EXPOSURE INDICES IN RF EPIDEMIOLOGY

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "EXPOSURE INDICES IN RF EPIDEMIOLOGY"

Transcription

1 EXPOSURE INDICES IN RF EPIDEMIOLOGY Paolo Vecchia National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy

2 Advances in Biological effects and Dosimetry of Low Energy Electromagnetic Fields Erice, 28 March - 8 April 1981

3 Sol Michaelson

4 PROBLEMS IN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT TWENTY YEARS AGO The available data regarding human exposure to RFR are almost exclusively derived from uncontrolled observations. [ ] In virtually all of the published epidemiological studies and case reports, exposure conditions have been largely undefined or loosely inferred. The most severe limitations upon interpretation of these reports must arise from the fact that actual exposure levels and durations of RFR exposure are unsubstantiated. [ ] the quantitation of occupational exposure is extremely difficult. The latter is particularly true wen the subjects are mobile in the course of their exposure, and are exposed to non-stationary or varied types of fields. N.J. Roberts, Jr. and S.M. Michaelson Epidemiological studies of human exposures to radiofrequency radiation Int Arch Occup Environ Health 56: (1985)

5 WHAT IS EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT? Precise evaluation of the relevant (biologically effective) quantity at the location of the target organ Which is the biologically effective quantity? Which is the target organ?

6 THE MAIN PROBLEM No dose of electromagnetic fields has been identified Dosimetry is a historical term used to designate a complex of parameters and conditions characterizing the exposure Is an overall quantitation possible (for specific situations)? Exposure index Gradient of exposure

7 BIOLOGICALLY EFFECTIVE QUANTITIES

8 VALIDITY OF SAR SAR is the biologically effective (dosimetric) quantity appropriate for thermal (acute) effects The internal electric field might be a more appropriate candidate However, the two quantities are related by a univocal relationship SAR = E 2 /

9 ELF vs RF ELF magnetic fields (Power lines) Geometry simple (simmetric) No shielding RF electromagnetic fields Geometry highly dependent on the source Effective shielding by most materials Possibility of very inhomogeneous exposure

10 ANTENNA TYPES AND EMISSIONS HPA, UK

11 THE SUTTON COLDFIELD STUDY E. Dolk et al. Cancer incidence near radio and television transmitters in Great Britain Am J Epidemiol 145:1-9 (1997)

12 THE SYDNEY STUDY We compared cancer incidence and cancer mortality [ ] on the basis that the RFR becomes progressively weaker with the square of the distance from the towers. No account was taken of ground reflections, nor of signal reduction by buildings, vegetation or ground undulations. [ ] Some measurements made by the Commonwealth Department of Communications found actual levels to be five times less than those calculated. B. Hocking et al. Cancer incidente and mortalità and proximity to TV towers MJA 165: (1996)

13 THE CASE OF THE VATICAN RADIO

14 POWER DENSITY - SAME DISTANCE Sito Distance (km) S (mw/m 2 ) f = 1530 khz S (mw/m 2 ) f = 1611 khz S (mw/m 2 ) f = khz 1 2, n.d. < 1 2 2, n.d. < 1 3 1, n.d. 4 2, < 1 5 2, < 1 6 0, n.d. n.d. 7 1, < 1 < 1 8 1,875 < 1 < ,675 5 n.d. < , n.d. < 1

15 POWER DENSITY - SAME DIRECTION Site Distance (km) S (mw/m 2 ) f = 1530 khz 1 2 2,325 2, Theoretical ratio: 2, ,625 2,575 2, Actual ratio: 1,56 6 0, , ,875 < 1 9 2, ,075 17

16 INDOOR EXPOSURE Attenuation due to the sheilding effect of walls Number of walls Thickness Material

17 OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LEVELS

18 VARIABILITY IN EXPOSURE LEVELS M. Bini et al. Exposure of Workers to Intense RF Electric Fields that Leak from Plastic Sealers. J. Microwave Power 1986

19 THE SIMPLE CASE: MOBILE PHONES Same source Standard use

20 EXPOSURE ESTIMATION The relation between RF absorption and mobile phone use is complicated since it depends on: Phone use Call time, frequency of calls, time since the beginning of use Way in which the phone is held Characteristics of the phone Characteristics of the network Location of absorption in the head

21 THE INTERPHONE STUDY Based on a questionnaire including questions on: Start of use Modality of use over the time Frequency of calls Mean duration of calls Phone models (TACS/NMT, GSM 900, GSM 1800, UMTS)

22 WHAT MAY HAVE AFFECTED SAR? Evolution of phone models Evolution of networks Evolution of fares Evolution of services (SMS vs voice)

23 MODIFICATION OF SAR OVER THE TIME

24 EVALUATION OF SAR DISTRIBUTION IN THE HEAD Numerical modelling route Generic handsets (numerical/physical) Step 2 Step 1 Real handsets (over 400 models) Compliance testing route SAR distributions in realistic head models (derived from MRI) Step 3 SAR distributions in homogeneous head models (compliance phantoms)

