1 ISO 14001, EMAS, OR BS 8555: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR UK BUSINESSES By Bo Chen Thesis presented in part-fulfilment of the degree of Master of Science in accordance with the regulations of the University of East Anglia School of Environmental Sciences University of East Anglia University Plain Norwich NR4 7TJ August Bo Chen This copy of the dissertation has been supplied on condition that anyone who consults it is understood to recognize that its copyright rests with the author and that no quotation from the dissertation, nor any information derived therefrom, may be published without the author s prior written consent. Moreover, it is supplied on the understanding that it represents an internal University document and that neither the University nor the author are responsible for the factual or interpretative correctness of the dissertation.
2 Contents List of Figures List of Tables Abstract Acknowledgements Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅳ 1. Introduction 1 2. Literature Review 2.1 Business and the Environment Identification of Business Environmental Impacts of Different Businesses Strategy towards environmental impact Environmental Management Systems Environmental Management Systems Stages of Standardized EMS Why develop an EMS ISO Background information of ISO Stages for implementing ISO Current situation of ISO EMAS Background information of EMAS Stages for implementing EMAS Current situation of EMAS BS Background information of BS Structure of BS The use of BS
3 2.6 The UK business General information of the UK businesses EMS implementation in SMEs Drivers and Barriers of EMS implementation in SMEs Methodology 3.1 Introduction Criteria of suitable EMS the most suitable EMS Results 4.1 Easy to start implementation Costs are relatively lower Benefits are relatively higher Environmental performance are continuously improved Legal compliance Implementation is easy to control Easy to get assistance Good recognition system Other criteria Discussion 5.1 Comparison results Characteristics of ISO Characteristics of EMAS Characteristics of BS ISO 14001, EMAS or BS 8555? Gap analysis and further study recommendation Conclusion 52 References 54
4 List of Figures Figure 2.1: Cycle of continual improvement 8 Figure 2.2: Stages of a typical environmental management system 9 Figure 2.3: Five steps of ISO Figure 2.4: Seven stages of phase 1 in BS Figure 2.5: overall process for phased implementation 21 Figure 2.6: Share of enterprises, employment and turnover by size of enterprise, UK 24 Figure 2.7: VAT registered businesses by industry sector, per cent, UK 25 Figure 3.1: Process of methodology 32
5 List of Tables Table 2.1: Benefits of improved environmental management 10 Table 2.2 Stakeholders of SMEs 27 Table 3.1: Criteria of suitable EMS 29 Table 4.1: Comparison on easy to start implementation 33 Table 4.2: Comparison on costs 34 Table 4.3: Comparison on implementation benefits 35 Table 4.4: Comparison on environmental performance continual improvement 36 Table 4.5: Comparison on legal compliance 38 Table 4.6: Comparison on the control of implementation process 39 Table 4.7: Comparison on assistance 40 Table 4.8: Comparison on recognition system 42 Table 4.9: Comparison on other criteria 43
6 Abstract The number of companies certified an Environmental Management System (EMS) in the UK is continuously increased in the last few years. Most of the participants choose the international standard ISO or the EU regulation EMAS as their EMS. However, with the appearance of the new British standard - BS8555, UK businesses need to think about which one of these three EMSs is most applicable. Ten criteria have been created in order to identify the most applicable EMS for UK businesses. These criteria include the costs and benefits of the EMS implementation, whether it is easy to start for companies and easy to be control during the implementation process, legal compliance, environmental performance evaluation, and compatibility of the EMS etc. Through the comparison between three EMSs, advantages and disadvantages of each EMS were defined. Simply EMAS is more difficult for small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) to implement. ISO is relatively easier to implement but it has fewer requirements and may cause potential problem in the implementation process. The BS 8555 combines some of the advantages from the other two EMSs and with its staged approach makes the SMEs easier to start implementing and finally achieve ISO certification or the EMAS registration.
7 Acknowledgements I would like to thank my parents for their financial support to my study. Thanks to my girl friend Xiyun Zhi for her encourage throughout the year. Special thanks to Jon Gurr my supervisor for his persistent advice and supports.
