TEEN REACTIONS TO ANTI-DRINK DRIVING FEAR APPEALS. Nicky Shore Lever-Rexona, Sydney. Brendan J. Gray University of Otago. Abstract

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1 TEEN REACTIONS TO ANTI-DRINK DRIVING FEAR APPEALS Nicky Shore Lever-Rexona, Sydney Brendan J. Gray University of Otago Abstract The use of a graphic imagery in road safety advertising has become commonplace. However, controversy surrounds the use of fear appeals and their ability to influence driver attitudes and behaviour. In New Zealand, teenage drivers are an at risk group with a high accident rate. Even though alcohol is often implicated in these accidents, drivers under 18 have not been specifically targeted by drink driving advertising. Little is known about how teenagers respond to drink driving messages. This paper attempts to address this gap by investigating the relationships between social or physical threats and adolescents drink driving attitudes and behaviours, and the relationships between the adolescent trait of sensation seeking and responses to drink driving communications. The findings indicate that the use of a social threat is no more effective than a physical threat in drink driving communications and that the sensation seeking trait is linked to drink driving attitudes and behaviour. Introduction Much controversy surrounds the use of graphic fear appeals and the almost total reliance on these by the New Zealand Land Transport Safety Authority in its anti-drink driving and speeding advertising. This suggests a need for research on the appropriateness and effectiveness of such appeals. Young adults are a definite at risk road safety group with 32% of fatal crashes in 1996 involving people aged (NZLTSA 1996 statistics). At present, young people from the age of 18 onwards are targeted by the LTSA with "teen speed" advertising and from 20 onwards with drink driving advertising. However, younger teens (from the age of 15) are also involved in drink driving. Drivers between 15 and 19 years old accounted for approximately 14.5% of New Zealand road deaths in 1995 and 18% of injuries (the greatest percentage of any age group). Further, 32.3% of fatal crashes and 18.1% of injury accidents involve alcohol or drugs (NZLTSA statistics 1995). Although the LTSA road safety ads are designed to discourage speeding and drink driving, little is known about how young people respond to such messages. There are many influences that affect how they may respond to an advertising message, such as peer pressure and risk taking when exposed to such advertising.

2 Literature Review The Ordered Protection Motivation model is a model of threat appeal effectiveness that may increase understanding of adolescents reactions to threat messages. Tanner, Hunt and Eppright (1991) proposed this model, which they used to research sexually transmitted disease (STD) public service communications among American college students. Their results suggested that responses to threat communications were influenced by the social implications of the responses and prior knowledge. However, Tanner et al. (1991) recognised the need to confirm their findings and to test generalisability in other threat situations and with other populations. Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996) followed their suggestion by examining the psychological processes American adolescents experience when exposed to physical and social threat messages in anti-drug public service announcements. Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996) found that the use of social threat appeals rather than physical threat appeals were more effective in anti-drug use communications. They also found that fear arousal was not necessary for persuasion to occur. In addition, they found that the adolescent trait of sensation seeking influenced responses to anti-drug communications. Road safety advertising incorporates coping response recommendations similar to those of anti-drug advertisements. That is, the recommendation is to avoid doing something (i.e. not to drink and drive or speed). Drink driving, like drug use, appears to be linked to the teenage traits of sensation seeking and egocentrism. Further, drink driving communications have commonly applied physical threat appeals, similar to those in anti-drug communications. Extending the research of Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996) to drink driving communications may improve the generalisability of the OPM model through validation in a different context. Methodology The present study involves a replication of a three by two factorial experimental design used to test several hypotheses. Sensation seeking, a measured independent variable, was included. Approximately th and 7 th form high school students (aged 16-18) were randomly assigned to six treatment conditions. Subjects were given a booklet containing a road safety print advertisement, the sensation seeking scale (a measured independent variable), and the dependent measures. Two types of road safety advertising messages (picture with copy) were developed. One type presented a physical threat and the other a social threat. There were also three levels of threat. Therefore, six road safety advertisements were used in the study: high physical threat, medium physical threat, low physical threat, high social threat, medium social threat, low social threat. The picture of the stimulus was manipulated to vary type of threat, while the copy was manipulated to vary level of threat. Pre-testing was carried out to ensure that the stimulus was appropriate for the subject of drink driving and New Zealand audience, and that the level and type of threat manipulations were significantly different.