25 IDENTIFICATION OF PHONE CLASSES Measurement data from France and Japan on 110 commonly used phones used at different frequencies and with different technologies

26 TYPICAL SAR DISTRIBUTION IN A HOMOGENEOUS HEAD

27 AVAILABLE MEASURED SAR DISTRIBUTIONS 126 phones tested 76 Japanese (800 or 1500 MHz) - TWIN 48 GSM (900 & 1800 MHz) - TWIN & SAM 2 NMT (900 MHz) - SAM Configurations Antenna retracted/extended (where applicable) Cheek/tilt Right/left side of head 1051 distributions in all

28 ELLIPSOIDAL REPRESENTATIONS Ellipse defined to enclose all points with SAR above half of the spatial peak SAR Characterise by 7 variables x,y co-ordinates of peak SAR in plane Area and major axis length of the ellipse Ratio: distance or SAR max from perimeter to major axis length Tilt angle of major ellipse axis Depth of ellipse

29 IDENTIFICATION OF PHONE CLASSES 3Db contours of the ellipses corresponding to the classes defined by frequency bands Analyses of phone type, antenna type, etc Only discriminating factors -tilt/cheek position -frequency band Y X

30 TUMOUR LOCALISATION FROM SCANS Aims: To identify as precisely as possible the location of the origin of the tumour and its contours, To evaluate the RF exposure at that location

31 PHONE OUTPUT POWER Software-modified phones (SMPs) were developed by 4 manufacturers to record the actual emitted power during calls. The use of SMPs allowed to investigate: Effects of adaptive power control (APC) and discontinuous transmission (DTX) on power Relation to call circumstances (indoor/outdoor; statiorary/moving; urban/rural)

32 CALL STATISTICS Location Australia Denmark Finland France Germany Israel Italy Sweden New Zealand UK North 1 UK North 2 No. of users No. of calls Total No. of calls/day 4.2 ( ) 2.5 ( ) 3.8 ( ) 6.7 ( ) 2.6 ( ) 10.9 (0.5 41) 5.4 ( ) 2.3 ( ) 4.5 ( ) 2.5 (0.2 12) 2.8 ( ) Mean call duration (min)

33 OUTPUT POWER DISTRIBUTION Germany 900 MHz Sweden 900 MHz 52 % Occupancy Occupancy 33 % 0 0 Highest Power Level Lowest Highest Power Level Lowest

34 POWER STATISTICS FROM SMPs Location Australia Denmark Finland France Germany Isral Italy New Zealand Sweden UK North 1 UK North 2 Average power at 900 MHz Average power at 1800 MHz % of samples per call made at max power Total % of calls made entirely at max power

35 OVERALL EFFECT OF APC Much less than originally expected Phones spend a lot of the time at full power Only Swedish data follows text books Mean phone powers vary from country to country GSM (92-170) mw GSM (47-88) mw

36 CONSTRUCTION OF THE EXPOSURE GRADIENT S last last last tot l, b, t = X i, l, c * Averageclass( SARt, c, x * Convc ) * Ti * Hi * Yijmup, b, t * P, i, b, t telephone= 1 operator = 1 i = 1 * O i S tot,l,b,t i X i,l,c SAR t,c,x Conv c T i H i Y ijmup,b,t P i,b,t O i total specific energy t a given location (l), for a given band (b) (450, 900, 1500, 1800, 1900 MHz) and a specific technology (t) (GSM, CDMA, etc) month of use of the phone (within a period defined by the operator and the phone), proportion of the SARmax received at that location, for the phone (belonging to class c and operating with technology t in frequency band b) SAR for the phones in the class and technology conversion factor to go from SAR10 g to SAR in the cell with the highest average SAR in Gridmaster in specific class of phones average calltime per month (in minutes) derived from CAPI use of hands-free devices from CAPI effect of output power modifiers rural/urban proportion of traffic in band b and technology t from network operators effect of other modifiers as appropriate (APC, DTX, ) from external data/expert opinion

The range of RF spans 3 KHz (3000 Hz) to 300 GHz (300 million Hz)

The range of RF spans 3 KHz (3000 Hz) to 300 GHz (300 million Hz) 1 2 The range of RF spans 3 KHz (3000 Hz) to 300 GHz (300 million Hz) Frequencies of RF devices range from the low frequency AM broadcasts (80 MHz) to higher frequency mobile phones (1900 MHz) smart meters

More information

Annex to the joint statement: Exposure of the general public to radiofrequency fields

Annex to the joint statement: Exposure of the general public to radiofrequency fields 16 November 2009 Annex to the joint statement: Exposure of the general public to radiofrequency fields 1. Introduction This document presents typical exposure of the general public to radiofrequency (RF)

More information

Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation onto Human Head with Variation of Holding Cheek and Tilt Positions

Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation onto Human Head with Variation of Holding Cheek and Tilt Positions Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation onto Human Head with Variation of Holding Cheek and Tilt Positions M. R. Iqbal-Faruque* 1, N. Aisyah-Husni 2, Md. Ikbal-Hossain 1, M. Tariqul-Islam 2 and N. Misran 2 1

More information

Millennium Product Inc. Model: Cell Shield / Zorb

Millennium Product Inc. Model: Cell Shield / Zorb Millennium Product Inc. Cell Shield / Zorb Prepared by PCTEST LAB Issued on: 10/22/2015 Report Version 2.6 NOTE: SAR results only apply to the device tested. Although the device may have had different

More information

Wireless Broadband: Health & Safety Information

Wireless Broadband: Health & Safety Information Wireless Broadband: Health & Safety Information Introduction The increasing use of mobile phones and other wireless technology has been accompanied by public debate about possible adverse effects on health.

More information

Keywords Mobile Tower Radiations, Electromagnetic Radiations, Signal Strength, Mobile Phone

Keywords Mobile Tower Radiations, Electromagnetic Radiations, Signal Strength, Mobile Phone Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2015 ISSN: 2277 128X International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Research Paper Available online at: www.ijarcsse.com Analysis of

More information

RICHARD T ELL ASSOCIATES,INC.

RICHARD T ELL ASSOCIATES,INC. RICHARD T ELL ASSOCIATES,INC. An Evaluation of Test Measurement Data Obtained on the KW-Gard RF Protective Suit March 30, 1998 Prepared for Euclid Garment Manufacturing Company 333 Martinel Drive Kent,

More information

RF EXPOSURE LIMITS AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS

RF EXPOSURE LIMITS AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS RF EXPOSURE LIMITS AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS Jay Moulton Vice President March 12, 2013 1 OVERVIEW Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) Standards and Limits Evaluation Methods

More information

REVIEW OF EXPOSURE LIMITS AND HEALTH CONCERNS SANTA ANA. Base Station Telecommunication Transmitters UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT

REVIEW OF EXPOSURE LIMITS AND HEALTH CONCERNS SANTA ANA. Base Station Telecommunication Transmitters UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT SANTA ANA UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT REVIEW OF EXPOSURE LIMITS AND HEALTH CONCERNS Base Station Telecommunication Transmitters Dr. Karl Rodenbaugh, Senior Scientist SCOPE OF SERVICES Review, Describe, Discuss,

More information

Technical limits of Human Exposure to RF from Cellular Base Stations and Handsets

Technical limits of Human Exposure to RF from Cellular Base Stations and Handsets Ministry of Environmental Protection Ministry of Communications Technical limits of Human Exposure to RF from Cellular Base Stations and Handsets Based on author s PhD thesis/book- An analysis of regulatory

More information

Selected Radio Frequency Exposure Limits

Selected Radio Frequency Exposure Limits ENVIRONMENT, SAFETY & HEALTH DIVISION Chapter 50: Non-ionizing Radiation Selected Radio Frequency Exposure Limits Product ID: 94 Revision ID: 1736 Date published: 30 June 2015 Date effective: 30 June 2015

More information

Human Exposure Limits

Human Exposure Limits Human Exposure Limits Session 3 0 Version December 2014 Learning objectives In this session we will: Learn about the international exposure limits for workers and the public Learn about methods for assessing

More information

SAR ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF HANDS-FREE MOBILE TELEPHONES

SAR ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF HANDS-FREE MOBILE TELEPHONES SAR ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF HANDS-FREE MOBILE TELEPHONES S.J. Porter, M.H. Capstick, F. Faraci, I.D. Flintoft and A.C. Marvin Department of Electronics, University of York Heslington, York, YO10 5DD,

More information

What are radio signals?

What are radio signals? Mobile phones and other wireless technologies have become an integral part of everyday life. But does using a mobile phone regularly, or living near a base station, have any implications for our health?

More information

EMR Exposure Limits & Assessment Methods for Mobile Phone Communications. Lindsay Martin Manager, Non-Ionising Radiation Section

EMR Exposure Limits & Assessment Methods for Mobile Phone Communications. Lindsay Martin Manager, Non-Ionising Radiation Section EMR Exposure Limits & Assessment Methods for Mobile Phone Communications Lindsay Martin Manager, Non-Ionising Radiation Section Introduction How can we use Wireless Communication Safely? Wireless communication

More information

THE ANSI/IEEE RF SAFETY STANDARD AND ITS RATIONALE. Om P. Gandhi and Gianluca Lazzi Department of Electrical Engineering Salt Lake City, Utah 84112

THE ANSI/IEEE RF SAFETY STANDARD AND ITS RATIONALE. Om P. Gandhi and Gianluca Lazzi Department of Electrical Engineering Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 Introduction THE ANSI/IEEE RF SAFETY STANDARD AND ITS RATIONALE Om P. Gandhi and Gianluca Lazzi Department of Electrical Engineering Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 In 1960, the American Standards Association