8 1. Introduction Environmental management system (EMS) is one of the most important tools available for the purpose of making the organisations more environmentally proactive and efficient (Emilsson, 2002). Through the establishing of an EMS, the company can demonstrate to clients and the public that they take environmental impacts seriously. In addition, an efficient EMS also can improve company s operation process and brings economic benefits. Nowadays more and more companies have realized the importance of the EMS and engaged in the EMS implementation practice. Since the first EMS standard (BS 7750) developed by the British Standard Institute (BSI) in 1992, different countries and organisations have developed their own EMSs. Among them, probably the most famous two are the international standard ISO developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the EU regulation the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). Many of the UK companies have certified their EMS under these two systems, and many others are planning to do so. However, in 2003 the BSI published their new British standard - BS 8555, which provides a staged approach for the UK businesses especially the small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) to implement the EMS. This new standard brings the UK businesses a new choice. The purpose of this study was to identify which one of these three EMSs (i.e. ISO 14001, EMAS, and BS 8555) is more applicable for most of the UK businesses. It is important that EMS participants have a clear understanding which EMS can meets their demands. Choosing the right EMS can not only save the implementation costs, avoid the troubles, but also get satisfactory implementation results. On the contrary, unsuitable EMS causes difficulties during the implementation and even leads fail achieving the implementation aims.
9 In order to identify the most applicable EMS, each of the EMSs as well as their relevant literatures was examined in the literature review chapter. In addition, the characteristics of the UK businesses also were examined in that chapter. Followed with methodology chapter in which ten criteria for the most suitable EMS have been created. In the results chapter the advantages and disadvantages of each EMS were identified through a contrastive method based on the criteria. Finally, based on the characteristic of the UK businesses, the most applicable was identified in the discussion chapter.
10 2. Literature Review 2.1 Business and the Environment Identification of Business Business has experienced dramatic change since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution which took place in Western Europe two hundred years ago (Blair, 2001). New businesses appeared such as chemical industry, motor industry, and retail industry; new technology was applied in everywhere; and new market was opened all over the world. All these changes of business area caused environmental impacts which totally different from two hundred years ago. In order to discuss the environmental impact of business we have to answer a basic question: what is business nowadays? Strictly speaking, business is the range of commercial organizations and their activities that characterize the way in which trading is conducted in a capitalist economy (Blair, 2001). However, commonly the words industry and business are used interchangeably and this is the case in this article. Business with the same meaning of industry which is seen as the collection of firms who operate essentially the same series of processes that result in a related set of products (whether tangible products or services) that a third party wishes to buy (Blair, 2001). By convention, industries are divided into primary, secondary and tertiary industries. Primary industries include fishing, forestry, agriculture and the extractive industries (essentially, the quarrying and mining of minerals). They involve the collection, harvesting and exploitation of resources directly produced by physical processes. Secondary industries are the manufacturing industries. They take raw materials and by a variety of processes produce tangible goods by adding value to the raw materials.
11 The tertiary industries produce services, for either individuals or for other organizations. The way in which primary, secondary and tertiary industries effect the environment are seen as being sufficiently different to warrant separate analysis Environmental Impacts of Different Businesses The environmental impacts of different industrial sectors vary enormously (Welford, 1998). For example, the oil industry may cause serious environmental impacts while the retail industry has less direct impacts to the environment. This is because the oil industry belongs primary industries while retail industry belongs tertiary industries and the characteristics of these two industrial categories are totally different. Because of their intimate relationship with the environment, the primary industries have a widespread and significant environmental impact. Firstly, they cause high pollution. For example, oil and gas flares, which happened in oil industry, contribute to global warming. Additionally, oil spills can cause great localized harm to marine ecosystems. Secondly, the primary industries generate considerable wastes. The fossil fuel and mining industries are the main culprits in waste generation. However, the wastes of factory farming also should not be neglected. Thirdly, farming and forestry of the primary industries have the greatest overall impact on habitats because they occupy the greatest areas of land. The type of farming or forest has a profound influence on the nature of flora and fauna of a region. Finally, farming and forestry also has significant landscape impacts because they form important landscapes in much of the developed world. Manufacturing is the core of the secondary industries. Raw materials and components are brought together and manufactured into either end product or a component for some other manufacturing process. Manufacturing processes consume huge amount of energy and inevitably produce waste products and pollution. Waste is seen as part of the process, whereas pollution is seen as an inevitable consequence of the process that
