Recibido el 10 de abril de 2013, aceptado el 11 de julio de 2013 Nº de clasificación JEL: M31, M30 DOI: /cdg cc

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1 Mesuring influence of customer-bsed store brnd equity in purchse intention Medición de l influenci en l intención de compr del vlor bsdo en el consumidor de ls mrcs del distribuidor Recibido el 10 de bril de 2013, ceptdo el 11 de julio de 2013 Nº de clsificción JEL: M31, M30 DOI: /cdg cc Abstrct: Cristin Clvo-Porrl 1 Vlentín-Alejndro Mrtínez-Fernández 1 Oscr Juntey-Bog 1 Jen-Pierre Lévy-Mngín 2 Universidd de L Coruñ (Espñ) University of Quebec in Ottw (Cndá) Store brnds ccount for nd importnt mrket shre in Spin nd furr increse in expected in next yers due to downturn. However, re is lck of reserch on store brnd customer-bsed Brnd Equity. This study ttempts to propose n integrted model of Brnd Equity in store or retiler brnds, bsed on Aker s well-known conceptul model. We propose consumer-bsed model, including min sources or dimensions of Brnd Equity nd considering intention to purchse s consequence. Bsed on smple of 362 consumers nd 5 store brnds, structurl eqution modeling is used to test reserch hyposes. The results obtined revel tht store brnd wreness, loylty long with store brnd perceived qulity hve significnt influence on consumers intention to purchse store brnds. Our study suggests tht mrketers nd mrketing mngers from retiling compnies should crefully consider Brnd Equity components when designing ir brnd strtegies, nd develop mrketing ctivities in order to enhnce ir brnds wreness. Keywords: Store brnd, Brnd Equity, purchse intention, retil, structurl eqution modeling. Resumen: Ls mrcs del distribuidor suponen un cuot de mercdo importnte en Espñ y se esper un incremento superior en los próximos ños debido l recesión. Sin embrgo, hy un flt de investigción sobre el vlor de ls mrcs del distribuidor bsdo en el consumidor. Este estudio intent proponer um modelo integrl de 1 Fcultd Economí y Empres, Dpto. Análisis Económico y Administrción de Empress, Cmpus Elviñ s/n, 15071, L Coruñ. 2 Mrketing Deprtment, Cmpus Gtineu, Pvillon Lucient Beult, B2072, Boulevrd Alexndre-Tché, 1250, Gtineu (Québec). ISSN: Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp

2 Mesuring influence of customer-bsed store brnd equity in purchse intention vlor de mrc pr ls mrcs del distribuidor o mrcs propis, bsdo en el conocido modelo conceptul de Aker. Proponemos un modelo bsdo en el consumidor, que incluye ls principles fuentes o dimensiones de vlor de mrc, considerndo l intención de compr como su consecuenci. Bsándonos en un muestr de 362 consumidores y 5 mrcs del distribuidor, llevmos cbo um modelo de ecuciones estructurles pr probr ls hipótesis de l investigción. Los resultdos obtenidos reveln que l notoriedd de ls mrcs del distribuidor, l leltd, junto con l clidd percibid, tienen un influenci significtiv en l intención de compr de mrcs del distribuidor por prte de los consumidores. Nuestro estudio sugiere que los gestores de mrketing y comercilizción de ls empress de distribución deben considerr cuiddosmente los componentes del vlor de mrc l hor de diseñr sus estrtegis de mrc, y desrrollr tividdes de mrketing pr incrementr l notoriedde de sus mrcs. Plbrs clve: Mrc del distribuidor, vlor de mrc, intención de compr, distribución, modelo de ecuciones estructurles. 94 Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp ISSN:

3 Cristin Clvo-Porrl / Vlentín-Alejndro Mrtínez-Fernández / Oscr Juntey-Bog / Jen-Pierre Lévy-Mngín 1. INTRODUCTION An importnt nd recent trend in retil industry hs been gret growth of store brnds, especilly mong non-durble consumer goods. Spin hs become one of Europen countries with higher increse in store brnds mrket shre (Bigné et l. 2013). More specificlly, store brnds ccount for 35.2 per cent of mrket shre in Spnish re- tiling (Privte Lbel Mnufcturers Assocition 2012). Crrying store brnds comes with numerous dvntges for retilers nd leds to better retiler performnce. Store brnds represent differentition tools in retil competition which help engender customer loy- lty, enhnce retiler mrgin nd enble retilers to build high vlue offering (Corstjens nd Ll 2000, Sudhir nd Tlukdr 2004). Since lrge portion of most retilers revenue nd profit comes from selling ir own store brnds, which mny of ir competitors lso offer, building ir own Brnd Equity is prticulrly chllenging problem (Ailwdi nd Keller 2004). So, currently retilers hve dopted store Brnd Equity enhncement strtegy (Pppu nd Quester 2006), which enbles successful commerciliztion of ny product ctegory nd is key component of competitive strtegy of retilers. With prompting trend tody towrd higher store concentrtion, globl recession nd chnging consumer hbits, building strong brnds hs become mrketing priority for mny compnies nowdys becuse it provides multiple dvntges to estblish nd crete n identity in mrket plce for compny nd it is key source of competitive dvntge (Aker 1996). Since clssic reserches of Aker nd Keller, Brnd Equity hs been brodly tested for mnufcturer brnds (Yoo et l. 2000; Cherntony et l. 2003; Atilgn et l. 2005); whilst re is lck of reserch on store brnds equity (De Wulf et l. 2005). Bsed on previous contributions, we define store Brnd Equity on similr elements s ny mn- ufcturer brnd, pplying Aker s (1991, 1996) customer-bsed Brnd Equity model, despite store brnds seem to offer better price-qulity reltionship thn mnufcturer brnds, since y re trgeting nd meeting specific consumers demnd. (Kpferer 2008). Our reserch gol is to provide better understnding of extent to which store Brnd Equity contributes to customers purchse intention, nd more specificlly wy through which store brnds engender vlue for customers, nd consequently influence purchse intent. The present study ims to contribute to lck of reserch on this topic, nlyzing influence of sources of Brnd Equity on store brnds from consum- ers stndpoint in determinte context Spnish retiling-, in order to deepen understnding of key vribles engendering nd enhncing store brnds vlue in mrketplce, giver ir incresingly rpid growing mrket shre. This reserch seeks to provide more in-depth understnding of vribles or dimen- sions through which store brnds generte vlue to customers, in order to increse ir purchse intention. This pper is structured s follows. In first section we develop conceptul frmework bsed on store Brnd Equity nd its ntecedents. This is followed by description of methodology dopted. The results re presented nd discussed subsequently. Finlly, min conclusions nd oreticl implictions re provided, s well s some suggestions for future reserch. ISSN: Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp

4 Mesuring influence of customer-bsed store brnd equity in purchse intention 2. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 2.1. The concept of brnd equity nd its consequences Frquhr (1989) defines Brnd Equity s dded vlue tht brnd brings to prticulr product or service, nd points out tht Brnd Equity is tht set of ssets nd libilities linked to brnd, its nme or symbol, tht incorporte or decrese vlue provided by product or service to compny or its customers. On or hnd, Keller (1993), defines Brnd Equity s mrketing effects or outcomes tht ccrue to product or service with its brnd nme, compred to outcomes if sme product or service did not hve brnd nme. Following Aker (1991), Brnd Equity is conceptulized s set of ssets nd libilities linked to brnd, its nme or symbol, which enhnces or decreses vlue provided by product or service to compny nd its customers. According to Keller s model (1993), Brnd Equity occurs when consumer is fmilir with brnd nd holds some fvorble, strong nd unique brnd ssocitions in memory. Authors like Aker (1991, 1996) or Keller (1993) hve concep- tulized Brnd Equity s multidimensionl vrible, while proposing mesurement models chrcterized by use of different vribles relted to consumer behvior, perceptions nd preferences. Severl oreticl models highlight multidimensionl nture of Brnd Equity (Lssr et l. 1995; Agrwl nd Ro 1996, Kim et l. 2009), s well s sources of Brnd Equity (Yoo nd Donthu 2002; Pppu, et l. 2005). Among se models, those proposed by Aker (1991, 1996) nd Keller (1993), re n impor- tnt reference in mrketing-relted scientific community, providing complete nd integrting pproch of Brnd Equity concept (Yoo nd Donthu 2001; Pppu et l. 2005, 2007; Jung nd Sung 2008). For this reson, in study we hve chosen model proposed by Aker (1991), s it is most commonly cited, s well s probed in number of empiricl investigtions (Yoo et l. 2000; Fircloth et l. 2001; Atilgn et l. 2005). Thus, following oreticl model proposed by Aker (1991), we propose model of formtion of Brnd Equity which incorportes four dimensions, such s brnd wreness, perceived qulity, brnd ssocitions nd brnd loylty. Our study ims to nlyze consequences of store Brnd Equity on consumer behvior, such s consumer purchse intention (Burke nd Schoeffler 1980; Wilson 1981). There is empiricl evidence which indictes tht store Brnd Equity influences purchsing decisions of consumer (Ashil nd Sinh 2004; Chng nd Liu 2009). Numerous reserchers hve demonstrted tht Brnd Equity increses probbility of brnd choice, purchse intent nd willingness to py premium prices (Erdem et l. 2002; Netemeyer et l. 2004). More specificlly, y note positive significnt reltion between dimensions of Brnd Equity, brnd preference nd purchse intention (Cobb-Wlgren et l. 1995; Myers 2003). This pper exmines wher store brnds purchse intention is relted to different sources of Brnd Equity, nd seeks to provide more in-depth understnding of reltionship mong se components. The store Brnd Equity conceptul frmework is depicted in Figure Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp ISSN:

5 Cristin Clvo-Porrl / Vlentín-Alejndro Mrtínez-Fernández / Oscr Juntey-Bog / Jen-Pierre Lévy-Mngín Figure 1 Conceptul frmework of store Brnd Equity Source: Own elbortion 2.2. The store brnd equity A. The conceptuliztion of store Brnd Equity Store brnds, lso clled privte brnds, own brnds, retiler brnds, wholesle brnds nd distributor s brnds hve drwn cdemic nd mngeril ttention, in prllel with ir growing mrket shre. Following definition given by Americn Mrketing Assocition, it cn be defined s brnd which identifies goods nd services of retiler nd differentites m from competitors. Store brnds enble retilers to build high vlue proposition nd offer consumers rnge of lower priced products, tht is, store brnds help retilers to compete profitbly in price-sensitive segment (Corstjens nd Ll 2000). However, store Brnd Equity concept is recent view of vlue creted by retil brnds. These brnds benefit consumers by providing m competitive lterntive to mnufcturer brnds bsed on lower prices, due to ir lower mnufcturing nd overhed costs, ir less expensive pckging nd lck of dvertising (Cunninghm et l. 1982; Dick et l. 1995). Store brnds generlly use price s driving force behind ir own mrketing mix (Beristin et l., 2011); however store brnds hve evolved throughout time nd nowdys re no longer simply ctegory killers; nd furrmore some of m positioning s premium price options (De Wulf 2005). There is little reserch on store brnds pplying Aker s (1991, 1996) Brnd Equity model, in order to ssess influence of its dimensions or sources on purchse intention. A synsis of most relevnt literture bout reltions between Aker s proposed dimensions of Brnd Equity pplied to store brnds re summrized in Tble 1. ISSN: Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp

6 influence customer-bsed brnd equity in mrcs purchse intention Medición de l influencimesuring en l intención de comprofdel vlor bsdo enstore el consumidor de ls del distribuidor Tble 11 Tble Dimensions of brnd equity pplied to store brnds identified in previous literture Vribles relted with store Brnd Equity Authors Contribution Collins-Dodd nd Lindley (2003) Store imge, store brnd price Beristin nd Zorrill (2011) Store brnd perceived qulity, store Store imge influences store brnd equibrnd loylty, store brnd wre- ty, essentilly through store commercil ness, store socil imge, store mr- nd strtegic imge. keting imge, store strtegic imge, store price imge. Ailwdi nd Keller (2004) Bo et l. (2011) Jr nd Cliquet (2012) Bigné et l. (2013) Swobod et l. (2013) Store imge nd store brnd price re two key ntecedents of store brnd equity. Retiler imge, brnd ssortment, Retiler brnd equity influences store privte lbel brnds equity. Privte lbels help building retiler brnd equity. Store imge, product signtu- Store imge nd product signtureness reness, consumer vlue, privte influence store brnd perceived qulity nd purchse intention brnds Store brnd wreness, store Store brnd wreness nd store brnd brnd imge, intention to buy, re- perceived qulity show higher intil brnd choice. fluence on store brnd equity Store brnd imge, store imge, Reciprocl influence between retiler or store loylty, store wreness sto- store imge nd store brnd imge re perceived qulity. Retil brnd equity, store loylty, Strong brnd equity nd store ccessibistore ccessibility lity crete nd enhnce store loylty. Source: Own elbortion Source: Own elbortion Following Aker Aker (1991, (1991, 1996) 1996) Brnd Brnd Equity Equity is is multidimensionl multidimensionl concept, concept, which which Following comprises five components or dimensions -brnd wreness, brnd imge or brnd scomprises five components or dimensions -brnd wreness, brnd imge or brnd ssocitions, perceived qulity, brnd loylty nd finlly, or ssets linked to brnd-. socitions, perceived qulity, brnd loylty nd finlly, or ssets linked to brnd-. The extension extension of of Aker s Aker s model model is is bsed bsed on on premise premise tht tht brnding brnding my my be be pplied pplied to to The store brnds, since consumers perceive m s genuine brnds, combining ir ttributes store brnds, since consumers perceive m s genuine brnds, combining ir ttributes of wreness, wreness, imge imge nd nd price. price. Hence, Hence, our our proposed proposed oreticl oreticl model model is is n n ppliction ppliction of of Aker s customer-bsed brnd equity model, replcing brnd equity with store Brnd of Aker s customer-bsed brnd equity model, replcing brnd equity with store Brnd Equity, bsed on tht brnding could be pplied to store Brnd Equity. Equity, bsed on tht brnding could be pplied to store Brnd Equity. B. B. The The components components of of store store Brnd Brnd Equity Equity B.1. Store Store brnd brnd wreness wreness B.1. Brnd wreness wreness reltes reltes to to likelihood likelihood tht tht brnd brnd nme nme will will come come in in consumer consumer Brnd mind nd ese with it does so (Keller 1993). Following Aker (1991) nd Keller (1993) mind nd ese with it does so (Keller 1993). Following Aker (1991) nd Keller (1993) 98 6 Cudernos de de Gestión Gestión Vol. Vol. xx Nº Nº x1 (xx), (2015), Cudernos pp.pp. xx-xx ISSN: ISSN:

7 Cristin Clvo-Porrl / Vlentín-Alejndro Mrtínez-Fernández / Oscr Juntey-Bog / Jen-Pierre Lévy-Mngín two components determine brnd wreness: brnd recognition requiring brnd wellknown by consumers- nd brnd recll testing consumers bility to remember brnd nmes ccording to specific product ctegory. Authors, like Rossiter nd Percy (1987) lso stte tht brnd wreness comprises consumer s bility to recognize nd recll brnd into give product ctegory. The role of dimension brnd wreness in Brnd Equity depends on level of noticebility tht is chieved by brnd in mrketplce. So, higher level of wreness, more dominnt is brnd, incresing likelihood tht this brnd is considered in mny purchse situtions. Hence, enhncing brnd wreness increses probbility tht brnd will be in considertion set (Nedungdi 1990). Regrding store brnds, hving sme brnd nme nd pckge design for products in wide rry of ctegories cross store, strengns brnd wreness nd recll of store or retil brnd nd my fcilitte consumer s purchsing decision (Dhr nd Hoch 1998). Finlly, following Dodds et l. (1991), consumers re more likely to rely on store brnds fmilir informtion cues, rr thn in good price-qulity reltionship in order to evlute product s vlue. Therefore, this hyposis is posed: H 0 : Store brnd wreness hs positive influence on purchse intention B.2. Store brnd perceived qulity Consumers perceive ny product s set of ttributes which my be used to infer its qulity (Keller 1993). According to Aker (1991) perceived qulity is n intngible overll feeling bout brnd, usully bsed on underlying dimensions. Thus, perceived qulity is relted to consumers subjective perception of product or brnd ttributes involved in decision-mking process. Following Zeithml (1988), perceived qulity is globl outcome of experience of different sensory stimuli tht consumer is rr unble to nlyze, but tht cn be used s globl ssessment of competitive qulity of brnd. According to Aker (1991, 1996), perceived qulity is conceptulized s n intngible overll evlution of brnd, usully bsed on some underlying dimensions, such s products chrcteristics ttched to brnd like relibility nd performnce. Store brnds competitive positioning derives from consumers perception of store brnds s convenient price options nd hve prioritized price (Ailwdi et l. 2008). However, more recent trends hve been chrcterized by stronger orienttion towrd qulity nd vlue proposition similr to mnufcturer brnds (Hoch nd Bnerji 1993). Although store brnds seem to offer better price-qulity reltionship thn mnufcturer brnds, ir competitive positioning differs in terms of qulity level offered (Sobermn nd Prker 2006). On or hnd, previous literture indictes tht store brnds suffer from poor low-qulity imge, which is probbly fostered by widespred use of poor looking pckging, inexpensive pckges nd lck of n ttrctive brnd imge, due to poor mrketing investment nd to ir mrket positioning (Richrdson et l. 1994). The importnce of store brnds perceived qulity is key fctor, given tht better store brnd is positioned in terms of qulity, more likely is to be purchsed (Ailwdi nd Keller 2004). Perceived qulity is min determinnt of store brnds success (Sprott nd Shimp 2004) nd it ws found to hve substntil exert on purchse intention (Bo et l. 2011). So, one of sources of store brnd success is perceived qulity, which leds to store differentition nd store loylty (Burt nd Sprks, 2002). A number of uthors like Sethurmn ISSN: Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp

8 Mesuring influence of customer-bsed store brnd equity in purchse intention (2000) or Hoch nd Bnerji (2000) hve remrked tht perceived qulity is min fctor in store brnds purchse decision. Perceived qulity hs significnt positive effect on consumer s purchse intention (Frquhr 1989). Then, we pose following hyposis: H 1 : Store brnd perceived qulity hs positive influence on purchse intention B.3. Store brnd loylty From behviorl perspective, brnd loylty is defined s degree to which consumer concentrtes its purchses over time on prticulr brnd within product ctegory (Schoell nd Guiltinn 1990). Brnd loylty dds considerble vlue to brnd becuse it provides set of hbitul buyers for long period of time (Aker, 1991), so customer loy- lty genertes numerous benefits for brnd. This study conceptulizes brnd loylty on bsis of consumer perception. Thus, following Aker (1991) brnd loylty is conceptulized s sitution which reflects how likely customer will be to switch to nor brnd, es- pecilly when tht brnd mkes chnge, eir in price or fetures. Keller (2003) refers to brnd loylty s nture of customer-brnd reltionship. These definitions highlight tht brnd loylty is core dimension of Brnd Equity (Aker, 1991). Customers who re loyl to prticulr brnd buy more nd re willing to py higher prices (Zeithml et l. 1996). Customer loylty is criticl gol for retilers becuse of n incresingly competitive retil environment nd low customer switching costs (Wllce et l. 2004). Store brnding is extremely importnt in helping influence consumer perceptions nd drive store choice nd loylty (Ailwdi nd Keller 2004). There is empiricl evidence suggesting tht once consumer hs tried store brnds, increses store brnd proneness, engendering store brnd loylty nd enhncing likelihood of purchsing store brnds (Steemkmp nd Dekimpe 1997). However, customers remin loyl to store brnds only if brnds mintin fvorble imge. Store brnd recognition in some ctegories my constitute n element of differentition for retiler nd foster consumers brnd loylty (Steemkmp nd Dekimpe 1997). Finlly, some reserchers posit tht brnd loylty hs direct nd positive role in ffecting Brnd Equity nd purchse intention (Yoo et l. 2000; Atilgn et l. 2005). Thus, this set of considertions leds us to following hyposis: H 2 : Store brnd loylty hs positive influence on purchse intention B.4. Store brnd price imge Price hs often been considered s n indictor of product or service cost (Kotler nd Armstrong 2008). Following Ailwdi nd Keller (2004), price represents monetry ex- penditure tht consumer must incur in order to mke purchse. (Ailwdi 2008). As it ws explined before, store brnds vlue proposition is strongly influenced by price, nd unsurprisingly y re perceived s cheper lterntives thn mnufcturer brnds (Beristin et l. 2011). For this reson store brnd price imge hs been selected s brnd ssocition in our reserch. Store brnds low-price positioning derives from consumers perception of store brnds s convenient price option -compred to mnufcturer brnds-, focusing on low-price proposition. So, price gp in comprison with mnu- 100 Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp ISSN:

9 Cristin Clvo-Porrl / Vlentín-Alejndro Mrtínez-Fernández / Oscr Juntey-Bog / Jen-Pierre Lévy-Mngín fcturer brnds is key vrible in store brnds purchse process (Aker 1996), nd retilers develop strtegies which intend to emphsize good vlue for money in ir choice (Rngswmy et l. 1993, Blts 1997). A number of studies hve remrked benefits creted by store brnds, relted to svings linked to ir purchse, highlighting tht need of sving is min fctor for buying store brnds (Rju et l. 1995). So, price plys n essentil role in configurtion of store Brnd Equity proposition (Aker 1991); nd thus, we propose tht perception of n ffordble, dequte or reltively low price hs positive influence on purchse intention (Richrson et l. 1996). This set of considertions leds us to following hyposis: H 3 : The store brnd price imge s dequte ffordble prices- hs positive influence on purchse intention B.5. Store imge The rtionle of our reserch is tht store brnds imge positioning is bsed on tht of store, suggesting tht influencing store Brnd Equity is due to lrge extent by retiler or store imge, nd consequently by store reputtion nd store commercil (Collins-Dodd nd Lindley, 2003; De Wulf et l., 2005; Beristin nd Zorrill, 2011). The reson my be tht retiler or store imge would ply key role s customer gurntee when informtion of mnufcturer is not provided. This wy, customers would rely on store imge, which decreses perceived risk of purchsing store brnds. This proposed model will llow us identify influence of store imge on store Brnd Equity nd consequently on store brnds purchse intent, given tht extrinsic cue provided by store imge should be more relevnt for store brnds thn for mnufcturer brnds. Following Ailwdi nd Keller (2004) imge of retiler or store in minds of consumers is bsis of store Brnd Equity; nd thus, retiler nd store imge becomes n importnt bse for ir store Brnd Equity, by influencing consumer preferences nd purchsing behvior. Therefore, we propose considering se store imge vribles in customer-bsed store Brnd Equity model, s- suming tht store reputtion nd store commercil imge, would influence store Brnd Equity. B.5.1. Store reputtion Store reputtion my be defined s set of ssocitions linked to determinte store or retiler which mke up overll store imge (Keller 1993). Store reputtion is expressed in terms of store s ttributes perceived nd ssessed by consumers (Devlin et l. 2003). Severl uthors hve nlyzed store reputtion including vribles like store personlity nd its globl corporte imge (Floor 2006). In this reserch we hve considered store reputtion se vribles both relted with socil imge of store or retiler, since following uthors like Turbn nd Greenging (1996) or Brown nd Dncing (1997), stores cn be perceived s firms, linking store imge with spects such s compny s behvior nd commitment to society. Through its influence on customers preferences nd purchse behvior, store reputtion becomes key vrible of store Brnd Equity (Keller 2003). Therefore, we pose following hyposis: H 4 : The store reputtion hs positive influence on purchse intention ISSN: Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp

10 Mesuring influence of customer-bsed store brnd equity in purchse intention B.5.2. Store commercil imge Literture provides numerous references to positive effect of store commercil imge on store Brnd Equity nd purchse intention (Semeijn et l. 2004, Vhie nd Pswn 2006). The store commercil imge hs generlly been defined s wy in which store is defined in consumer s mind, prtly by functionl qulities nd prtly by psychologicl ttributes of store (Thompson nd Chen 1998; Bloemer nd Ruyter 1998). Most uthors hve centre don functionl ttributes of store, s qulity of products offered nd vriety of ssortment, services provided to customers, product ssortment, physicl fcilities, internl environment or good reltion of vl- ue for money (Chowdhury et l. 1998; Erdem et l. 1999; Jin nd Kim 2003). A number of studies highlighted tht consumers perceptions of store internl tmosphere nd environ- ment cn influence consumers decision wher or not y visit store, how much time y spend in it, how much money y spend re nd quntity purchsed (Grewl et l. 2003). So, consumers use se cues to form overll evlutions ffecting ir ttitude towrd store brnd (Semeijn et l. 2004). Store commercil imge cn ply crucil role in building store Brnd Equity; nd re is empiricl evidence showing tht positive store commercil imge positively influences store brnd proneness nd purchsing decision (Porter nd Clycomb 1997). Thus, following reserch hyposis is posed: H 5 : The store commercil imge hs positive influence on purchse intention The proposed cusl reltions re depicted in Figure 2. Figure 2 Proposed oreticl model Source: Own elbortion 102 Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp ISSN:

11 Cristin Clvo-Porrl / Vlentín-Alejndro Mrtínez-Fernández / Oscr Juntey-Bog / Jen-Pierre Lévy-Mngín 3. METHODOLOGY 3.1. Selection of vribles The relity of store brnds is enormously rich nd complex, since store brnds re vilble in severl commercil retiling formts (Kpferer, 2008), so it requires selection of specific reserch re in order to test hyposis rised. Our reserch universe comprises Spnish consumers who purchse store brnd products in supermrkets, hypermrkets, deprtment stores or discount stores. We followed some criteri in order to select retilers. In first plce we selected number of different retil formts, focusing on leding compnies in Spnish retiling system, considering ir totl revenue in yer 2012 (Worldpnel Distribución 2012). Secondly, we choose retilers who offer store brnds to consumers. This wy, we selected retilers Mercdon supermrket formt-, Crrefour nd Eroski hypermrket formt-, Di s discount store- nd finlly El Corte Inglés - s deprtment store formt. We lso considered five mjor retilers bsed on ir vilbility nd fmilirity to customers. Lstly, it should be remrket tht our reserch did not consider or retiling formts with lower revenue volume or lcking n own store brnd. Bsed on vrious scles of mesurement provided by literture on oreticl nlysis mde, we creted set of items, which were mesured using clssic Likerttype 1-5 scle. First, in order to mesure store brnd wreness, we used items proposed by Aker (1996) nd by Netemeyer et l. (2004), which refer to generl knowledge consumer hs bout brnd nd to ir bility to distinguish nd recognize brnd compred to or competitive brnds. Regrding store brnd perceived qulity, it ws mesured using scle proposed by Dodds et l. (1991), which ssess perceived qulity without regrding ttributes specific to prticulr product ctegory, nd which ims to gr consumer s overll ssessment on excellence of product or brnd. For mesuring store brnd loylty, we use scle proposed by Yoo et l., (2000), which nlyzes wher consumer is considered loyl to prticulr brnd nd if brnd is its first option, even if he would not buy or brnds when this brnd is not vilble t point of sle. For mesuring store brnd price imge we used scle proposed by Yoo et l. (2000), since it considers price perception from consumers stndpoint, considering tht higher vlue of se items men tht consumers perceive prices s more ffordble nd suitble to household budget. The store reputtion ws ssessed using some items suggested by Grcí de los Slmones et l. (2005), nd Beristin nd Zorrill (2011) bsed on perceptions of consumers bout ethicl nd socil corporte behvior, following reserch line bout influence of corporte socil responsibility on consumers behvior (Hndelmn nd Arnold, 1999). The store commercil imge ws mesured by using items proposed by Beristin nd Zorrill (2011), to which re hs been dded items relted to dded services offered by store, proposed by Aker (1996) nd Chowdhury et l. (1998). Finlly, for mesuring consumer purchse intention we used items proposed by Netemeyer et l. (2004). The vribles nd indictors used in study re summrized in Tble 2. ISSN: Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp

12 influence customer-bsed brnd equity in purchse intention Medición de l influencimesuring en l intención de comprofdel vlor bsdo enstore el consumidor de ls mrcs del distribuidor Tble 2 Vribles nd reflective indictors Ltent vribles Store Brnd Awreness Aker (1996), Netemeyer et l. (2004) Store Brnd Perceived Qulity Dodds et l. (1991) Store Brnd Loylty Yoo et l. (2000) Indictors AW1: I m ble to distinguish nd recognize store brnd X mong or brnds in point of sle AW2: I ssocite products of store brnd X to positive chrcteristics (ex. good prices) AW3: Buyer of products of store brnd X know how to buy (buy with common sense) AW4: It gives me confidence buying store brnd X QAL1: The products of store brnd X hve high qulity QAL2: The products of store brnd X re relible/trustworthy QAL3: The products of store brnd X give me result I m looking for LOY1: I consider myself loyl consumer to store brnd X products LOY2: When it comes to buying, my first purchse option is store brnd X LOY3: I intend to keep on buying store brnd X. Store Brnd Price imge SPR1: The prices of store brnd X re ffordble for most consumers Yoo et l. (2000) SPR2: The prices of store brnd X re dequte for household budget Store Reputtion Hndelmn nd Arnold (1999), Grcí de los Slmones et l. (2005), Beristin nd Zorrill (2011) SRE1: X is compny concerned bout environment SRE2: X is compny committed with society (ex. dontions, collbortes with NGOs, etc) SRE3: X is compny which behves in n ethicl nd honest wy SRE4: X is compny tht cres bout consumers helth nd welfre Purchse Intention Netemeyer et l., (2004) INT1: I would buy store brnd X. INT2: I m likely to buy store brnd X. Store Commercil Imge Aker (1996), Chowdhury et l. (1998), Beristin nd Zorrill (2011) SCOIM1: Store X offers wide rnge of products SCOIM2: Store X offers products with high qulity SCOIM3: The store X offers services tht I m looking for (ex. Py over time, products return, etc.) Source: Own elbortion Smpling Smpling nd nd fieldwork fieldwork The respondents were weredelibertely delibertelynot notsked sked select store or retiler for which The respondents to to select store or retiler for which y y hve detiled knowledge or shopping experience, in order to get closer to hve detiled knowledge or shopping experience, in order to get closer to untic untic shopping shopping where customers mkefrom choices set of lterntives. Thus, we situtions,situtions, where customers mke choices setfrom of lterntives. Thus, we proceeded proceeded with rndom smpling mong customers, requesting informtion on onebrnd sinwith rndom smpling mong customers, requesting informtion on one single store gle store brnd of selected retilers -nmely store brnds Dí, Eroski, El Corte Inglés, of selected retilers -nmely store brnds Dí, Eroski, El Corte Inglés, Crrefour nd Crrefour ndnd Hcenddo-, nd not regrding specific ctegory, s for Hcenddo-, not regrding specific product ctegory,product s for exmple AW4 It exmple gives me AW4 It gives me confidence buying store brnd Di or SOIM1 Di offers wide rnge confidence buying store brnd Di or SOIM1 Di offers wide rnge of products. of products. Ech of items in questionnire is nchored on five-point Likert scle to mesure respondent s greement to item posted, rnging from 1-strongly disgree to Cudernos Cudernos de de Gestión Gestión Vol. Vol. 15 xx -- Nº Nº 1x (2015), (xx), pp.pp. xx-xx ISSN: ISSN:

13 Cristin Clvo-Porrl / Vlentín-Alejndro Mrtínez-Fernández / Oscr Juntey-Bog / Jen-Pierre Lévy-Mngín Cristin Clvo-Porrl / Vlentín-Alejndro Mrtínez-Fernández / Oscr Juntey-Bog / Jen-Pierre Lévy-Mngín Ech of items in questionnire is nchored on five-point Likert scle to mesure respondent s cptured item posted, rnging from 1-strongly disgree to 5-strongly gree. The greement informtiontows through structured on-line questionnire 5-strongly gree. The informtion ws cptured through structured on-line questionnire nd fieldwork ws done in My 2012, with smpling error of 5.2 per cent, t connd level fieldwork wsunder done hyposis in My 2012, with smpling of 5.2technique per cent, t confidence of 95% p=q=0,5. A rndomerror smpling ws perfidence level of 95% under hyposis p=q=0,5. A rndom smpling technique ws performed to select prticipnts, obtining totl mount of 362 vlid responses. The finl formed to select prticipnts, obtining totl mount of 362 vlid responses. The finl prt of questionnire collected socio-demogrphic dt of respondents (Tble 3), prt of 362 questionnire collectedgring socio-demogrphic dt of or respondents (Tble 3), obtining vlid respondents, following number vlid questionnires obtining 362 vlid respondents, gring following number or vlid questionnires for ech store brnd: 77 questionnires corresponding to Eroski, 75 corresponding to Crfor ech store brnd: El 77Corte questionnires Eroski, 75 corresponding refour, 74 regrding Inglés, 69 corresponding corresponding to to Mercdon nd 67 relted to to CrDi. refour, 74 regrding El Corte Inglés, 69 corresponding to Mercdon nd 67 relted to Di. Tble 3 Smple description Vribles Gender Age Income level (Euros/ month) Studies level Store Brnds Purchse frequency Femle Mle Cgory yers > 60 Percentge (%) < > None Primry Eduction Secondry Eduction University Eduction Doctorte (Phd) > 1 purchse per week 1 purchse/ week 1 purchse / 15 dys Source: Own elbortion 4. RESULTS Anlysis Anlysis of of mesurement mesurement model model 4.1. Structurl Eqution Eqution Modeling Modeling (SEM) (SEM) ws ws crried crried out out in in order order to to nlyze nlyze proposed proposed Structurl model, by using Amos 18.0 which provides with confirmtory fctor nlysis nd show model, by using Amos 18.0 which provides with confirmtory fctor nlysis nd show cler cler fctoril fctoril structure structure for for constructs constructs considered. considered. The The first first nlysis nlysis reveled reveled need need to to remove one item from initil scle in order to mesure dimensions. One item from remove one item from initil scle in order to mesure dimensions. One item from initil initil proposed proposed scle scle ws ws deleted, deleted, more more specificlly specificlly n n item item concerning concerning store store brnd brnd loylty (LOY3). When hving removed this indictor, results of confirmtory fctor ISSN: ISSN: Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp Cudernos de Gestión Vol. xx - Nº x (xx), pp. xx-xx

