTML to a Web in which it is much easier to sever information from specific ties in cyberspace and port it around to any cyber-location has meant that content and information is now difficult to contain. A second important feature of the Internet was that centralised repositories of information were not very effective. While a number of websites attempted to map out the structures of the Internet and organise its content, they were slow moving and omitted large amounts of cyberspace. With the explosion in the population of consumers and producers of information in cyberspace, demand grew for effective ways to manage and collate data. This demand, in part, gave rise to the frameworks for organising knowledge that will be discussed in the next section. Both of these shifts made it possible for a large population of Internet users to move from being consumers to producers of information: a trend known as Web 2.0. The Internet was being used for more than reading newspapers or checking the weather. Users were social networking, selling second-hand products, uploading music and video, writing blogs, and creating content in countless other ways, while concomitantly tagging, categorising and
4 NEOGEOGRAPHY AND THE PALIMPSESTS OF PLACE 425 organising what had the potential to be highly scattered and disconnected information. Neogeography Neogeography is a term that refers to techniques, tools and practices of geography that have been traditionally beyond the scope of professional geographers and geographic information systems (GIS) practitioners (Turner 2006). Szott (2006) describes neogeography as: a diverse set of practices that operate outside, or alongside, or in the manner of, the practices of professional geographers. Rather than making claims on scientific standards, methodologies of neogeography tend toward the intuitive, expressive, personal, absurd, and/or artistic, but may just be idiosyncratic applications of real geographic techniques. This is not to say that these practices are of no use to the cartographic/geographic sciences, but that they just usually don t conform to the protocols of professional practice. A quote by the founder of one of the Internet s largest social mapping websites (Platial.com) neatly encapsulates some of the appeal of neogeography (Wilson 2007): We made them maps, like everyone does, of the basic neighborhood amenities. If our guests wanted to go do some errands, it s handy to have a map with more than just museums and shopping malls on it. There was the grocery store, the post office, the good bakery and the locals lunch spot, plus the place to watch the barges come around the canal, the place where the blue heron hangs out on the parked cars and the place not to lock up the bikes...we ended up with a kitchen drawer stuffed full of these notes. It was our collection of Places, plus menus for take out, magazine articles listing kid-friendly museums, schedules of parades, and a few brochures and tour books for attractions that seemed interesting enough. A few maps got lost, loaned out, or recombined. Others got photocopied or ed or taped to front doors as invitations. We wanted a way to preserve all that knowledge in a powerful, useful, contextual the potential for a broad, useful way for people to share contexts and meanings of Places. The practice of neogeography has in many ways been made possible by the relative pervasiveness of hardware that allows the manipulation of spatial data. Personal computers have been affordable to portions of the world s population for decades and have now reached saturation levels in many countries (Economist 2009). Global positioning system (GPS) devices in particular have allowed all manner of spatial data to be created by non-professional geographers (Brunn et al. 2004; Dykes 2006). GPS technologies have encouraged personalised mapping and have transformed everyday movements into creative expressions that can be uploaded and shared with the world (Parks 2001, p. 200). Furthermore, spatially aware technologies are not just confined to dedicated GPS devices connected to the Internet through PCs. Many mobile phones contain embedded GPS devices, while even those that do not can often make use of services such as Google Mobile Maps which uses the location of cell towers to triangulate the approximate location of a phone (Simon et al. 2007). With the widespread adoption of this appropriate technology, neogeography only needed a versatile technological framework in order to prosper online, and it was precisely the paradigm shift to Web 2.0 that allowed the production and representation of geography and the sense and spirit of places (or genius loci) to move into the hands of the masses on the Internet. ENGINEERING A VIRTUAL GENIUS LOCI Our geographic imaginations and the individualised sense of place (or genius loci) that we create is always constructed from a certain standpoint and location (Allen & Massey 1995). Humans have always seen the world from here rather than from there, and as a consequence our spatial imaginations have traditionally been grounded in the local rather than the global (Esteva & Prakash 2004; Allen & Massey 1995). By influencing our geographic imaginations, representations of place always both constitute and legitimate power relations (Rose 1994).