12 should not happen in the perfect industrial process but which, in practice, results in the degradation of some physical resource. This is most usually the air, watercourses or the ground. Sound and visual impact may also be included under the broad banner of pollution. In addition to the manufacture process, the products itself also cause environmental impact during its delivery, use and disposal. Tertiary industries or so-called service businesses received relatively little attention on their environmental impacts. This may be because in comparison to primary or secondary industries they appear to depend far less on physical resources and they often deal with a more intangible product. However, the environmental impact of tertiary industries is less obvious but does not mean that it does not exist. For example, compared to an oil refinery, a supermarket seems to be much less environmental impact but it is not without impact. The transfer of goods within the supermarket chain, and the customers travel to the store especially those suburban stores all cause air pollution. Other environmental impacts which tertiary industries cause include energy consumption in heating, lighting and equipment, pollution through the travel of their employees and clients, produce waste from canteens, consume waster and materials and certainly produce large volumes of paper waste Strategy towards environmental impact Since the 1960s, there has been a growing interest in the environment, or more specifically in the damage being done to the environment (Welford, 1998). During the first two decades, it was felt that growth and development and protection of the environment could not go hand in hand. Hence most of the theories that developed during this period were anti-growth. However, the 1980s witnessed a shift in thinking. The concept of zero growth was replaced by sustainable development which has been broadly accepted nowadays. Sustainable development, in its simplest form, is defined as development that meets
13 the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). It implies that it is possible to make development and environmental protection compatible. However, the old ways of development which cause pollution and atmospheric damage, disrupts traditional ways of living, destroys ecosystems and feeds more and more power into international oligopolistic industrial structures must be changed into sustainable ways (Welford, 1998). The Brundtland Report, commissioned by the United Nations to examine long-term environmental strategies, argued that this would require quite radical changes in economic practices throughout the world. As an ultimate objective, the concept of sustainable development is immensely valuable. However, strategies are needed to translate conceptual theories of what sustainable development means into practical ways of achieving it over time within the corporate context. Firms clearly have a role to play in the development of substitutes for non-renewable resources and innovations which reduce waste and use energy more efficiently. They also have a role in processing those materials in a way which brings about environmental improvements. Additionally, Firms have the opportunity for considering both the use and disposal of the product during the design period. In order to achieve these goals, companies must seek to develop management strategies which will improve their environmental performance (Welford, 1998). 2.2 Environmental management systems Environmental management systems Many companies have adopted environmental policies and carried out environmental audits or reviews in response to legislative pressures, green marketing opportunities, increased public pressure, ethical concerns and the commitment of local and central government (Netherwood, 1998). However, companies still be faced with a problem
14 of finding a systematic way of implementing commitments to environmental management within their existing organizational structure. In practical, one tool which companies have generally accepted to facilitate implementation of environmental policy is an environmental management system (EMS). An EMS is defined by the British Standards Institute (BSI) as: the organizational structure, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for determining and implementing environmental policy (Netherwood, 1998). Similar definitions are found in the EU eco-management and audit scheme (EMAS) and ISO Not like legislation, EMS is a voluntary tool which can help companies to control environmental impact caused by their operations (Roberts, 1998). Despite the fact that different companies may develop different environment management system, usually there are some common steps can be found in these EMSs. This is because most of them were designed based on the steps of quality management system such as ISO 9000 (Netherwood, 1998). Therefore, it is possible to create a standard for environmental management systems in order to ensure a certain quality for the EMS, and to encourage organizations to improve their environmental performance. In the last few years a number of voluntary environmental management schemes have been developed. The standard-bs was published by BSI in March 1992 and was the world s first environmental management system standard. At the same time that BSI began work on BS 7750, the European Commission was setting out its proposal for an eco-audit scheme and it was from this proposal that EMAS eventually emerged in In the same year of EMAS publishing, the activity relating to environmental management system standardization began on the international scene. And after a development time of a little under three years, ISO series were published in October 1996.
