Introduction to Lockheed West Seattle. Working Together. Site Background. Lockheed West Seattle Superfund Site

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1 Lockheed West Seattle Superfund Site Introduction to Lockheed West Seattle From the later years of World War II through 1987, Lockheed Corporation, a predecessor to Lockheed Martin Corporation, performed primarily ship repair, maintenance and new ship construction at Lockheed Shipyard No. 2 (Yard II) in Elliott Bay in Seattle, Wash. The repair work was done by Lockheed Shipbuilding Co., which leased two of three Yard II dry docks from the U.S. Navy. The repair work involved sandblasting and painting hulls. After contamination was found in sediment at Yard II, Lockheed Martin took responsibility for cleaning up the site. It is now called Lockheed West Seattle Superfund Site. During environmental testing at the Site, Lockheed Martin found contamination above regulatory levels in samples taken on the surface as well as deeper in the sediment. The contaminants found include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), other organic compounds and metals (such as arsenic, lead and zinc). As you ll read in this guide, the Lockheed Martin team has conducted extensive remedial investigations to determine the nature and extent of the contamination and the risks to human health and the environment. In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Lockheed Martin has developed remedial objectives and goals for the cleanup, and has comprehensively evaluated cleanup technologies and alternatives that will effectively clean up the contamination. This guide describes the processes and procedures Lockheed Martin and its contractors have followed since the contamination was discovered. It also provides information on Lockheed Martin s Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, which outlines the investigative work to date. As a responsible corporate steward, Lockheed Martin is committed to working with regulatory agencies and the public to ensure a timely and effective cleanup. Working Together Stakeholders participating with EPA in local stakeholder meetings include: Local groups such as People For Puget Sound Muckleshoot and Suquamish Tribes National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Washington State Departments of Ecology and Natural Resources Site Background Why is Lockheed Martin involved? Lockheed Martin is involved because one of its heritage companies operated at the site, which was called Lockheed Shipyard No. 2 (Yard II). The site included five major piers, three dry docks and a shipway. Lockheed Shipbuilding Co. and other maritime companies performed work at Yard II for about 45 years. Lockheed Martin Corporation discontinued its operations there in After contamination was found in sediment at Yard II, Lockheed Martin took responsibility for cleaning up the site. 1

2 Where is the Lockheed West Seattle site and what are the site boundaries? Lockheed West Seattle is located near Harbor Island where the Duwamish River enters Elliott Bay in Seattle, Wash. The site is bounded by the Port of Seattle Terminal 5 to the south, the West Waterway to the east, Pacific Sound Resources Superfund site to the west and Elliott Bay to the north. Is Lockheed West Seattle the only cleanup site in the area? The Lockheed West Seattle cleanup site is in the same geographic vicinity as the Harbor Island Superfund sediment sites (i.e., West Waterway Operable Unit (OU), East Waterway OU, Lockheed Shipyard Sediment OU, Todd Shipyard Sediment OU) as well as Pacfic Sound Resources and the Lower Duwamish River Superfund sites. addition, the industrial activities that took place at the sites differ, the cleanup projects are at different stages, and the responsible parties are not the same at any of the sites. What does the Lockheed West Seattle site represent? The Site represents the aquatic portions of what formerly was known as Lockheed Shipyard No. 2, located near where the West Waterway enters Elliott Bay. The cleanup site does not include the land portion of the former shipyard. How large is the aquatic area? The aquatic area includes a total of about 40 acres seven acres that were acquired by the Port of Seattle from Lockheed Martin, and about 33 acres consisting of aquatic state-owned land managed by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources. How does Lockheed West Seattle compare with the other sites in the area? In comparision to other Superfund sites in the area, the Lockheed West Seattle site has a smaller footprint. In What You re Looking At This graphic represents a conceptual site model that depicts historic and potential sources of contamination. The graphic shows a side view of Terminal 5 at the Port of Seattle. The Lockheed West Seattle Site is indicated by the orange line, and the arrows indicate the direction of water and particle movement. This graphic shows that: When sediment is stirred by the action of a boat s propeller (propwash), that action can loosen (or resuspend) sediment from the bottom of the waterway. If this sediment has an elevated level of chemicals and travels through a discharge point (outfall), the chemicals along with the resuspended sediments may be carried with the current to another area of the waterway. 2