5 426 MARK GRAHAM It is consequently important to consider how our view from here is no longer simply tied to physical proximity. The genius loci of many places (for those with online access), now potentially becomes shaped by both physical and virtual elements of the palimpsests of place. It should however be noted that the genius loci of a place is not meant to imply that there is an objectively identifiable spirit of any place. The term is instead employed to capture the individual, subjective understandings of any given place. A range of services have been created to allow people to practice neogeography and represent the physical world virtually (c.f. Miller 2006; Crampton 2009). These representations together begin to form a virtual dimension to the world or a virtual Earth (Gelernter 1993). As the remainder of this paper will demonstrate, the virtual Earth, while phrased as a singular dimension, is always experienced incongruously on an individual scale. The multiplicity of online georeferenced data is never static and cannot all be accessed in any one representation. The virtual Earth is therefore far from being a singular ontic entity. Yet, it remains that the idea becomes useful as a way to conceptualise the masses of non-physically proximate information that can influence the trajectories of any place. Three forms of representation are identified and described below. However, it should be pointed out that not only are there are undoubtedly numerous other ways of representing the world online, but there is likely also significant overlap between the following three categories. Nonetheless, these three categories encapsulate a large proportion of the work that is currently being done by neogeographers. Virtual globes This category is perhaps more than any other characterised by its comprehensiveness. While Google Earth and Google Maps are the dominant collators of information, Yahoo! Maps, Microsoft Live Search Maps, Microsoft Virtual Earth, and others offer similar functionality and content. These services all use the Earth itself as an organising principle, and allow contributors to add almost any imaginable content as long as they attach it to somewhere on the globe (Jones 2007). In the words of the chief technical officer for Google Earth, his service inverts the roles of Web browser as application and map as content, resulting in an experience where the planet itself is the browser (Jones 2007, p. 11). Users of these services can then virtually touch down to any point on the globe and immerse themselves in local knowledge about that place. A virtual palimpsest of place is truly created. Photographs, descriptions, blogs, narratives, advice, reviews and stories are all tied to a specific place, and can be instantly accessed. 2 Users can also, in many ways, peer through the fog of time, because unlike in the physical realm, there are no restrictions to only gazing upon the here and now. It is not uncommon to find geotagged historical images and descriptions of a place (see for example, Figure 1). There are unfortunately no reliable statistics on how many people use and create content for these services. As of September, 2008, Google Earth alone has been downloaded 350 million times. There are over one million members of the Google Earth community (bbs.keyhole-.com), with almost 700,000 bookmarked placemarks listed on the Google Earth community page. These statistics greatly underestimate the amount of labour that has been contributed to these projects for a number of reasons. First, while there are 700,000 placemark files on the Google Earth community page, there are countless other accessible placemark files that have not been specifically uploaded to that site. Second, many (or most) of the placemark files contain more than one placemark. Some contain hundreds or thousands of instances of geotagged information. Finally, these statistics only encompass data that have been specifically created for use in Google Earth. As mentioned above, there are a number of other collators of spatial data that use the virtual Earth framework: all of which index user-created content from around the world. However, by any measure these undertakings have been enormous. Hundreds of thousands of people have contributed their labour to creating layers and content to the virtual globes that can be accessed from anywhere on the planet. The wiki-locals The most important websites in this category are Wikipedia, Wikitravel and
6 NEOGEOGRAPHY AND THE PALIMPSESTS OF PLACE 427 Figure 1. Geotagged photograph of the Trinity College Dublin Quadrangle in WikiMapia. 3 Collations of spatial representation in this category differ from the virtual globes in two significant ways. First, information can be scaled to any level. In virtual globes, every placemark has distinct co-ordinates on the Earth s surface. The wikilocals in contrast allow locations at a much smaller scale (e.g. countries or continents) to be represented and described. Contributors can add information to existing scales (e.g. uploading a photograph to Manhattan ) or are free to create new ones that might not already exist (e.g. specifically tagging a photograph to the West Village in Manhattan). Second, the wiki-locals necessitate agreement. The virtual globes allow multiple placemarks to be located at the same co-ordinates. The wiki-locals in contrast encourage debate and argument about how a place should be represented, but ultimately allow only one representation to be displayed. However, it should be pointed out that debate and disagreement about place representation can still be easily accessed in all of the wiki-locals. Wikipedia, for example, has a discussion page for every physical place that is represented, while WikiMapia allow comments to be added underneath any representation of place (see Figure 2). The amount of labour contributed to engineering the wiki-locals is again enormous. 4 As of September 2008, Wikitravel had over 50,000 places represented, 950,000 page edits, and over 28,000 contributors. Wikipedia has vastly more pages and editors, but it is impossible to know what proportion of the site is dedicated to the representation of place (the website is a comprehensive encyclopaedia covering a range of topics). Wikipedia likely contains at least as many contributors and place representations as Wikitravel and probably many more (given the fact that Wikipedia is a more established website). 5 WikiMapia, has perhaps the largest number of places represented of any of the wiki-locals (six and a half million places as of January 2008). Finally, all of the statistics presented above only include English language comments. Counting wiki-local representations of place in other languages increases the total manyfold.
7 428 MARK GRAHAM Figure 2. The Village in Manchester. OpenStreetMap Finally, there is the Open- StreetMap project. OpenStreetMap is in many ways similar to conventional maps and representations that can be found at Mapquest and MultiMap. The difference, however, is that instead of using government, or private data sources, the project relies on thousands of volunteers to trace features with portable GPS devices. Users can also edit and correct mapping performed by other volunteers, thus necessitating consensus (much like the wikilocal system). Unlike virtual globes and wiki-locals, Open- StreetMap offers no scope for playful interpretations of place. The main objective of the project is instead to map out the Earth s physical features. By August 2008, there were 50,000 contributors and most major cities of the world (and indeed many small ones) have been thoroughly mapped entirely by volunteers (see Figure 3 for an example). CREATING ORDER IN THE VIRTUAL DIMENSION With such an enormous amount of geodata being mapped and distributed online, there is a clear need for ordering and categorisation schemes to allow people to access pertinent information. Myriad, dispersed representations of the physical world have always existed on the Internet, but were never organised in any meaningful fashion. Some web-portals such as AOL and Yahoo! attempted to construct detailed categorisation schemes and virtual cosmographies 6 (see Figure 4 for an example). But the effort required to comprehensively organise online spatial information was beyond even those large firms, and knowledge was often awkwardly sited in the classificatory system. The virtual Earth is more than a static and floating mirror of the world we inhabit. Digital Places (or DigiPlaces) have instead become part of the palimpsest of place. The enormous, complex, and interlinked virtual dimension that has been engineered over the last decade has the power to influence economic, cultural and political processes in the offline world by shaping how place is perceived (or the genius loci of a place; Zook & Graham 2007a, c). This final section of the paper, explores how the nature of reflexive links between the online and offline worlds matter. Even though the