15 The standardized environmental management systems are voluntary and are designed to be externally verified by nationally accredited bodies, in a similar way as the quality standard ISO It is argued that companies which register with the schemes, gaining the EMAS and ISO14001 accreditation, will experience added value such as market advantages, and legal compliance (Netherwood, 1998) Stages of Standardized EMS Environmental management systems are very much related to quality management systems. They are mechanisms that provide for a systematic and cyclical process of continual improvement. As can be seen in Figure 2.1, the cycle itself begins with planning for a desired outcome (i.e. improved environmental performance), implementing that plan, checking to see if the plan is working and finally correcting and improving the plan based on observations form the checking process. Logically then, if the original outcome desired remains the same, a system of this nature will, by default, generate increments of progress that continually move toward the desired outcome (Roberts, 1998). Plan Act Continual Improvement Do Check Figure 2.1: Cycle of continual improvement Source: Roberts, 1998 In order for an company to achieve environmental performance through a management loop as mentioned above, it will need to define responsibilities for environmental management, deploy resources to ensure that action is taken on
16 environmental issues, train staff to become aware of their environmental responsibilities, monitor environmental performance and audit and review the system of achieving environmental improvement. The basis of all of this activity is an organizational commitment to continual environmental improvement and an environmental policy (Netherwood, 1998). The stages of a typical environmental management system were shown in Figure2.2. Organizational commitment to environmental management Adoption of an environmental policy Review/audit of environmental effects Revision of environmental policy Implementation of environmental training programme Allocation of environmental responsibility Setting of environmental objectives and targets Development of action plan to achieve environmental objectives and targets Operational control Audit of performance in relation to targets Audit of the effectiveness of the management programme Review of the management system Corrective action Report environmental performance internally and externally Figure2.2: Stages of a typical environmental management system Source: Netherwood, 1998
17 2.2.3 Why develop an EMS? Develop an EMS within a company will definitely cost resources such as time, human resource, and money (Bansal, 2002). Such costs become more apparent when a company applies certification for their EMS. Furthermore, it has been suggested that EMS and the standards will just add another layer of bureaucracy for the company. So why do a company need an environmental management system? The answer is creating a successful EMS could bring more benefits than the costs. The advantages of improved environmental management can be divided into two broad categories (Roberts, 1998). The first category addresses the fact that improved environmental management is good for our planet and a fundamental requirement of global sustainability. This is because respecting that present business patterns are fundamentally unsustainable, improved environmental management will serve at least to move our business patterns towards sustainability. The second category, which seems have a more direct relationship with companies, addresses the fact that improved environmental management could benefit the company a lot. The table 2.1 lists some of the benefits. 1.Save company s costs. 2.Environmental targets not just set but met. 3.Procedures in place to ensure legislative compliance. 4.Improved public image and increased market opportunities. 5.Viewed more favourably by the regulator and the financial sector. Table 2.1: Benefits of improved environmental management Source: Roberts, 1998
18 2.3 ISO Background information of ISO ISO is a series of international standards for environmental management. In order to satisfy the increasing demand of establishing international environmental management standard, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) started to develop it in 1993 and after nearly three year s development, ISO published this series of standards (ISO and ISO 14004) in October It is the first such series of standards that allows organizations from around the world to pursue environmental efforts and measure performance according to internationally accepted criteria (Roberts, 1998). The 14000series consists of over a dozen separate standards. But all these standards are fallen under two categories: specification standards and guidance standards (Krut, 1998). ISO specification standards are prescriptive documents: they describe what a company must do or not do in order to get certification. ISO is a blueprint for the company s environmental management system, and it is the only specification standard in the ISO series. It describes how a company might manage and control its organizational system so that it measures, controls and continually improves the environmental aspects of its operations (Krut, 1998). ISO is intended to be applicable to all types and sizes of organizations and to accommodate diverse geographical, cultural and social conditions (ISO, 1996). The overall aim of both ISO and the other standards in the series is to support environmental protection and the prevention of pollution in harmony with socio-economic needs. ISO applies to any organization that wishes to improve and demonstrate its environmental performance to others through the presence of a certified environmental management system (Roberts, 1998).
19 With the exception of requiring the commitment to continual improvement and commitment to comply with relevant legislation and regulation, ISO does not prescribe environmental performance requirements. ISO specifies the requirements of the management system itself, which, if maintained properly, will improvement environmental performance by reducing impacts such as air emissions and wastewater effluents (Roberts, 1998) Stages for implementing ISO The elements of ISO are organized around five steps (Welford, 1998): 1. Environmental policy 2. Planning 3. Implementation and operation 4. Checking and corrective action 5. Management review Each step is briefly described below. Environmental policy Environmental policy is a formal and documented set of principles and intentions with respect to the environment. Essentially, the environmental policy is the guiding document for corporate environmental improvement and adherence to it is fundamental to the integrity and success of the entire EMS (Roberts, 1998). A policy must contain commitments to: * Continual improvement; * Prevention of pollution; and * Complying with relevant environmental legislation and other relevant requirements.