14 Mesuring influence of customer-bsed store brnd equity in purchse intention Medición de l influenci en l intención de compr del vlor bsdo en el consumidor de ls mrcs del distribuidor loylty (LOY3). When hving removed this indictor, results of confirmtory fctor nlysis demonstrted resonble fit of five-dimension model to dt on bsis of fit sttistics (Tble 4). Confirmtory fctor nlyses were employed to ddress issues of dimensionlity, convergent nd discriminnt vlidity (Anderson nd Gerbing 1988). Our confirmtory fctoril nlysis shows tht ll stndrdized lodings re significnt, with relibility level of 95% nd rech vlues up to 0.5, except for item AW1 which should be considered in furr reserch. These results revel strong convergent vlidity (Steenkmp nd Trijp 1991; Fornell nd Lrcker 1981; Lévy-Mngín 2001; Dimntopoulos nd Siguw 2006), like bsolute fit mesures revel. In reltion with nlyses of internl consistency nd relibility, Cronbch Alph, composite relibility coefficients nd nlysis of extrcted vrince exceeded were clculted. We obtined Cronbch Alph cceptble vlues of 0.7, 0.8 nd 0.7 s suggested Anderson nd Gerbing (1988) or Hir et l. (2006). Following previous literture, Composite relibility coefficients tht exceed vlue of 0.5 confirm internl relibility of construct considered (Bgozzi nd Yi 1989). In reltion with nlysis of extrcted vrince exceeded, tht should hve close vlues to 0.5 we lso obtin cceptble vlues for ll constructs (Hir et l. 1999). None of correltion coefficients were equl to or bove 0.9, providing empiricl support for discriminnt vlidity (Cmpbell nd Fiske 1959; Wu nd Lin 2000). Tble 4 Fctor lodings of ltent vribles nd Indictors of Internl Consistency nd Relibility Vrible Store brnd wreness Store brnd perceived qulity Store brnd loylty Store brnd price imge Store reputtion Store commercil imge Purchse intention Indictors AW1 AW2 AW3 AW4 QAL1 QAL2 QAL3 LOY1 LOY2 SPR1 SPR2 SRE1 SRE2 SRE3 SRE4 SCOIM1 SCOIM2 SCOIM3 INT1 INT2 Lodings (Lmbd) Cronbch Alph Composite Relibility AVE Source: Own elbortion Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp Cudernos de Gestión Vol. xx - Nº x (xx), pp. xx-xx ISSN: ISSN:

15 Cristin Clvo-Porrl / Vlentín-Alejndro Mrtínez-Fernández / Oscr Juntey-Bog / Jen-Pierre Lévy-Mngín Cristin Clvo-Porrl / Vlentín-Alejndro Mrtínez-Fernández / Oscr Juntey-Bog / Jen-Pierre Lévy-Mngín The overll fit mesures indicte tht this model shows proper fit. According to The obtined overll fitfor mesures indictemodeling tht this djustment model shows proper fit. According to results structurl (Tble 5). Chi-squre reches results obtined for structurl modeling djustment (Tble 5). Chi-squre reches vlue of (DF=149, p<0.001), with significnt level. So, chi-squre, could be vlue of (DF=149, p<0.001), with significnt level. So, chi-squre, could be considered relible indictor of model fit (Bollen 1989; Hir et l. 1999). Or bsolute considered relible indictor of model fit (Bollen Hirnd et l. 1999). Or bsolute mesures of modeling djustment (Goodness of 1989; Fit Index Root Men Squre Error mesures of modeling djustment (Goodness of Fit Index nd Root Men Squre Error of Approximtion) show good results, given tht former reches threshold of 0.9 of Approximtion) good results, givenvlue. tht reches threshold of pr0.9 nd lter showsshow vlue lower thn 0.05 Theformer mesures of incrementl fit nd nd lter vlue lower 0.05into vlue. The mesures incrementl fit Fit ndindex prsimony, lsoshows indicte proper fit,thn tking considertion thtof Incrementl simony, lso indicte proper fit, tking into considertion tht Incrementl Fit Index (IFI), Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) nd Comprtive Fit Index (CFI) reches threshold (IFI), Tucker-Lewis (TLI) nd shows Comprtive Index (CFI) threshold superior 0.9 nd Index normed Chi-Squre vluefit of 1.830, tht is,reches superior thn 1 nd superior 0.9 nd normed Chi-Squre shows vlue of 1.830, tht 2 is, superior thn 1 nd lower thn 2 (Qiu 2003). Furrmore, relibility rte chieved (R =0.668) by structurl lower thnin2 (Qiu 2003). eqution model is Furrmore, high (Hir et relibility l. 1999). rte chieved (R2=0.668) by structurl eqution in model is high (Hir et l. 1999). Tble 5 Structurl Modeling Adjustment Indexes Chi-squre Absolute Fit Mesures Degrees of Freedom Finl scle Significnt Level Root Men Squre Error of Approx (RMSEA) Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) Incrementl Fit Mesures Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) Incrementl Fit Index (IFI) Normed Fit Index (NFI) Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) Comprtive Fit Index (CFI) Normed Chi-squre Prsimony Mesures Source: Own elbortion 4.2. Reltionships mong vribles 4.2. Reltionships mong vribles When nlyzing coefficients obtined, some importnt results must be highlighted When nlyzing coefficients obtined, some importnt results must be highlighted (Tble 6). In first plce, store brnd wreness, loylty nd perceived qulity show positive (Tble 6). In first plce, store brnd wreness, loylty nd perceived qulity show posisignificnt influence on store brnd purchse intention, so our findings support three of tive significnt influence on store brnd purchse intention, so our findings support three of initil proposed hyposes. Secondly, it should be remrked tht store brnd wreness it initil proposed hyposes. Secondly, it should be remrked tht store brnd wreness vrible with higher effect on purchse intention (β17= 0.655**) -understood s fmiliit vrible with higher effect on purchse intention (β = 0.655**) -understood s rity, recognition nd recll by consumers-, followed by store 17brnd loylty (β37= 0.379**). fmili- rity, recognition nd recll by consumers-, followed by store brnd loylty (β37= ISSN: ISSN: Cudernos de Gestión Vol. xx - Nº x (xx), pp. xx-xx Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp

16 Mesuring influence of customer-bsed store brnd equity in purchse intention Medición de l influenci en l intención de compr del vlor bsdo en el consumidor de ls mrcs del distribuidor 0.379**). In third plce, store brnd perceived qulity (β27= 0.275**) shows lower In third plce, store brnd perceived qulity (β27= 0.275**) shows lower influence on influence on store brnd purchse intention. Thus, in terms of effect size, store brnd store brnd purchse intention. Thus, in terms of effect size, store brnd wreness seems wreness seems to contribute most to formtion of store Brnd Equity nd to its to contribute most to formtion of store Brnd Equity nd to its purchse intention. purchse intention. These findings demonstrte tht store brnds follow similr pttern to mnufcturer These findings demonstrte tht store brnds follow similr pttern to mnufcturer brnds, regrding influence of sources of Brnd Equity in purchse intention. This brnds, regrding influence of sources of Brnd Equity in purchse intention. This results re in line with number of previous reserch which remrk tht brnd wreness results re in line with number of previous reserch which remrk tht brnd wreness (Cobb-Wlgren et l. 2005; Pppu et l. 2005) or brnd loylty (Yoo et l. 2000; Tong nd (Cobb-Wlgren et l. 2005; Pppu et l. 2005) or brnd loylty (Yoo et l. 2000; Tong nd Hwley 2009) s more influent vribles. Finlly, our findings do not find empiricl Hwley 2009) s more influent vribles. Finlly, our findings do not find empiricl envidence regrding significnce of store reputtion (β57= 0.048), store commercil envidence regrding significnce of store reputtion (β57 = 0.048), store commercil imge (β67= 0.055) nd store brnd price imge (β47= 0.059) on store brnd purchse inimge (β67 = 0.055) nd store brnd price imge (β47= 0.059) on store brnd purchse intention. Tht is, we hve not found sufficient empiricl evidence to propose significnt tention. Tht is, we hve not found sufficient empiricl evidence to propose significnt reltionship mong store reputtion, store commercil imge or store brnd price imge reltionship mong store reputtion, store commercil imge or store brnd price imge nd consumers purchse intention. nd consumers purchse intention. Tble 6 Results of structurl model (stndrized coefficients) Cusl Reltionships mong constructs Store brnd wreness Purchse intention Store brnd perceived qulity Purchse intention Store brnd loylty Purchse intention Estimte β17= ** β27= * β37= ** β47= ns Store commercil imge Purchse intention β67= ns Store brnd price imge Purchse intention Store reputtion Purchse intention χ2 = df=149 p=.000 R2 (Purchse intention)= ns=no significnt ** significnt (p<0.05); *significnt (p<0.1) β57= ns T Vlue Hyposis conclusion H0: supported H1: supported H2: supported H3: no supported H4: no supported H5: no supported Source: Own elbortion Regrding proposed reserch hyposes, we cn stte tht H0: Store brnd wre proposed reserch hyposes, we cn stte H0: Store brnd wrenessregrding hs positive influence on purchse intention, my betht supported considering ness hs positive influence on purchse intention, my be supported considering results obtined, with significnce level of 0.05 percent, s well s H2: Store brnd results obtined, with significnce level of 0.05 percent, s well s H : Store brnd loylty hs positive influence on purchse intention. Considering results obtined, 2 loylty hs positive influence onhs purchse intention. Considering intention, results obtined, H : Store brnd perceived qulity positive influence on purchse my be 1 H1: Store brnd qulity positive influence on purchse intention, myhybe supported with perceived significnce levelhs of 0.10 percent. However, initil proposed supported with significnce level of 0.10 percent. However, initil proposed hyposes H3: The store brnd price imge, s ffordble n dequte, hs positive influposes H3: The store brndhprice s ffordble dequte, hs positive influence on purchse intention, : Theimge, store reputtion hsn positive influence on purchse 4 ence on purchse intention, H : The store reputtion hs positive influence on purchse intention, s well s H5: The store commercil imge hs positive influence on purchse 4 intention, cnnot s well be s supported, H5: The store commercil hsws positive influence on purchse intention, since empiricl imge evidence not found. intention, cnnot be supported, since empiricl evidence ws not found. Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp Cudernos de Gestión Vol. xx - Nº x (xx), pp. xx-xx ISSN: ISSN:

17 Cristin Clvo-Porrl / Vlentín-Alejndro Mrtínez-Fernández / Oscr Juntey-Bog / Jen-Pierre Lévy-Mngín Figure 3 Cusl reltionships (stndrized coefficients) Source: Own elbortion 5. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS There re mny rticles on Brnd Equity centered on mnufcturers brnds, whilst re re not s bundnt reserches on store Brnd Equity. The present pper ims to contribute to this lck or reserch by nlyzing sources of store Brnd Equity nd ir reltionship to consumers purchse intent. This is prticulrly interesting in context of economic downturn, in which store brnds re incresing ir mrket shre significntly. One of our mjor findings is positive nd significnt impct of store brnd wreness in purchse intent, to coincide with number of previous studies (Richrdson et l. 1994; Semeijn et l. 2004). Thus, store brnd wreness, which is relted to brnd fmilirity, recognition nd recll, plys most importnt role in enhncing consumers purchse intention (Dursun et l. 2011). These results re in line with Jr nd Cliquet (2012), stressing tht brnd wreness positively nd directly influences consumers response, being min component in cretion of store Brnd Equity. We understnd tht store brnd, when being notorious, tht is, well- known for consumers, recognizble nd fmi- ISSN: Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp

18 Mesuring influence of customer-bsed store brnd equity in purchse intention 110 lir, would ply role s customer gurntee. Therefore, renowned store brnd would be ssocited with certin level of product qulity sold under retiler or store brnd nme. This wy, consumers perceive store brnd in highly relible, trustworthy, inspiring confidence nd meeting ir qulity expecttions (Ambler 1997). We believe tht store brnds wreness renowned nd fmilir store brnd- is perceived in generl terms s gurntee; nd consequently, consumers would perceive this store brnd s cring bout ir needs nd offering n cceptble qulity (Dubois nd Duquesne 1995; Del Río et l. 2002). These results re in line with Dodds et l. (1991) who suggested tht consumers highly rely on fmilir informtion cues of store brnd in order to ssess product s worth; nd with Blts (1997) who stted tht consumers seek for gurntee tht fmilir brnd brings rr thn risks linked to lesser-known mnufcturer brnds. Or mjor finding is positive influence of store brnd loylty nd store brnd perceived qulity on consumers purchse intent. The influence of perceived qulity is in line with previous literture, since numerous uthors noticed tht most importnt driver of store brnds shre is ir perceived qulity (Hoch nd Bnerji, 1993; Sethurmn, 2000). In fct, perceived qulity gp or differentil between store brnds nd mnufcturer brnds is relevnt issue, given tht better store brnd is positioned in terms of qulity, more likely it is to succeed (Ailwdi nd Keller 2004). Consequently, re is tendency tody towrds incresing perceived qulity level of store brnds in mny countries (Hung nd Huddleston 2009; Jr nd Cliquet 2012). Considering previous reserch which shows store imge s key vrible on brnd s purchse intention (Beristin nd Zorrill, 2011), it ws expected positive significnt reltionship between store imge store reputtion nd store commercil imge- nd customers store brnd purchse intention, despite no empiricl evidence of its influence hs been found. Our findings re similr to Beristin nd Zorrill (2011), who hve not found sufficient empiricl evidence in order to stte existence of significnt reltionship between store socil imge nd store Brnd Equity. Therefore, we propose tht store reputtion nd store commercil imge my be considered s ntecedents of sources of store Brnd Equity, given tht y do not pper to impct equity or vlue of store brnds. Regrding store brnd price imge, understood s consumers perception of ffordble nd dequte prices, no empiricl evidence is found of its significnt influence in store brnd purchse intent. As it ws explined before, price sensitivity is one of key fctors tht determine consumer preference for store brnds, nd s mny uthors point out, consumers re more price sensitive in economic crisis (Estelmi et l. 2001). The reson for se results my be tht good vlue for money or low price is n intrinsic chrcteristic of store brnds, compred to mnufcturer brnds, since store brnds hve been trditionlly positioned s focused to price-sensitive consumers (Sinh nd Btr 1999); nd refore customers expect store brnds to hve low prices per se. Or explntion to se results my be tht most frequent store brnd consumers give less considertion to extrinsic ttrib- utes of store brnds such s price- when it comes to mke ir purchsing decisions (Dick et l. 1995). Furr explntion my be tht vrible which must be nlyzed is vlue for money, rr thn wher price is perceived s ffordble nd dequte. Our findings show tht low price positioning is no sufficient nowdys to bring vlue to customers or to develop long-term reltion with consumers, despite it is importnt to mintin n dequte price imge, in ccordnce with retilers price positioning. Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp ISSN:

19 Cristin Clvo-Porrl / Vlentín-Alejndro Mrtínez-Fernández / Oscr Juntey-Bog / Jen-Pierre Lévy-Mngín From results obtined, we propose some useful insights for retilers. First recommendtion guidnce for retilers is to increse store knowledge, enhncing recognition nd spontneous recll, in order increse store wreness (Bigné et l., 2001). In second plce, becuse of higher influence of brnd wreness in consumers store brnd purchse intent, retilers will benefit ir store brnds if y re present nd vilble in s mny product ctegories s possible. This wy, store brnds wreness nd fmilirity will increse its visibility nd fmilirity to consumers, nd refore, purchse intention will be incresed, which is in line with reserch mde by Symn nd Rju (2004). One mjor impliction of our reserch is tht retilers nd mngers should focus ir efforts on incresing store brnds fmilirity. Furrmore, in order to increse store brnds sles, retilers should put more emphsis on ir brnds wreness, insted of focusing brnd positioning s chep or ffordble brnds (Bo et l. 2011). Advertising investments must be pursued to reinforce memory of store brnd nme nd its distinctive fetures. Some uthors like Dick et l. (1995) suggest enhncing fmilirity by strengning dvertising nd promotionl cmpigns, using in-store disply dvertising, informtionl mteril t point of sle, product isles nd offering smple store brnd products inside store. Retilers my lso use coupons, price dels nd or promotions in order to encourge tril of ir store brnds (Sprott nd Shimp 2004). We find importnt tht if retiler decides to offer store brnds, he should tell consumers, putting specil emphsis on reltionship between store brnd nd retiling chin. Additionlly, we suggest tht for enhncing store brnds wreness, retiler should increse exposure of consumers to se brnds, inside nd outside of point of sle. Therefore, in terms of ctions which my be performed inside store, re should be considered merchndising nd sles network communiction. We should remrk relevnce of good store brnd disply in linel, s well s informtion nd service provided by slespeople regrding chrcteristics nd qulities of store brnd. These mrketing ctions will result in higher level of fmilirity nd recognition. As for ctions which my developed outside store, presence of store brnd in ctlogs nd sles brochures will lso enhnce brnd wreness. Furrmore, retilers should continue working in order to increse consumer loylty to ir store brnds, by lunching mrketing progrms which foster customer loylty, nd in lst term, customer loylty to ir stores. Finlly, retilers should lso crete vlue for consumers through objective qulity of store brnds, given tht s fr s store brnds re being perceived s of equl qulity -or even of better qulity- thn mnufcturer s brnds, retilers will chieve incresing customers purchse intention. 6. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH GUIDANCE As for min limittions of our study, first we should notice tht this empiricl reserch hs focused in Spin, s well s to limited number of store brnds, which cuses serious problems when extrpolting results to set of store brnds. In second plce, we should mke reference to smll simple size. Moreover, it is remrkble tht our study hs nlyzed number of vribles previously proposed in literture, ignoring or importnt store brnd vribles, such s perceived risk, typology of buyer or even ISSN: Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp

20 Mesuring influence of customer-bsed store brnd equity in purchse intention product ctegory considered. In this regrd, mny uthors hve shown tht store brnd purchse intention depends on product ctegory (Btr nd Sinh 2000; Cplliure et l. 2009). Tking into ccount reserch findings, we suggest considering store imge vribles, nmely store reputtion nd store commercil imge s ntecedents of sources of store brnd equity in furr reserch on topic. Furrmore, our reserch pproch rises question of wher results cn be generlized to or retiling sectors or event to or countries. Hence, our study hs focused nd tested only in context of lrge retiling in one specific country, so cution must be exercised in generlizing from se findings nd furr reserch re lso needed to void some limittion. 7. REFERENCES Aker, D.A., Mnging Brnd Equity Cpitlizing on Vlue of Brnd Nme. New York: The Free Press. Aker, D.A., Mesuring Brnd Equity Across Products nd Mrkets. Cliforni Mngement Review, 38 (3), Aker, D.A. nd Alvrez, R., Esttur de l mrc: medir el vlor por productos y mercdos. Hrvrd Deusto Business Review, 69 (November-december), Ailwdi, K.L. nd Keller, K.L., Understnding retil brnding: conceptul insights nd re- serch priorities. Journl of Retiling, 80, Ailwdi, K.L., Puwels, K. nd Steenkmp, J-B., Privte lbel use nd store loylty. Journl of Mrketing, 72 (3), Agrwll, M.K. nd Ro, V.R., An Empiricl Comprison of Consumer-Bsed Mesures of Brnd Equity. Mrketing Letters, 7 (3), Ambler, T., How much of Brnd Equity is explined by trust. Mngement Decision, 35(4), Anderson, J. C. nd Gerbing, D. W., Structurl eqution modeling in prctice: A review nd recommended two step pproch. Psychologicl Bulletin, 103 (3), Atilgn, E., Aksoy, S. nd Akinci, S.,2005. Determinnts of Brnd Equity: A Verifiction Ap- proch in Beverge Industry in Turkey. Mrketing Intelligence nd Plnning, 23 (2/3), Bgozzi, R.P. nd Yi, Y.,1988. On evlution of Structurl Eqution models. Journl of Acdemy of Mrketing Science, 16 (1), Bgozzi, R.P. nd Yi, Y., On Use of Structurl Eqution Models in Experimentl Designs. Journl of Mrketing Reserch, XXVI, Blts, Determinnts of store brnd choice: behviorl nlysis. Journl of Product nd Brnd Mngement, 6 (5), Bo, Y., Bo, Y. nd Sheng, S., Motivting Purchse of Privte Brnds: Effects of Store Imge, Product Signtureness nd Qulity Vrition. Journl of Business Reserch, 64 (2), Beristin, J.J., nd Zorrill, P., The reltionship between store imge nd store brnd equity: A conceptul frmework nd evidence from hypermrkets. Journl of Retiling nd Consumer services, 18, Cudernos de Gestión Vol Nº 1 (2015), pp ISSN:

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