More information

HERMES: Human Exposure and Radiation Monitoring of Electromagnetic Sources. www.hermes-program.gr

HERMES: Human Exposure and Radiation Monitoring of Electromagnetic Sources. www.hermes-program.gr HERMES Program: The Greek Experience of an Electromagnetic Radiation Monitoring System A. Manassas, A. Boursianis, T. Samaras and J. N. Sahalos HERMES: Human Exposure and Radiation Monitoring of Electromagnetic

More information

Measurement of Output Radio Frequency Field Generated by Mobile Phones with Applied Sound in Different Strengths & Frequencies

Measurement of Output Radio Frequency Field Generated by Mobile Phones with Applied Sound in Different Strengths & Frequencies Gazi University Journal of Science GU J Sci 23(3):281-286 (21) www.gujs.org Measurement of Output Radio Frequency Field Generated by Mobile Phones with Applied Sound in Different Strengths & Frequencies

More information

IEC TC106. Standards for the Assessment of Human Exposure to Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields, 0 to 300 GHz

IEC TC106. Standards for the Assessment of Human Exposure to Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields, 0 to 300 GHz International Electrotechnical Commission IEC TC106 Standards for the Assessment of Human Exposure to Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields, 0 to 300 GHz R. C. Petersen Chairman Secretariat and

More information

Radiofrequency Fields from Mobile Phone Technology

Radiofrequency Fields from Mobile Phone Technology 4 Radiofrequency Fields from Mobile Phone Technology Radiofrequency Radiation Usage 4.1 Mobile phones and their base stations transmit and receive signals using electromagnetic waves (also referred to

More information

Microwave Exposure from Mobile Phones and Base Stations in Sweden

Microwave Exposure from Mobile Phones and Base Stations in Sweden Microwave Exposure from Mobile Phones and Base Stations in Sweden Prof. Dr. Yngve Hamnerius and Thomas Uddmar Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Electromagnetics, SE 41 96 Goteborg, Sweden,

More information

communication over wireless link handling mobile user who changes point of attachment to network

communication over wireless link handling mobile user who changes point of attachment to network Wireless Networks Background: # wireless (mobile) phone subscribers now exceeds # wired phone subscribers! computer nets: laptops, palmtops, PDAs, Internet-enabled phone promise anytime untethered Internet

More information

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF RF EME LEVELS FROM MOBILE TELEPHONE BASE STATIONS LOCATED AT LEICHHARDT, NSW

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF RF EME LEVELS FROM MOBILE TELEPHONE BASE STATIONS LOCATED AT LEICHHARDT, NSW AUSTRALIAN RADIATION PROTECTION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AGENCY A R P N S A Lower Plenty Road YALLAMBIE VIC 3085 Phone 61 3 9433 2211 Fax 61 3 9432 1835 E-mail: arpansa@health.gov.au Web: www.arpansa.gov.au

More information

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Tablet user's

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Tablet user's 7th Latin American Workshop On Communications - 2015 Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Tablet user's Juliana Borges Ferreira Post-graduation program in Electrical Engineering Federal University

More information

September 26, 2000 IMST GmbH Carl-Friedrich-Gauß-Str. 2 D-47475 Kamp-Lintfort

September 26, 2000 IMST GmbH Carl-Friedrich-Gauß-Str. 2 D-47475 Kamp-Lintfort TTI-P-G 158 Report Dosimetric Assessment of the Mobile Ericsson T18z with an without the PAM System Technologies devices According to the American FCC Requirements September 26, 2000 IMST GmbH Carl-Friedrich-Gauß-Str.

More information

LTE: Technology and Health. 4G and Mobile Broadband

LTE: Technology and Health. 4G and Mobile Broadband LTE: Technology and Health 4G and Mobile Broadband LTE Technology and Health Mobile Broadband typically refers to providing customers with high speed data while on the move. There are several technologies

More information

Body SAR and EU. B. Derat

Body SAR and EU. B. Derat Body SAR and EU B. Derat Overview / Outline New Approach: Directive / Standards Current applicable standard IEC/EN 62209-2:2010 Tablet case study Future of EU body SAR testing Maintenance of IEC 62209-2

More information

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) Induced in Human Heads of Various Sizes When Using a Mobile Phone

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) Induced in Human Heads of Various Sizes When Using a Mobile Phone , June 30 - July 2, 2010, London, U.K. Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) Induced in Human Heads of Various Sizes When Using a Mobile Phone Adel Z. El Dein Alaeddin Amr Abstract - This paper analyzes the specific

More information

GSM Base Station Radiation Level: A Case Study of University of Nigeria Environment

GSM Base Station Radiation Level: A Case Study of University of Nigeria Environment INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 1, ISSUE 8, SEPTEMBER 212 ISSN 2277-8616 GSM Base Station Radiation Level: A Case Study of University of Nigeria Environment Mamilus. A.