8 NEOGEOGRAPHY AND THE PALIMPSESTS OF PLACE 429 Figure 3. OpenStreetMap of Edinburgh, UK. globes, an additional factor can influence presence and absence in cyberspace. The ordering of virtual places by millions of online volunteers is filtered through specific software algorithms, resulting in the prioritisation of some interpretations and representations over others. Figure 4. A sub-section of the Yahoo! directory. virtual dimension contains representations of millions of places, two factors can make place invisible in cyberspace. First, some physical places occupy virtual black-holes in virtual globes, Wiki-locals and OpenStreetMap: that is, there is very little information about them in cyberspace. Second, in the case of virtual Presence, absence and black holes Just because hundreds of thousands of people are creating enormous amounts of online content about physical places does not mean that there is not a distinct geography to the production of this knowledge. A large body of literature has demonstrated that both the physical networks of, and the content on the Internet are characterised by highly uneven geographies (c.f. Castells 1996; Moss & Townsend 2000; Townsend 2001; Warf 2001; Wilson 2001; Castells 2002; Zook et al. 2004; Zook 2005; Crang et al. 2006; Recabarren et al. 2008; Rye 2008). It is therefore, perhaps unsurprising that even a cursory look at any of the websites dedicated to neogeography reveals places that have not been represented in much detail. Some places are likely underrepresented because of technological, economic, and educational barriers faced by people with indepth knowledge about those places. To use North Korea as an example (because it is has one of the lowest levels of Internet access in the
9 430 MARK GRAHAM Figure 5. An OpenStreetMap of South-western North Korea. world), we can see that only a few details have been added to even a small-scale map of the country on OpenStreetMap (see Figure 5). Most regions of the country are similarly lacking description in the wiki-locals. North Korea is far from the only place occupying a virtual black hole. Places and regions such as Saharan Africa, Northeastern Thailand and Bihar state in India all have relatively low information densities. A lack of available information is often also related to language barriers. Online representations of place exist in a broad-range of human languages. The Wikipedia entry for the United States, 7 for example, is written in 190 different languages). Most places, however, are represented in only one or a handful of languages. A place therefore essentially has no cyberpresence if it is represented in a language not spoken by an Internet user. An example can be seen by looking at the English and French Wikitravel entries for Corte, France (see Figure 6). The French guide contains a variety of information on the town of 6,000 people. The English guide in contrast, contains no information whatsoever about the town. Finally, an important feature of the neogeography that is occurring online is that volunteers are not only investing their labour into creating content, but they are also playing a large role in editing, ordering and categorising that content. The wiki-locals offer very few organisational guidelines, and move beyond structured cosmologies. Organisational spatial hierarchies are instead entrusted to the community of users. So, for example, the Bangkok guide in Wikitravel is organised into six main districts, while the Dublin guide discusses the entire city as one entity. Because OpenStreeMap and Wiki-local contributions are never considered finished, and because editors are able to add and remove content at will, entries are frequently removed by majority votes if they are deemed to be false or spam. This also means that dominant societal narratives necessarily play a large part in determining what is considered acceptable content. 8 Visibility through software sorting In places that contain rich layers of information, there are powerful factors that allow some information to remain visible while other content stays hidden. Massive amounts of data and description about any given place necessitate the ordering systems discussed earlier in this paper. Ranking systems inherent to geo-search
10 NEOGEOGRAPHY AND THE PALIMPSESTS OF PLACE 431 Figure 6. The French (left) and English (right) versions of the Wikitravel entry for Corte, France. engines like Google Maps factor not only distance but also PageRank into their results. As a consequence, online content (i.e. virtual representations of physical place) becomes more visible if it has a high level of online popularity (as measured by hyperlinks). The virtual globes (or specifically Google Earth and Google Maps) create order by relying on linkages that people form between ideas elsewhere in cyberspace. This system (dubbed PageRank by Google) assigns a high level of importance to information that is linked to by a large number of websites. Links from websites that already have high ranks are assigned a higher weight than links from websites with lower weights. This fact becomes important when geodata are displayed in map form, because information with high PageRank scores is given visual priority over information with low PageRank scores. PageRank harnesses the work that has been put into millions of websites in order to create a specific form of order to online representations of place. This system therefore is not designed to create structure, but rather exists to order the many structures that already exist throughout cyberspace. Indeed, it is the order that has been given to representatons of place in virtual globes, wiki-locals, and the OpenStreetMap system that make the three systems of representing place so powerful and widely-used. The ordering principles (i.e. PageRank and dominant voices in the wiki-locals) to the structurings and rankings of representations of place are by no means objective and benign; however, it remains that both the production and the ordering of virtual representations of place are created in a highly dispersed and decentralised manner. An example of ways that relevance is structured by more than distance can be seen in Figure 7. A search was conducted for football near the town of Stretford in Greater Manchester(Stretford can be found in the lower-left hand side of Figure 7). Instead of prioritising relevant locations that are close to Stretford, the ranking algorithm prioritises the Manchester United Football Club (one of the largest sports teams in the world) that is two miles to the north of the town (location A in Figure 7) instead of the much closer Sale Sports Club (which is demoted to the second page of results). While the above examples may appear trivial, they provide a starting point for thinking about some of the ways that the virtual dimension of place is not only based on, but can also actively shape its physical counterpart. Presence and visibility in cyberspace undoubtedly have effects on cultural, economic and political processes: indeed, in 2007, almost seven billion dollars was spent by individuals, groups and firms to gain prominence in online ranking systems (through either advertising or search engine optimisation techniques). 9 The enormous amount of money spent in one year on improving cyber-visibility in many ways illustrates the importance of online representations of the physical world. Online representations have thus become another layer in the palimpsest of place.