3 How does the work done decades ago impact the site today? The facility was used for shipbuilding, repair and maintenance activities. It is believed that these historic activities resulted in the contaminated sediment. There are no current sources of contamination from the former shipyard activities. Who owns the land portion of the former shipyard? The land portion of the former shipyard is currently owned by the Port of Seattle, which purchased the property from Lockheed Martin in Has the land area of the shipyard been cleaned up? Yes. The Port of Seattle cleaned up the land area of the old shipyard in the late 1990s under Washington State Department of Ecology oversight and continues to perform long-term monitoring of the site. Who uses the land property today? The property is currently part of the Port of Seattle s Terminal 5, which is among the largest Port of Seattle container handling and storage facilities. The 182-acre terminal has an on-dock rail line and the capacity to move or store large containers arriving by ship and departing by railcar or vice versa, arriving to the Port by rail and departing overseas. Sediment Investigations When were the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study sediment investigations conducted? Sediment investigations at the Lockheed West Seattle site were conducted from 2006 through From where was the data collected? The Lockheed Martin team collected data from the shoreline, surface sediment, subsurface sediment, surface water, pore water (water between the grains of sediment), and from clam tissue from locations throughout the study area. What contaminants have been found in the sediment? Samples from surface and subsurface sediment show that metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), tributyltin and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the most frequently detected compounds in the study area. Where were the highest concentrations of chemicals found? The highest concentrations of chemicals were detected in the sediment in the former dry dock areas and in the area of the former shipway. Contamination levels at the site were much lower beyond the dry dock areas. Is there a reason the highest concentrations are found in the former dry dock areas? Sandblasting operations were conducted in the dry dock and shipway areas. Some of the contaminants associated with ship waste are at lower levels in the surrounding area beyond the dry docks. Have any of the metals been identified as risks? Yes. The levels of existing arsenic and lead have been identified as posing potential risk for people and aquatic life, and the levels of existing copper and mercury have been identified as posing possible risk for aquatic life. Is there an on-site source of contamination today? There are no current sources of contamination from the former shipyard activities. However, an evaluation of contamination sources determined there are off-site and in-water sources of possible sediment contamination in the future, including suspended sediment from the Lower Duwamish/West Waterway and Elliott Bay. 3

4 Human Health and Ecological Risks How were the risks to human health and the environment evaluated? The human health and ecological risk assessments identified chemicals of concern; whether people, wildlife or the environment could be impacted; and if there were ways, or pathways, for people or wildlife to come in contact with the contaminants. Did the team identify specific risk scenarios? Yes. In conjunction with the stakeholders and EPA, the team identified receptor groups (e.g., adults, children, fish, birds) that potentially could be impacted and the ways in which they could be exposed. What did the team find related to human exposure? The team determined that pathways for human exposure included direct contact with contaminated sediment through activities such as clamming, net fishing or beach play and by consuming fish and shellfish that accumulated chemicals from the sediment. What did the team find related to ecological exposure? The team determined that pathways for exposure of ecological receptors (e.g., benthic organisms, crabs, and certain fish and birds) included ingestion and direct contact with contaminated sediment as well as ingestion of other organisms exposed to contaminated sediments. Sediment Cleanup Objectives and Goals What are the sediment cleanup objectives? The sediment cleanup objectives (called Remedial Action Objectives, or RAOs) are based on the outcome of the human health and ecological risk assessments. RAOs provide a general description of what the cleanup is designed to accomplish and will serve as the design basis for the remedial alternatives developed in the Feasibility Study. The RAOs are developed to be as detailed as possible without limiting the range of potential remedial alternatives. The development of the RAOs for the Lockheed West Seattle site is focused on the impacts of the contaminated sediments on human health, the benthic invertebrate communities and ecological receptors that use the site. Four narrative RAOs were developed and approved by EPA for the Lockheed West Seattle site during the Feasibility Study process. However, these RAOs are subject to modification until the time the Record of Decision is signed. What is the purpose of the remedial action objectives? The remedial action objectives address the specific risks that were identified in the risk assessments. The cleanup plans are being evaluated based on their ability to meet these objectives. What are the preliminary remediation goals? The preliminary remediation goals identify the sediment concentrations that when achieved meet the cleanup goals for sediment in the waterways. Preliminary remediation goals were identified for each of the chemicals of concern, and cleanup actions were developed based on these goals. Cleanup Options for Sediment Are there a number of cleanup options for sediment contamination? Cleanup options for sediment at Lockheed West Seattle are limited. The main cleanup technologies include: Removal of contaminated sediment by dredging or excavation with upland disposal; Enhanced natural recovery, a process that uses a thin 4