More information

Prudent Avoidance Policy on Siting Telecommunication Towers and Antennas

Prudent Avoidance Policy on Siting Telecommunication Towers and Antennas STAFF REPORT ACTION REQUIRED Prudent Avoidance Policy on Siting Telecommunication Towers and Antennas Date: November 20, 2007 To: From: Wards: Board of Health Medical Officer of Health All Reference Number:

More information

COUNCIL RECOMMENDATION of 12 July 1999 on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) (1999/519/EC)

COUNCIL RECOMMENDATION of 12 July 1999 on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) (1999/519/EC) COUNCIL RECOMMENDATION of 12 July 1999 on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) (1999/519/EC) THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, Having regard to

More information

Human EMF Exposure Limit Regulation

Human EMF Exposure Limit Regulation Human EMF Exposure Limit Regulation Document for consultation -- / -- / 2009 1 Chapter 1: Purpose and scope of the Regulation Article 1. Background 1. This human (Electro-Magnetic Field) EMF Exposure Limit

More information

Advanced Measurements of Microwave Oven Leakage

Advanced Measurements of Microwave Oven Leakage Conference paper Advanced Measurements of Microwave Oven Leakage M. Bangay [1] C. Zombolas [2] 1. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency 2. EMC Technologies Pty Ltd Abstract Reports

More information

Statement for the Record for the September 25, 2008, hearing entitled, Cell Phone Use and Tumors: What the Science Says

Statement for the Record for the September 25, 2008, hearing entitled, Cell Phone Use and Tumors: What the Science Says Statement for the Record for the Subcommittee on Domestic Policy Committee on Oversight and Government Reform United States House of Representatives Statement for the Record for the September 25, 2008,

More information

AN OVERVIEW OF STANDARDS AND REGULATION CONCERNING EXPOSURE TO RADIOFREQUENCY FIELDS

AN OVERVIEW OF STANDARDS AND REGULATION CONCERNING EXPOSURE TO RADIOFREQUENCY FIELDS AN OVERVIEW OF STANDARDS AND REGULATION CONCERNING EXPOSURE TO RADIOFREQUENCY FIELDS Annamaria PALJANOS, paljanosanna@yahoo.com Călin MUNTEANU calin.munteanu@et.utcluj.ro TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY CLUJ NAPOCA,

More information

Understanding Range for RF Devices

Understanding Range for RF Devices Understanding Range for RF Devices October 2012 White Paper Understanding how environmental factors can affect range is one of the key aspects to deploying a radio frequency (RF) solution. This paper will

More information

Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma

Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma Pathophysiology 20 (2013) 85 110 Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma Lennart Hardell a,, Michael Carlberg a, Kjell Hansson Mild b

More information

Operating Frequency Selection for Loosely Coupled Wireless Power Transfer Systems with Respect to RF Emissions and RF Exposure Requirements

Operating Frequency Selection for Loosely Coupled Wireless Power Transfer Systems with Respect to RF Emissions and RF Exposure Requirements Operating Frequency Selection for Loosely Coupled Wireless Power Transfer Systems with Respect to RF Emissions and RF Exposure Requirements Jagadish Nadakuduti, Lin Lu, Paul Guckian Qualcomm Technologies,

More information

Official Journal of the European Communities. (Acts whose publication is not obligatory) COUNCIL

Official Journal of the European Communities. (Acts whose publication is not obligatory) COUNCIL 30. 7. 1999 EN Official Journal of the European Communities L 199/59 II (Acts whose publication is not obligatory) COUNCIL COUNCIL RECOMMENDATION of 12 July 1999 on the limitation of exposure of the general

More information

Effect of Metallic Materials on SAR

Effect of Metallic Materials on SAR Contemporary Engineering Sciences, Vol. 5, 2012, no. 9, 407-411 Effect of Metallic Materials on SAR Asma Lak Department of Electrical Engineering, Genaveh branch Islamic Azad University, Genaveh, Iran

More information

RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION, (RFR): (RFR Information - Technology Newsletter, Full Version)

RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION, (RFR): (RFR Information - Technology Newsletter, Full Version) RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION, (RFR): (RFR Information - Technology Newsletter, Full Version) George M. Harris, P.E. (Revised February, 2011) Questions: -What is Radiofrequency Radiation, (RFR)? -With SO MANY

More information

The field strength measurement and SAR experience related to human exposure in 110 MHz to 40 GHz

The field strength measurement and SAR experience related to human exposure in 110 MHz to 40 GHz The field strength measurement and SAR experience related to human exposure in 110 MHz to 40 GHz J. Klima, R. Ščehovič Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Mathias Bel, Tajovského

More information

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PUBLIC HEALTH HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDELINES #1

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PUBLIC HEALTH HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDELINES #1 SINGAPORE, 16 AUGUST 2001 HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY PRESS RELEASE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PUBLIC HEALTH HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDELINES #1 THE EMF HEALTH ISSUE 1 Over the past years a large number of scientific

More information

BLM Emerging Risks Team - Report on Mobile Phones/EMFs

BLM Emerging Risks Team - Report on Mobile Phones/EMFs BLM Emerging Risks Team - Report on Mobile Phones/EMFs November 2014 Malcolm Keen Solicitor, BLM London T 020 7865 3381 E Malcolm.keen@blmlaw.com 1 Introduction Use of mobile phones has of course increased

More information

3 Radio Waves and Human Body 8 Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)... 8 SAR value of a mobile handset... 8 Radiation level by a mobile tower...