11 432 MARK GRAHAM Figure 7. A Google Maps search for football near Stretford, Greater Manchester. CONCLUSIONS The construction of a virtual dimension to physical place is a feat of engineering that is unprecedented in human history. Web 2.0 has allowed hundreds of thousands of people to work on constructing virtual representations of place. The ability to separate form from content has meant that representations can be collated into a few online virtual globes through automated data exchanges, mashing and integration. The virtual dimension to the world is enormous in scale and scope, and for the most part has been constructed in less than a decade. Furthermore, neogeographers are not only creating content, but are also ordering and structuring this new virtual dimension. The potential benefits of the virtual Earth and neogeography have been widely touted. Mass collaboration and public participation in defining and re-creating layers of place in many ways democratises lived geographies (Sieber 2006). Some commentators ask whether neogeography and the virtual Earth will ultimately narrow the digital divide and produce digital dividends for all? (Sui 2008, p. 4). Although, perhaps the clearest benefit to neogeography is the decreased reliance on centralised sources of knowledge to obtain information about place. This point is especially poignant for spatial information that is highly restricted by large government mapping agencies (e.g. the Ordinance Survey in the United Kingdom) (Goodchild et al. 2007). This movement of power from professionals to Web 2.0 agents seemingly follows the postmodern epistemological shift of geographic knowledge away from the centralisation of late renaissance and early enlightenment cosmographers (Cosgrove 1999). Until relatively recently, geography was represented in predetermined ways, and the rules of the ordering were systematically established by a few Western scientists. This system, thus created universal truths and a planetary consciousness (Pratt 1992). But with the recent surge in the practice of neogeography, knowledge on the Internet is in theory freed from the universal truths and planetary consciousness which suppressed dissent in earlier times (Emberley 1988; Poster 1995; Thu Nguyen & Alexander 1996; Warf & Grimes 1997). Although myriad representations and interpretations of place are now easily accessible, it remains important to note that the virtual Earth remains highly shaped by dominant power structures, software algorithms and the cultural links between producers of information. Finally, even though neogeography and the virtual representation of physical places is now
12 NEOGEOGRAPHY AND THE PALIMPSESTS OF PLACE 433 practiced by hundreds of thousands, or even millions, of people around the world, a vast majority of the Earth s population remain excluded from these practices. The enormous virtual dimension to place has been created by specific demographic segments, and as a consequence many opinions and viewpoints have likely been left unsaid, just as many places remain virtually hidden and invisible. The virtual Earth is not an alternate, disconnecteddimension, butratherhasspatialitiesthat are always grounded in people s interpretations of place. Ranking and ordering systems likewise are based in the ways that the creators of the virtual dimension assign importance to place in the physical world (albeit often filtered through opaque, corporate ranking algorithms). Presences and absences, and well as the specific ways in which place is represented all have the potential to profoundly affect offline cultural, economic and political relationships. A place absent from the virtual dimension can face a number of consequences (which have the potential to be both negative and positive) such as: decreased levels of economic interaction with other people and places, lower levels of tourism, and fewer cultural exchanges. Irrespective of its beneficial or harmful consequences, the virtual Earth is more than a fad or a passing trend. It has become a permanent and important feature of contemporary society. The massive amount of virtual representations of place that have been constructed are not isolated and disconnected depictions and descriptions, but rather come together in the virtual Earth to form an alternate, virtual-dimension to place. This dimension exists in a symbiotic, reflexive relationship to the physical world, which by becoming a new layer in the palimpsests of place ultimately can shape our genius loci and change the very natures of place. Acknowledgements I would like to thank Professor David Keeling and the anonymous referees for their helpful reviews and comments on earlier versions of this paper. Notes 1. The terms one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many are widely used in the field of communications studies. One-to-one refers to the act of one person communicating with another (e.g. by ). One-to-many communications indicates a flow of information from one producer or distributor to a much larger audience (e.g. radio or television). Many-to-many communication occurs when there are a large number of producers and consumers of knowledge and information (e.g. a chatroom). 2. It would have been possible to create a fourth category of virtual representations of the nonvirtual called local forums. This category would have included websites on which users contribute their local knowledge and expertise, images, sounds and videos. Examples include: Tripadvisor, Thorntree, Flyertalk, Travelbuddy, and countless other websites. Such sites have not been assigned into their own category because they do not represent any sort of centralised hub of information: they are instead scattered throughout cyberspace lacking clear linkages to one another. However, virtual Earths incorporate the data from many of those sites into layers that can be accessed from within the virtual Earth, thus employing a core web 2.0 feature. 3. It could be argued that WikiMapia is also a virtual globe. However, it is included in the Wiki-local category because it has closer similarity to other wiki-websites (in terms of both scale, and the need for agreement). 4. The following data were all taken from the statistics section of each website on 5 September For the purposes of comparison: the English language Wikipedia contains over two and a half million articles created by over seven and a half million contributors. 6. The word cosmography here is a reference to eighteenth century attempts by biologists to construct a planetary consciousness (Pratt 1992). 7. <http://wikipedia.org/wiki/united_states>. 8. For example, in most cities, a brothel is less likely to be described in a Wiki-local than a history museum. 9. Cyber-visibility is now recognised as being crucial to the delivery of not only commercial, but also political and cultural messages. For instance, the 2008 presidential campaign of Barack Obama spent three and a half million dollars on online advertising. REFERENCES Abbate, J. (2000), Inventing the Internet, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