3 The dependent measures included: emotional response, cognitive response, attitude towards the advertisement, attitude towards drink driving, and behavioural intention to drink and drive. The manipulated independent variables included: the type of threat presented in the road safety advertisement (social or physical), and the intensity of threat presented (high, medium, low). Subjects were asked to look at the advertisement for one minute. They then completed an emotional response task. Next they were given two and a half minutes to list their thoughts about the advertisement (cognitive response task). The subjects then completed their experiment booklets. ANOVA analysis was used to explore differences between groups. Results Hypotheses H1a, H1b, H1c, and H1d looked at the impact of social implications of the advertisements on the coping responses of adolescents. It was hypothesised that social threat communications would: H1a: Produce more support and less counter arguments than physical threat communications. Hypothesis H1a was not supported, with no significant difference in cognitive responses between physical and social threat. This is consistent with the finding of Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996). H1b: Be more persuasive than physical threat communications in terms of attitude towards the communication. Results were contrary to the hypothesis and the findings of Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996). Subjects exposed to physical threat communications showed a significantly more favourable attitude towards the communication than those exposed to the social threat. The depiction of physical harm was cited in follow up focus groups as being much more pertinent to teenagers than the use of peers or social influence. One respondent remarked in the followup focus groups that: This whole peer pressure thing is so overrated nobody is going to stop drinking and driving just because their friends think its un-cool. H1c: Be more persuasive than physical threat communications in terms of attitude towards drink driving. There was no difference in attitude towards drink driving between subjects exposed to the physical threat and those shown the social one, contrary to Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996). This may suggest that social threat may be more useful in trying to dissuade other types of risky behaviour such drug taking and unsafe sex. H1d: Be more persuasive than physical threat communications in terms of behavioural intention to drink and drive. Adolescents exposed to the social threat showed no difference in behavioural intention to drink and drive to those shown the physical threat, contrary to Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996). Again, this suggests that the appeals most useful for drug campaigns may not be effective for drink driving. Although the use of social threats is largely based upon teenagers supposed susceptibility to peer influence, the relevance of the threat may be dependent on the behaviour targeted (e.g. drugs versus drink driving) and not the audience (e.g. teenagers versus adults).

4 The trait of sensation seeking was examined in relation to drink driving threat communications. It was hypothesised that adolescents high in sensation seeking would: H2a: Experience lower levels of emotion than those low in sensation seeking in response to a threat communication. As with Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996), no significant result was found. This suggests that the amount of emotion triggered by unsought threats in advertising is unrelated to how much sensation an adolescent seeks. H2b: Produce more counter arguments and less support arguments than those low in sensation seeking in response to a threat communication. It was found that although high sensation seekers did not produce significantly more counter arguments in response to the communication than low sensation seeker, that they did produce significantly fewer support arguments. This partially supports the findings of Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996). This is consistent with research that shows that high sensation seekers are more likely to find messages 'boring' (Zuckerman 1987; Donohew, Finn and Christ 1987). H2c: Have a stronger negative attitude towards the ad than those low in sensation seeking. Although high sensation seekers did show slightly more negative attitudes towards the ad, the difference was not significant. This was surprising, considering pervious research which shows high sensation seekers are more likely to drink and drive (Arnett 1990; Donovan 1992). However, it may also raise questions about assumed links between attitudes and behaviour. H2d: Have a more positive attitude towards drink driving than those low in sensation seeking. High sensation seekers had a more positive attitude towards drink driving than low sensation seekers. This is consistent with Schoenbachler and Whittler's (1996) study, and suggests that drink driving could involve some "thrill" for this group. H2e: Have a stronger intention to drink and drive than those low in sensation seeking. High sensation seekers were more likely to drink and drive in the next week, month or ever. The results for both H2d and H2e are consistent with the study of Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996). Further, they support literature on drink driving and sensation seeking (Arnett 1990; Donovan 1992). Conclusions In this study, social threats in anti-drink driving advertising did not prove to be more persuasive than physical threat communications, as far as a large sample of New Zealand teenagers was concerned. Further, physical threats elicited significantly more positive attitudes towards the communication. These findings do not support the Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996) study of anti-drug communications The Ordered Protection Motivation model has been suggested as a base for social threat effectiveness theory development. Tanner et al. (1991) noted that coping responses to a threat communication might have social implications which then influence the behaviour chosen. However, the results of this study suggest that the social implications of drinking and driving