3 Radio Waves and Human Body 8 Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)... 8 SAR value of a mobile handset... 8 Radiation level by a mobile tower... i Mobile Communication- Radio Waves & Safety Content 1 Overview 3 2 Radio Waves in Cellular Communication System 4 Radio waves... 4 Electric field, Magnetic field... 4 Electromagnetic field (EMF)... 4

More information

Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Computer Networks (Wi-Fi) in Schools

Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Computer Networks (Wi-Fi) in Schools Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Computer Networks (Wi-Fi) in Schools Simon Mann Darren Addison, Stuart Burnett, Carolina Calderon, Mohammed Khalid, Terry Mee, Azadeh Peyman Physical Dosimetry

More information

$ $; #! $ $ $ $. $ $, $ $,! $ # $ -$.! #,! # #. ' () «-,» ( ),. 2-3!!!, - $# (RF) #! $., - #! $ $, #. - & # $!.

$ $; #! $ $ $ $. $ $, $ $,! $ # $ -$.! #,! # #. ' () «-,» ( ),. 2-3!!!, - $# (RF) #! $., - #! $ $, #. - & # $!. & :!!" $%&', 15701 ' 7274548, fax: 7274742 e-mail: lmargar@bioluoagr http://kyttarikibioluoagr () %& *&!+ $ ',-" () (),, ( 310 11 Hz ),,!!! ", $! " (! 810 14 Hz! $,,, %, ), & &, ( ), $,!!!! $ $ &, ( mcurie),!!

More information

EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION FROM MOBILE PHONES AND CASE STUDIES OF COMPUTATIONAL MODELS FOR CALCULATING SAR DISTRIBUTION IN HUMAN BODY Settapong Malisuwan National Broadcasting and Telecommunications

More information

Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Compliance of Radiocommunication Apparatus (All Frequency Bands)

Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Compliance of Radiocommunication Apparatus (All Frequency Bands) Issue 3 June 2009 Spectrum Management and Telecommunications Radio Standards Specification Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Compliance of Radiocommunication Apparatus (All Frequency Bands) Aussi disponible

More information

Mobile telecommunication base stations exposure to electromagnetic fields

Mobile telecommunication base stations exposure to electromagnetic fields COST 244bis Short Term Mission on Base Station Exposure Page 1 Dedicated to Ulf Bergqvist Mobile telecommunication base stations exposure to electromagnetic fields Report of a Short Term Mission within

More information

Electromagnetic Field Safety

Electromagnetic Field Safety SAR A Basic Restriction for Electromagnetic Field Safety David Baron, PE Consulting Engineer Electromagnetic Field Safety d.baron@ieee.org NOTE. CENAM is not responsible for the content of this document.

More information

Press Kit. Update of the Radiofrequencies and health expert appraisal. Tuesday 15 October 2013

Press Kit. Update of the Radiofrequencies and health expert appraisal. Tuesday 15 October 2013 Press Kit Update of the Radiofrequencies and health expert appraisal Tuesday 15 October 2013 Press liaison: Elena Séité +33 (0)1 49 77 27 80 elena.seite@anses.fr www.anses.fr Contents: Press Release 2

More information

Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma

Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma Pathophysiology 20 (2013) 85 110 Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma Lennart Hardell a,, Michael Carlberg a, Kjell Hansson Mild b

More information

Measurement of Output Power Density from Mobile Phone as a Function of Input Sound Frequency

Measurement of Output Power Density from Mobile Phone as a Function of Input Sound Frequency , pp. 270-279. A Publication of the Measurement of Output Power Density from Mobile Phone as a Function of Input Sound Frequency Emanuele Calabrò and Salvatore Magazù Department of Physics, University

More information

Automated Meter Reading Frequently Asked Questions. What is AMR?

Automated Meter Reading Frequently Asked Questions. What is AMR? Automated Meter Reading Frequently Asked Questions What is AMR? AMR stands for Automated Meter Reading. It is a method of using advanced communications technology to read meters remotely. It reduces human

More information

The Aulterra Neutralizer Reduces the Intensity of Cell Phone Radiation

The Aulterra Neutralizer Reduces the Intensity of Cell Phone Radiation Executive Summary The Aulterra Neutralizer Reduces the Intensity of Cell Phone Radiation Cell phone radiation is harmful to the body. Higher doses produce stronger damaging effects. To protect the brain

More information

The Existing Public Exposure Standards Cindy Sage, MA Sage Associates, USA

The Existing Public Exposure Standards Cindy Sage, MA Sage Associates, USA SECTION 3 _ The Existing Public Exposure Standards Cindy Sage, MA Sage Associates, USA Prepared for the BioInitiative Working Group August 2007 The US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Exposure Standard