13 434 MARK GRAHAM Adams, P.C. (1995), A Reconsideration of Personal Boundaries in Space-Time. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 85, pp Alexander, M. (2007), Fragile Places. Educational Insights, 1,p.3. Allen, J. & D. Massey (1995), Introduction. In: J. Allen & D. Massey, eds., Geographical Worlds. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Anderson, J.Q. (2005), Imagining the Internet: Personalities, Predictions, Perspectives. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield. Basu, L. (2002), The Poet in the Public Sphere. A Conversation with Meena Alexander. Social Text 20, pp Bradshaw, M.& S. Williams (1999), Scales, Lines and Minor Geographies: Whither King Island? Australian Geographical Studies, 37, pp Briggs, O., S. Champeon, E. Costello & M. Patterson (2004), Cascading Style Sheets: Separating Content from Presentation. New York: Springer. Brunn, S., S. Cutter & J.W. Harrington, eds., (2004), Geography and Technology. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Cairncross, F. (1997), The Death of Distance: How the Communications Revolution Will Change Our Lives. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Calvino, I. (1974), Invisible Cities. Orlando, FL: Harcourt. Castells, M. (1996), The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Castells, M. (2002), The Internet Galaxy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cosgrove, D. (1998), Social Formation and Symbolic Landscape. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. Cosgrove, D. (1999), Global Illumination and Enlightenment in the Geographies of Vincenzo Coronelli and Athanasius Kircher. In: D. Livingstone & C. Withers, eds., Geography and Enlightenment. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. Crampton, J.W. (2009), Cartography: Maps 2.0. Progress in Human Geography 33, pp Crang, M. (1996), Envisioning Urban Histories: Bristol as Palimpsest, Postcards, and Snapshots. Environment and Planning A 28, pp Crang, M. (1998), Cultural Geography. London: Routledge. Crang, M., T. Crosbie & S. Graham (2006), Variable Geometries of Connection: Urban Digital Divides and the Uses of Information Technology. Urban Studies 43, pp Dodge,M.&R.Kitchin (2001), Mapping Cyberspace. London: Routledge. Dodge, M.& R. Kitchin (2004), Flying Through Code/Space: The Real Virtuality of Air Travel. Environment and Planning A 36, pp Dodge, M. & R. Kitchin (2005), Code and the Transduction of Space. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 95, pp Donald, J. (1997), This, Here, Now. Imagining the Modern City. In: S. Westwood & J.M. Williams, eds., Imagining Cities. London: Taylor & Francis. Duncan, J.&N.Duncan (2003), Landscapes of Privilege. The Politics of the Aesthetic in an American Suburb. New York: Routledge. Dykes, J. (2006), Progress in our Representation of Geographic Phenomena and Our Evaluation, Use and Analysis of Geographic Information. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 30, pp Economist (2009), Pocket World in Figures. London: Economist Books. Emberley, P. (1988), Technology, Values, and Nihilism. Science, Technology and Politics 3, pp Esteva, G. & M.S. Prakash (2004), From Global to Local: Beyond Neoliberalism to the International of Hope. In: F.J. Lechner &J.Boli, eds., The Globalisation Reader. Oxford: Blackwell. Gelernter, D. (1993), Mirror Worlds: Or the Day Software Puts the Universe in a Shoebox...How It Will Happen and What It Will Mean. New York: Oxford University Press. Geller, T. (2007), Imagining the World: The State of Online Mapping. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 27, pp Gillespie,A.&H.Williams (1988), Telecommunications and the Reconstruction of Regional Comparative Advantage. Environment and Planning A 20, pp Goodchild, M.F., P. Fu & P. Rich (2007), Sharing Geographic Information: An Assessment of the Geospatial One-Stop. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 97, pp Graham, M. (2008), Warped Geographies of Development: The Internet and Theories of Economic Development. Geography Compass 2, pp Graham, S.D.N. (2005), Software-sorted Geographies. Progress in Human Geography 29, pp Harold, E.R.&S.Means (2004), XML in a Nutshell. Sebastopol, CA: O Reilly.
14 NEOGEOGRAPHY AND THE PALIMPSESTS OF PLACE 435 Huk, R. (2000), In Another s Pocket: The Address of the Pocket Epic in Postmodern Black British Poetry. The Yale Journal of Criticism 13, Internet World Stats (2008), Internet Growth Statistics. Internet World Stats. Available at: <http://internetworldstats.com/emarketing. htm>. Jones, M.T. (2007), Google s Geospatial Organising Principle. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 27, pp Kitchin, R. (1998), Towards Geographies of Cyberspace. Progress in Human Geography 22, pp Lutz, H. (2004), Race or Place? The Palimpsest of Space in Canadian Prairie Fiction, from Salverson to Cariou. Textual Studies in Canada 17, pp Marsh, S. (2003), Tracks, Traces and Common Places: Fernando León de Aranoa s Barrio (1998), and the Layered Landscape of Everyday Life in Contemporary Madrid. New Cinemas: Journal of Contemporary Film 1, pp Massey, D. (2005), For Space. London: Sage. Miller, C.C. (2006), A Beast in the Field: The Google Maps Mashup as GIS/2. Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualisation 41, pp Mitin, I. (2007), Mythogeography: Region as a Palimpsest of Identities. In: L. Elenius & C. Karlsson, eds., Cross-cultural Communication and Ethnic Identities: Proceedings from the Conference Regional Northern Identity. Luleå: Luleå Tekniska Universitet. Mohr, B. (2003), Peripheral Outlaws: Beyond Baroque and the Los Angeles Poetry Renaissance. In: D.E. James, ed., The Sons and Daughters of Los Angeles. Philadelphia, PD: Temple University Press. Moss, M.L.