5 do not appear to influence teenagers' attitudes towards drinking and driving or their intentions to drink and drive any more than the physical consequences. This finding somewhat complements that of King and Reid (1990) who found that the type of threat (physical versus threat to self or others) did not produce any differences in fear arousal or persuasability of young drivers exposed to anti-drink driving public service announcements. However, as the authors point out, this does not indicate that the type of threat is an unimportant factor and there is a strong need for research on physical and social consequences. One possible explanation for the conflicting findings between this study and that of Schoenbachler and Whittler (1996) may be the topic researched - drink driving vs. drugs. The social price of drink driving may be very different to drug use. While the perceived risks of drug use may relate more to social and psychological risks (i.e. peer acceptance of the activity), drink driving may hold other types of risk. For example, a study by Shore and Gray (1997) found that the main reasons why New Zealand adolescents did not drink and drive was related more to fears of financial and legal consequences (e.g. being caught by the police, getting fined, losing one s licence) than to road safety concerns raised in public service advertisements. The managerial implications of this research are that it appears graphic anti-drink driving ads showing physical threats (rather than the social threats) may still be the best way to influence teenagers. Sensation seeking could also be used as a targeting variable. Kotler and Roberto (1989) highlight that segmentation in social marketing communication planning encompasses socio-demographic, psychological and behavioural characteristics. However, the use of threat appeals in public service communications aimed teenagers cannot be generalised as the consequences of drink driving may be perceived quite differently to the consequences of drug use, unsafe sex and smoking. References Arnett, J. "Contraceptive Use, Sensation Seeking, and Adolescent Egocentrism," Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 19, No.2, 1990, pp Donohew, L., Finn, S., and Christ, W. "The Nature of News Revisited: the Roles of Affects, Schemas, and Cognition," in Communication, Social Cognition and Affect, Ed. Donohew, L, Sypher, H., and Higgins, T. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, Donovan, J. "Young Adult Drinking-Driving: Behavioural and Psychosocial Correlates," Journal of Studies on Alcohol, September, 1993, pp King, K., and Reid, L. "Fear Arousing Anti-Drinking and Driving PSAs: Do Physical Injury Threats Influence Young Adults?" in Current Issues and Research in Advertising, Ann Arbor, The University of Michigan Press, MI, 1990, pp Land Transport Safety Authority, Motor Accidents in New Zealand: Statistical Statement Calander Year 1995, Prepared by Research and Statistics Strategic Policy, Land Transport Safety Authority, New Zealand, September, 1996.

6 Land Transport Safety Authority, Public Attitudes to Road Safety, 1997 Survey, Land Transport Safety Authority, Wellington, New Zealand. Schoenbachler, D. and Whittler, T. Adolescent Processing of Social and Physical Threat Communications, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 15, No. 4, (winter) 1996, pp Shore, N and Gray B. Evaluating the Impact of Rural Drink Driving Advertising on Teenagers, Industry Report, Department of Marketing, University of Otago, December Tanner, J; Hunt, J., and Eppright, D. "The Protection Motivation Model: a Normative Model of Fear Appeals," Journal of Marketing, Vol. 55, July 1991, pp Zuckerman, M. "Dimensions of Sensation Seeking," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 36, 1971, pp

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