More information

College of Engineering, University of Kirkuk, -IRAQ

College of Engineering, University of Kirkuk, -IRAQ Comparative Study of Radiofrequency Radiations from GSM Base Stations in Residential Areas Sabah Hawar Saeid Abstract: As technology progresses and data demands have increased on mobile network, towns

More information

Attenuation Measurements of Materials Used in Construction of Buildings

Attenuation Measurements of Materials Used in Construction of Buildings Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Guangzhou, China, Aug. 25 28, 2014 2671 Attenuation Measurements of Materials Used in Construction of Buildings Marek Bugaj Faculty of Electronics,

More information

Exposures to radiofrequency fields from WiFi in New Zealand schools

Exposures to radiofrequency fields from WiFi in New Zealand schools Exposures to radiofrequency fields from WiFi in New Zealand schools Report 2014/02 This report was prepared for: Ministry of Health P O Box 5013 Wellington Report prepared by: Martin Gledhill Finalised:

More information

Radio waves and health. Mobile communications

Radio waves and health. Mobile communications Radio waves and health Mobile communications Mobile communications and health Mobile telephony Radio communications have been used for more than a hundred years in various sorts of applications. Already

More information

sources in our environment i.e. Natural and man-made. The sun, earth and ionosphere are the natural source.

sources in our environment i.e. Natural and man-made. The sun, earth and ionosphere are the natural source. Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) consist of waves of electric and magnetic energy moving together at the speed of light and sometimes is referred as electromagnetic field (EMF) They are basically two forms

More information

Assessment of Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation from Wireless Devices in Home and Office Environments

Assessment of Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation from Wireless Devices in Home and Office Environments Assessment of Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation from Wireless Devices in Home and Office Environments Sven Kühn, Urs Lott, Axel Kramer, Niels Kuster Foundation for Research on Information Technologies

More information

Thermal Effects of Mobile Phones

Thermal Effects of Mobile Phones Thermal Effects of Mobile Phones S. Kassimi 1, A. ELfadl, S. Bri 3, A. Nakheli 4, M. Habibi 5, M. Ben Ahmed 6 Systems and Telecommunications Engineering Decision Laboratory,Ibn Tofail University, Faculty

More information

Risk of Brain Tumors From Wireless Phone Use. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography November/December 2010; Vol. 34, No. 6; pp.

Risk of Brain Tumors From Wireless Phone Use. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography November/December 2010; Vol. 34, No. 6; pp. Risk of Brain Tumors From Wireless Phone Use 1 Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography November/December 2010; Vol. 34, No. 6; pp. 799-807 Rash Bihari Dubey, Madasu Hanmandlu, PhD, and Suresh Kumar Gupta,

More information

Working safely around Radiofrequency (RF) Transmitters

Working safely around Radiofrequency (RF) Transmitters Working safely around Radiofrequency (RF) Transmitters Exposure to excessive levels of radiofrequency (RF) emissions may affect your health This Mobile Carriers Forum (MCF) Fact sheet series is designed

More information

Mobile Device Usage: More, more, more or Less, less, less?

Mobile Device Usage: More, more, more or Less, less, less? Mobile Device Usage: More, more, more or Less, less, less? Denise Wilson & Cassandra Hooper University of Washington Seattle In collaboration with Coming Alongside -- Environmental Services National Environmental

More information

ARIB TR-T12-34.925 V3.0.0. Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) requirements and regulations in different regions

ARIB TR-T12-34.925 V3.0.0. Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) requirements and regulations in different regions ARIB TR-T12-34.925 V3.0.0 Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) requirements and regulations in different regions Refer to "Notice" in the preface of ARIB TR-T12 for Copyrights. Technical Report 3rd Generation

More information

Comments on the Draft Report by the California Council on Science and Technology Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters

Comments on the Draft Report by the California Council on Science and Technology Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters Comments on the Draft Report by the California Council on Science and Technology Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters by Daniel Hirsch 1 31 January 2011 Abstract The draft report by the

More information

Assessment of SAR in a human exposed to GSM electromagnetic fields

Assessment of SAR in a human exposed to GSM electromagnetic fields Assessment of SAR in a human exposed to GSM LUAN AHMA, MIMOZA IBRANI, ENVER HAMITI Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Prishtina Bregu i Diellit, nn KOSOVO luan.ahma@fiek.uni-pr.edu

More information

SAR TESTS ON MOBILE PHONES USED WITH AND WITHOUT PERSONAL HANDS-FREE KITS

SAR TESTS ON MOBILE PHONES USED WITH AND WITHOUT PERSONAL HANDS-FREE KITS SARTest Report 0083 July 2000 SAR TESTS ON MOBILE PHONES USED WITH AND WITHOUT PERSONAL HANDS-FREE KITS MI Manning and CHB Gabriel Report prepared for DTI. Page 1 of 17 Indemnity Sartest Limited makes