& A. Townsend (2000), The Internet Backbone and the American Metropolis. The Information Society Journal 16, pp Parks, L. (2001), Cultural Geographies in Practice. Ecumene 8, pp Poster, M. (1995), The Second Media Age. Oxford: Polity. Pratt, M.L. (1992), Imperial Eyes. London: Routledge. Recabarren, M., M. Nussbaum & C. Levia (2008), Cultural Divide and the Internet. Computers in Human Behavior 24, pp Rose, G. (1994), The Cultural Politics of Place: Local Representation and Oppositional Discourse in Two Films. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 19, pp Rye, S.A. (2008), Exploring the Gap of the Digital Divide. GeoJournal 71, pp Samuelson, M. (2008), The Urban Palimpsest: Re-presenting Sophiatown. Journal of Postcolonial Writing 44, pp Schein, R. (1997), The Place of Landscape: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting an American Scene. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 87, pp Sieber, R.E. (2006), Public Participation Geographic Information Systems: A Literature Review and Framework. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 96, pp Simon, R., P. Fröhlich & H. Anegg (2007), Enabling Spatially Aware Mobile Applications. Transactions in GIS 11, pp Sizemore, C. (1984), Reading the City as Palimpsest: The Experiential Perception of a City in Doris Lessing s The Four Gated City. In: S. Squier, ed., Women Writers and the City. Knoxville, TE: University of Tennessee Press. Sui, D.Z. (2008), The Wikification of GIS and its Consequences: Or Angelina Jolie s New Tattoo and the Future of GIS. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 32, pp Szott, R. (2006), What is Neogeography Anyway? Platial. Available at: <http://platial.typepad.com/ news/2006/05/what_is_neogeog.html>. Thrift,N.&S.French (2002), The Automatic Production of Space. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 27, pp Thu Nguyen, D. & J. Alexander (1996), The Coming of Cyberspace Time and the End of Polity. In: R. Shields, ed., Cultures of Internet: Virtual Spaces, Real Histories and Living Bodies. London: Sage. Townsend, A.M. (2001), Network Cities and the Global Structure of the Internet. American Behavioral Scientist 44, pp Turner, A. (2006), Introduction to Neogeography. Sebastopol, CA: O Reilly. Walsh, N. (1998), A Technical Introduction to XML. Sebastopol, CA: O Reilly. Warf, B.(2001), SeguewaysintoCyberspace: Multiple Geographies of the Digital Divide. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 28, pp Warf, B.& J. Grimes (1997), Counterhegemonic Discourses and the Internet. The Geographical Review 87, pp Whittlesey, D. (1929), Sequent Occupance. Annals
15 436 MARK GRAHAM of the Association of American Geographers 19, pp Wilson, J. (2007), Platial s Origin. Platial. Available at: <http://platial.com/about>. Wilson, M.I. (2001), Location, Location, Location: The Geography of the Dot Com Problem. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 28, pp Zook, M. (2005), The Geographies of the Internet. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 40, pp Zook, M., M. Dodge, Y. Aoyama & A. Townsend (2004), New Digital Geographies: Information, Communication, and Place. In: S. Brunn, S. Cutter & J.W. Harrington, eds., Geography and Technology. Norwell, MA: Kluwer. Zook, M. & M. Graham (2007a), The Creative Reconstruction of the Internet: Google and the Privatisation of Cyberspace and DigiPlace. Geoforum 38, pp Zook, M.& M. Graham (2007b), From Cyberspace to DigiPlace: Visibility in an Age of Information and Mobility. In: H.J. Miller ed., Societies and Cities in the Age of Instant Access. London: Springer. Zook, M. & M. Graham (2007c), Mapping Digi- Place: Geocoded Internet Data and the Representation of Place. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 34, pp
A Briefing by IAB Europe Advertising on the Internet A quick download for policy makers contents Page What is advertising on the Internet? What is advertising on the Internet? Page 2 Page 3 Page 3 Page
13 th AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science 2010 Page 1 of 10 A characterization of Volunteered Geographic Information Watse Castelein 1, Łukasz Grus 2, Joep Crompvoets 3, Arnold
Graham Jones Internet Psychologist Web Success For Your Business How a completely new online strategy will boost your business Contents Introduction...3 Assessing the opportunity...4 It s different online...5
Issue 5 Welcome to Issue Number 5! www.easierinternetmarketing.com Inside this issue Getting Content For Your Site! Graham Bray Normandie Battle Road Punnetts Town East Sussex TN21 9DS Email: email@example.com
CONNECTED IS A MATTER OF GEOGRAPHY By Matthew Zook firstname.lastname@example.org networker Vol. 5 No. 3. 13-17 In June 2001, the founder of the Wild Day Internet shopping site, Michael Jackson, announced his intention
Search engine optimisation (SEO) Moving up the organic search engine ratings is called Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) and is a complex science in itself. Large amounts of money are often spent employing
10 ways Professional Service companies can increase their profits through marketing A Xander Marketing Guide T: 03302232770 E: email@example.com W: www.xandermarketing.com Introduction Traditionally
Chapter 1 Educational Technology in the Science Classroom Glen Bull and Randy L. Bell Technology has transformed the way in which science is conducted. Almost every aspect of scientific exploration has
WHITE PAPER August 2009 Pay Per Click Marketing Drive Leads and Sales the Cost Efficient Way Introduction Pay Per Click is one of the most cost effective marketing tools available, and can generate instant
Event Director s Best Practices Webinar Series Presents How to Drive More Traffic to Your Event Website Matt Clymer Online Marketing Specialist December 16 th 2010 Today s Speakers Moderator Guest Speaker
Web design At the start of a new or redesign web project, an important first step is to define the objectives for the web site. What actions do you want visitors to take when they land on the web site?