5 layer of material such as sand to enhance natural recovery processes of sedimentation to reduce the chemical concentration of surface sediment; Containment technologies (capping) such as isolating the contaminants by using engineered layers of sand, gravel or rock; Institutional controls such as advisories or public education to increase people s awareness of risks and reduce unacceptable exposures. Remedial Alternatives Did Lockheed Martin follow a specific process to evaluate all of the alternatives? Yes. Lockheed Martin followed U.S. EPA guidelines for reviewing applicable cleanup technologies, developing cleanup approaches and performing initial evaluations. How does enhanced natural recovery work? By adding clean material such as sand as a top layer to the sediment, enhanced natural recovery can reduce the concentration of contamination and speed up the natural recovery process. What is containment? Containment (capping) is when a layer of sand, typically three-feet thick, or other material is applied to the top of the sediment to isolate the contaminants from the receptors. What are institutional controls? Institutional controls are techniques that limit people s exposure or increase people s awareness of risks, thus reducing unacceptable exposure. Institutional controls may include techniques such as seafood consumption advisories being posted at the site, education efforts that increase seafood consumers awareness of risks, or restrictions such as no anchor zones in capped areas to reduce the chance that people would come in contact with the contaminants. What is the scope of the remedial alternatives that were considered? The team looked at a wide range of alternatives. A total of 19 alternatives were evaluated. The primary categories of alternatives considered included: no action, capping focused on a specific area, removal focused on a specific area, and full removal alternatives. How were the the alternatives assessed? The assessment followed EPA guidelines for analysis and involved multiple stakeholders throughout the process. The evaluation assessed how well each alternative would meet the remedial action objectives and goals. It evaluated the benefits across the alternatives, and then overlaid the cost as an additional factor. The evaluation found little difference in the benefits and a wide range in the cost of implementing the various alternatives. How did Lockheed Martin document its findings? Lockheed Martin submitted the Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study (RI/FS) to the EPA in May The RI/ FS defines the cleanup areas and any threat to the public health, welfare or the environment posed by substances on the site. It also evaluates cleanup alternatives and possible courses of action. 5

6 For More Information: Gary Cambre, Lockheed Martin Communications , The Path Forward Renée Dagseth, Community Involvement Coordinator U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (206) , What happens next? The EPA reviewed the RI/FS and has prepared a Proposed Plan in which it recommends a preferred alternative. EPA will provide a public comment period for the Proposed Plan. Based on the comments received, EPA will then prepare a Record of Decision in which the final cleanup plan is identified. Is there a projected date for when remediation construction would begin? Based on the Record of Decision, EPA and Lockheed Martin would negotiate a Consent Decree for cleanup. It is projected that in , the design of the remedial action would take place, followed by the start of remediation construction. Is the EPA s Proposed Plan available for the public to read? Lockheed Martin and the EPA both maintain websites that describe the project and contain links to important reports and documents. The Lockheed Martin site is: sustainability/remediation/seattle.html The EPA site is: The EPA s latest Questions and Answers are available at: lockheedwest/$file/073109%20harbor%20island%20 CIP%20FINAL.pdf The EPA s Proposed Plan for the cleanup of the Lockheed West Seattle site is available at the EPA website listed on this page. For additional information, contact Renee Dagseth at 6

7 A Glossary of Terms Arsenic Arsenic is a naturally occurring mineral that s found in water, soil and bedrock. It is practically tasteless and odorless. It is used in numerous commercial products, including paints and steel coating. Bathymetric survey A bathymetric survey measures the depths and shape of the bottom of a waterway. Benthic organisms Those creatures that live in the benthic zone of a body of water, which includes the sediment surface and shallow subsurface. Benthic organisms include worms, insects and clams. Containment (also called capping) A process in which a layer of sand or other material is applied to the top of the sediment to isolate contaminants from receptors. Copper A metal found naturally in the ground and used extensively in household plumbing, cooking utensils and electrical wiring. Enhanced Natural Recovery (ENR) A process that adds non-contaminated material such as sand as a top layer to the sediment. The process reduces the concentration of contamination immediately, and speeds up the natural recovery process. Intertidal sediment Intertidal sediment refers to sediment in the area that could be exposed during low tides (e.g., tide and mudflats). Lead Lead is found in small amounts in the earth s crust. It is used in many commercial products, including paint, pipes, solders and batteries. The use of lead has been reduced in commercial products since the 1980s. Mercury Mercury is also known as quicksilver. It is a naturally occurring metal and is used in commercial products such as thermometers, barometers and fluorescent light bulbs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage or other organic substances. There are more than 100 different PAHs. In shipyards, PAHs may be formed when cleaning operations or work such as welding, painting or blasting activities are performed. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Mixtures of up to 209 individual chlorinated compounds. PCBs are either oily liquids or solids that are colorless to light yellow. They are found throughout the environment due to their widespread use. A common use was in electrical transformers. The manufacture of PCBs was stopped in the United States in Pore water Water between the grains of sediment. Sediment Refers to sand, silts, and clays washed from the land into water, usually after rain or snowmelt. Sediment is found under water in storm drains, ponds, lakes, creeks, streams, rivers, and oceans. Sediment removal A process that removes sediment by hydraulic or mechanical dredging. The water is separated from the sediment, and then treated, and the contaminated material is transported to a licensed landfill for disposal. Removal may also include near-shore excavation. Surface Water All water bodies naturally open to the atmosphere (rivers, creeks, storm drains, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, streams, impoundments, seas, estuaries, etc.). Tributyltin Tributyltin is a compound used in antifouling paints. These paints are used on the bottom of ships to ensure organisms don t attach to the ship s structure under water. Zinc Zinc is a metallic chemical element that does not corrode easily. It is used in iron and steel as a protective coating. 7

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