20 Planning The company must then set itself objectives and targets relating to its three policy commitments and devise a plan to meet these objectives and targets. Here the environmental objectives are the broad goals that your organization sets in order to improve environmental performance while environmental targets are set performance measurements that must be met to realize a given objective. All environmental objectives must have at least one target (usually more) and all targets must relate directly to a stated objective (Roberts, 1998). Implementation and operation Having devised its plan, the organization must then put in place the various elements necessary for its successful implementation and operation. Checking and corrective action Having implemented its plan, the organization must then check to see whether it has been successful in meeting its objectives and targets. If any have not been met, then corrective action must be taken. The entire management system must be periodically audited to see that it meets the requirements of the standard (Welford, 1998). Management review Management must periodically review the system to ensure its continuing effectiveness and suitability. Changes are made to the system as and when necessary. The figure 2.3 shows the five steps of ISO 14001
21 Continual Improvement Management Review Environmental Policy Planning Checking and Corrective Action Implementation and Operation Figure2.3: Five steps of ISO Source: BS EN ISO 14001, Current situation of ISO ISO is a specification standard, i.e. it consists of a set of requirements for establishing and maintaining an environmental management system. By complying with these requirements an organization can demonstrate to the outside world that is has an appropriate and effective management system in place. One way in which a company can demonstrate that is by self-declaration. This means that the company checks its own compliance with the requirements. However, a company may feel that it carries more weight with the outside world if its compliance with the requirements of ISO is checked by an independent third party. This third checking is known as certification (Welford, 1998). Up to the end of 2002, at least 49,462 ISO certificates had been issued in 118 countries, an increase of 12,697 certificates (+ 34,54%) over the end of 2001 when the total stood at 36,765 in 112 countries (ISO, 2004). Another survey shows the increase of this number is continuous in the next year. Up to December of 2003, there are
22 61,287 certificates had been issued around the world, an increase of 11,825 certificates can be seen in that year (ISO world, 2004). The accreditation body in the UK is the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS), which is recognized by the UK government as the national body for providing national accreditation of certification bodies and of measurement and sampling. 2.4 EMAS Background information of EMAS EMAS - the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme, is a voluntary initiative designed for companies and other organizations to evaluate, report, and improve their environmental performance. It should be highlight that EMAS is a European Union Regulation, which applied within the European Union and the European Economic Area (EEA) Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway. An increasing number of candidate countries are also implementing the scheme in preparation for their accession to the EU (EMAS, 2004). The scheme has been available for participation by companies since 1995 (Council Regulation (EEC) No 1836/93 of 29 June 1993) and was originally restricted to companies in industrial sectors. The aim of EMAS is to recognize and reward those organizations that go beyond minimum legal compliance and continuously improve their environmental performance (EMAS-UK, 2004). In addition, it is a requirement of the scheme that participating organizations regularly produce a public environmental statement that reports on their environmental performance. It is this voluntary publication of environmental information, whose accuracy and reliability has been independently checked by an environmental verifier, that gives EMAS and those organizations that participate enhanced credibility and recognition.
23 In June 1997 The Commission undertook a 5-year review of EMAS, taking into account experience gained during its operation. The final revised Regulation (Regulation (EC) No 761/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 March 2001) published in April 2001, is often referred to as EMAS II. This new Regulation has been open to all economic sectors including public and private services. In addition, EMAS II was strengthened by the integration of EN/ISO as the environmental management system required by EMAS; by adopting an attractive EMAS logo to signal EMAS registration to the outside world; and by considering more strongly indirect effects such as those related to financial services or administrative and planning decisions Stages for implementing EMAS The objective of EMAS shall be to promote continual improvements in the environmental performance of organizations by (EMAS, 2001): (a) The establishment and implementation of environmental management systems by organizations as described in Annex I (b) The systematic, objective and periodic evaluation of the performance of such systems as described in Annex I (c) The provision of information on environmental performance and an open dialogue with the public and other interested parties (d) The active involvement of employees in the organization and appropriate initial and advanced training that makes active participation in the tasks referred to under (a) possible. Where they so request, any employee representatives shall also be involved. In order to get the EMAS registration an organization should go through the following steps (EMAS, 2004): 1. Conduct an environmental review
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