Image placeholder Digital Market Overview India Understanding the scale of change of online audiences and digital media in India The massive Indian market is changing fast. Internet access is mainstreaming
Scholarship essay for cosmetology high school students. It is worth connecting with them as many people are open to the opportunity of joining another business, either as a replacement business or as a
SOCIAL JOURNALISM STUDY 2012 2012 Social Journalism Study - United Kingdom Report by Cision & Canterbury Christ Church University (UK) www.cision.com 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Key findings: 28.1% of UK journalists
How to Interpret and make the most of Belbin Team/Group Reports Belbin Team/Group reports can be used for a variety of reasons, including (but not restricted to): Helping to form a new team Understanding
Future Landscapes Research report June 2005 CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Original ideas for the project 3. The Future Landscapes prototype 4. Early usability trials 5. Reflections on first phases of development
Approximately 90% of the people you find on the internet in today s world know at least one social network and are registered as an active user on it. The imminence and influence of social media is what
The changing face of the mobile phone and its implication for marketing The ubiquitous mobile phone The Irish love affair with the mobile phone is a well documented story. The most recent report from the
Native, Hybrid or Mobile Web Application Development Learn more about the three approaches to mobile application development and the pros and cons of each method. White Paper Develop a Mobile Application
Social Media Marketing - From Bowling to Pinball By Svend Hollensen, Associate Professor, University of Southern Denmark and Anthony Raman, MCInst.M., RPM In the physical marketplace different communication
Realities Toolkit #10 Using Blog Analysis Helene Snee, Sociology, University of Manchester July 2010 1. Introduction Blogs are a relatively new form of internet communication and as a result, little has
Enterprise 2.0 and SharePoint 2010 Doculabs has many clients that are investigating their options for deploying Enterprise 2.0 or social computing capabilities for their organizations. From a technology
Open Access: This text is available at: http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/conferences/bobcatsss2008/ OPACs' Users' Interface Do They Need Any Improvements? Discussion on Tools, Technology, and Methodology Piotr
An Integrated Approach to Managing Innovation White Paper Innovation is the core business competency of the 21 st century. In order to not only compete and grow but to survive in a global economy, businesses
How to create the Perfect Search Results Page 7 advanced optimisation techniques A range of advanced SEO techniques that will help you to get your brand to the top of the search engine results page (SERP)
Optimising marketing ideas: delivering echannel results firstname.lastname@example.org www.bluevenn.com BlueVenn. All Rights Reserved 2013 Introduction We help digital marketers seamlessly turn great ideas into billions
24 MEDIA LITERACY, GENERAL SEMANTICS, AND K-12 EDUCATION RENEE HOBBS* HEN THE Norrback Avenue School in Worcester, Massachusetts, opened Wits doors in a new building in September of 1999, it had reinvented
Publicity Guide How to promote your community relations event through the media How to promote your community relations event through the media. 1 Contents 1. Introduction... 4 2. Why publicity?... 4 3.
Website Development and Design: Real World Experience Debra Oglethorpe University CRS410 Internship in Communications Debra, Web Content Intern December 10, 2012 Experience Website Development and Design:
The move to Moodle: Perspective of academics in a College of Business Dr Robyn Walker College of Business, Massey University Associate Professor Mark Brown Office of the Assistant Vice Chancellor (Academic
Tourism Busines Portal Tutorial ONLINEDISTRIBUTIONCHANNELS INDEX INTRODUCTION....2 1. What types of online distribution channels are there?... 3 2. What tools can be used for direct online distribution?...
SEO Services Climb up the Search Engine Ladder 2 SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION Increase your Website s Visibility on Search Engines INTRODUCTION 92% of internet users try Google, Yahoo! or Bing first while
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING SOCIAL NETWORKING TECHNOLOGY FOR MARKETING IN SOUTH AFRICA Shaheen Khan Anis Mahomed Karodia Abstract The purpose of this article is to investigate and understand the effectiveness
OVERVIEW OF INTERNET MARKETING Introduction to the various ways in which you can market your business online 2 April 2012 Version 1.0 Contents Contents 2 Introduction 4 Skill Level 4 Terminology 4 What
: Maximizing opportunity, visibility and profit for Economic development organizations Creating and maintaining a website is a large investment. It may be the greatest website ever or just another website
Social Media Tools and Terminology Explained Social media Social Networks Microblogging Bookmarking is a term for the tools and platforms people use to engage with others and to develop as well as publish
Get Found Online Consumers are searching for your products and services online. Is your website getting found? 1 The Internet has profoundly transformed the way people learn about and shop for products.
Consumer Profile Tool Bringing your customers to life through analytics 1. Financial-Clarity Consumer Profile We are pleased to unveil our brand new Financial-Clarity Consumer Profile tool which went live
Umpqua Web Design 541-673-2671 www.umpquawebdesign.com 1 Most small businesses understand the importance of having a company website. A website can act as a virtual storefront and information hub, which
Online Traffic Generation Executive Summary Build it and they will come. A great quote from a great movie, but not necessarily true in the World Wide Web. Build it and drive traffic to your Field of Dreams
Creative Industries Economic Estimates January 2015 Statistical Release Date: 13/01/2015 The Creative Industries Economic Estimates are Official Statistics and have been produced to the standards set out
7 Biggest Mistakes in Web Design 1 7 Biggest Mistakes in Web Design 2 Written by Senka Pupacic This is not a free e-book! Printing out more than one copy - or distributing it electronically is prohibited
A WEB WITHOUT ADVERTISING THE IMPLICATIONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF ADBLOCKING TECHNOLOGIES ON EQUAL ACCESS TO FREE CONTENT AdBlock technologies are increasingly downloaded and used. According to a recent study
Consumers and the IP Transition: Communications patterns in the midst of technological change John B. Horrigan, PhD vember 2014 1 Summary of Findings Americans today have a range of communications services
The online marketing landscape is changing, there s no denying that fact. Those changes, while foreseeable, often come with their own set of questions. How do I implement that? How do we address this issue?
------------- Scope Of Services At Dataflurry Prospectus Prospective Client Overview Overview Of Services Offered By Dataflurry To Increase Targeted Search Engine Traffic Overview Of Methodologies Used
What is Prospect Analytics? Everything you need to know about this new sphere of sales and marketing technology and how it can improve your business Table of Contents Executive Summary... 2 The Power of
China Search International Introducing Baidu Introducing Baidu THE CHINA OPPORTUNITY China China is the third largest country in the world in terms of land mass after Russia and Canada. It s the largest
Real Life Methods Part of the ESRC National Centre for Research Methods Toolkit #02 Putting on an exhibition about your research Hazel Burke, Real Life Methods, University of Manchester July 2008 About
Affiliate In general any external 3 rd party with whom an organisation has a mutually beneficial sales or marketing relationship, e.g. a contract sales person or other business partner. On the Internet,
WHITE PAPER: How Businesses Are Leveraging New Internet Marketing Platforms Like Video, Social Media and Mobile to Acquire Customers and Build a Supportive Community Introduction: Businesses of all types
Online Dating Marketing Guide First let me tell you about us. We have been selling online dating software since 2001 and were one of the first companies to offer online dating software to the general public.
Search Engine Optimisation: Keys to Success David Lakins email@example.com www.keymultimedia.co.uk/seminars Follow me: twitter.com/davidlakins About Key Multimedia Founded in 2007 Based in Poundbury,
SPECIAL REPORT How Businesses Are Leveraging New Internet Marketing Platforms Like VIDEO, SOCIAL MEDIA, and MOBILE to Acquire New Customers and Dominate Their Markets Introduction Businesses of all types
Page 1 The Center of the World offers insights into American history topics including the post-world War II economic order, city planning in the era of urban renewal, and globalization and its consequences.
Project Overview In today s web-focussed world, internet sales and internet marketing must play an important aspect of any company s growth plans. Effective use of web technologies and opportunities can
BA (Hons) Fashion Marketing and Branding course content Year One During Year One you will be provided with a thorough foundation of the subject of fashion marketing and branding, and the industry in which
Chapter 3 FACTORS OF DISTANCE LEARNING 1. FACTORS OF DISTANCE LEARNING Distance learning, where the learner can be anywhere, anytime, is an important component of the future learning system discussed in
BeeSocial M A R K E T I N G Create A Buzz About Your Business Social Media Marketing Bee Social Marketing is part of Genacom, Inc. www.genacom.com What is Social Media Marketing? Social Media Marketing
A brief introduction to the freemium business model What is freemium? e word freemium is made up from the words free and premium. It describes a business model where you give a core product away for free
E-book The beginner s guide to content management systems A good website is regularly updated and grows over time. In this e-book we show you how administering the content on a hungry website shouldn t
PR and Social Media James L. Horton Newspapers are withering. Network television has watched audiences decline. Radio is splintered. Magazines are shrinking. Meanwhile, there are millions of bloggers and
Open Publish Open access to scholarly research Bobby Graham Abstract The National Library of Australia is trialling the Open Journal Systems (OJS) digital publishing software to advance their understanding
2 Executive Summary The annual global Digital Influence Index takes a look not only at what consumers are doing online but also whom they re interacting with, the transactions they re completing, the technologies
The Perfect Digital Marketing Recipe For Your Business Success Executive Summary With a wide variety of options available to us, it can often be difficult to find the optimum combination of tools and techniques
P ROCEEDINGS VOLUME I SPACE SYNTAX TODAY THE REASONING ART: or, The Need for an Analytical Theory of Architecture Professor Bill Hillier and Dr Julienne Hanson University College London, London, England
Job Areas Affiliate Marketers are responsible for setting up and managing relationships with affiliate websites which are connected to their own main brand. Key responsibilities include setting up, monitoring
1 Presentation. Good morning ladies and gentlemen, dear colleagues. First of all I would like to thank the committee for this invitation and letting me speak about one of my favourite topics: the internet.
For more resources click here -> HTML-eZ: The Easy Way to Create a Class Website Henry Borysewicz Director, AeroSpace Network / Scientific Computing Center John D. Odegard School for Aerospace Sciences,
The Business Impact of the Cloud According to 460 Senior Financial Decision-Makers March 2012 Contents Summary of key findings 4 Finance decision-makers have a high awareness of cloud computing 4 The majority
1 Cellular Phones as a primary communications device: What are the implications for a global community? Bill Clark Claflin University, Orangeburg, SC Abstract Recent statistics show that more individuals
Finding influence: uncovering the brand conversations that matter in the new media world analytics blogs brand business comments community company conversations corporate discussed example firms forums
Increasing Traffic to Your Website Through Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Techniques Small businesses that want to learn how to attract more customers to their website through marketing strategies such
REPORT UPDATED: JANUARY 17, 2012 CITY: DUBLIN POLICY AREAS: SOCIAL SERVICES; TECHNOLOGY BEST PRACTICE Since 2008, the online Access Guide of Dublin, found at www.accessdublin.ie, has been maintained by
Key Insights Research shows a strong positive correlation between collaboration and innovation. On average, collaborative events are under 30 minutes, consist of two or three people, and involve few tools;
Green Arrow Web Design Limited You and your ecommerce website. Don t think it will make your sales with no input from yourself or a professional Your Guide to ecommerce from Green Arrow Web Design What
Military Community and Family Policy Social Media Guide Staying Connected Introduction...3 Table of Contents Social Media Tools and Platforms...3 Social Networks...3 Blogs and Microblogs...7 Podcasts...8
Social Media Guidelines for Best Practice September 2009 Contents: Listen and research the social media environment Page 3 & 4 Set the parameters before you start Page 4 Getting Started Page 5-6 In Summary
Build Contacts, Manage Relationships, Get Results ACT! is the world s best selling contact management software with over 120,000 UK registered users. By using Sage ACT!, individuals, small businesses and
BEST PRACTICE SERIES Mobile Advertising Around the Globe: 2015 Annual Report 9 INSIGHT SERIES The Definitive Facebook Advertising Playbook marinsoftware.com Executive Summary In 2014, global smartphone
Mosaic ITES Services White Paper Google s Penguin More than just a Bird 1 Table of Content Introduction..3 Basics of Search Engine Optimization a.k.a. SEO....4 What are Search Algorithms..5 Function of
Ground Truthing Policy Using Participatory Map-Making to Connect Citizens and Decision Makers Shalini P. Vajjhala Citizen participation has become an increasingly important component of development planning