More information

The Salzburg Model: A Precautionary Strategy for Siting of Base Stations

The Salzburg Model: A Precautionary Strategy for Siting of Base Stations The Salzburg Model: A Precautionary Strategy for Siting of Base Stations Dr. Gerd Oberfeld, Dr. Christoph König Federal State of Salzburg, Public Health Department, Environmental Health P.O. Box 527, A-5010

More information

SERVICES BROCHURE +61 8 9381 7199 +61 8 9381 7166. email: info@t-r-s.com.au www.t-r-s.com.au. PO BOX 680, Claremont, 6910, Western Australia

SERVICES BROCHURE +61 8 9381 7199 +61 8 9381 7166. email: info@t-r-s.com.au www.t-r-s.com.au. PO BOX 680, Claremont, 6910, Western Australia SERVICES BROCHURE +61 8 9381 7199 +61 8 9381 7166 email: info@t-r-s.com.au www.t-r-s.com.au PO BOX 680, Claremont, 6910, Western Australia COMPANY INFORMATION Total Radiation Solutions Pty Ltd (TRS) is

More information

Ultrasound. - Dosimetry. Gail ter Haar. Joint Physics Department, Royal Marsden Hospital: Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey UK

Ultrasound. - Dosimetry. Gail ter Haar. Joint Physics Department, Royal Marsden Hospital: Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey UK Ultrasound - Dosimetry Gail ter Haar Joint Physics Department, Royal Marsden Hospital: Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey UK Measurable in water Exposure Reduced by: tissue acoustic properties

More information

UNDERSTANDING RADIO FREQUENCY AND BC HYDRO S SMART METERS

UNDERSTANDING RADIO FREQUENCY AND BC HYDRO S SMART METERS UNDERSTANDING RADIO FREQUENCY AND BC HYDRO S SMART METERS SUMMARY Radio frequency (RF) technology has been around for over years and is a part of everyday life radios, TVs and medic alert systems are examples.

More information

IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Standards (Active & Archive) Collection: VuSpec

IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Standards (Active & Archive) Collection: VuSpec IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Standards (Active & Archive) Collection: VuSpec This value-packed VuSpec CD-ROM represents the most complete resource available for professional engineers looking for

More information

The tradescantia micronucleus bioassay:

The tradescantia micronucleus bioassay: Investigation of the mutagenicity of electromagnetic fields using the tradescantia micronucleus bioassay H. Lehmann 1, C. Pickl 2, M. Urech 3 1 Environment & Electromagnetic Compatibility, Swisscom Innovations,

More information

Analysis of Immunity by RF Wireless Communication Signals

Analysis of Immunity by RF Wireless Communication Signals 64 PIERS Proceedings, Guangzhou, China, August 25 28, 2014 Analysis of Immunity by RF Wireless Communication Signals Hongsik Keum 1, Jungyu Yang 2, and Heung-Gyoon Ryu 3 1 EletroMagneticwave Technology

More information

Review of Eliminating occupational cancer in Europe and globally by J. Takala

Review of Eliminating occupational cancer in Europe and globally by J. Takala Review of Eliminating occupational cancer in Europe and globally by J. Takala There primary concerns of this manuscript are outlined below. More detail discussion of these points is presented on the following

More information

OpenWay Radio Frequency FAQ

OpenWay Radio Frequency FAQ OpenWay Radio Frequency FAQ March 10, 2010 2010, Itron Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Overview This document provides general information about radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields from OpenWay wireless

More information

MRET-Shield Synopsis of Scientific Research Updated on June 1, 2007

MRET-Shield Synopsis of Scientific Research Updated on June 1, 2007 MRET-Shield Synopsis of Scientific Research Updated on June 1, 27 MRET-Shield material and devices made, when placed in proximity to persons, animals and plants serve to lessen adverse health effects caused

More information

Clean, Green and Safe Management System

Clean, Green and Safe Management System Clean, Green and Safe Management System SP 24-38: Working with Radio Frequency Radiation - Minimum Requirements Author : Communications Network Operations Centre Manager A. Reece Checked by: Manager Communications/

More information

RF safety at base station sites

RF safety at base station sites RF safety at base station sites CONTENTS 1 Purpose and scope................................................. 2 2 Introduction........................................................ 2 3 Basic information...................................................

More information

SAR Test Report: Type Number FAD-3022012-BV; FCC ID PY7FD022012; IC 4170B-FD022012

SAR Test Report: Type Number FAD-3022012-BV; FCC ID PY7FD022012; IC 4170B-FD022012 1 (34) Report issued by an Accredited Laboratory Rapport utfärdad av ett ackrediterat laboratorium This laboratory is accredited to SS-EN ISO/IEC 17025 (SWEDAC accreditation no. 1761). SAR Test Report:

More information

Compliance with TIS and TRP Requirements

Compliance with TIS and TRP Requirements White Paper Compliance with TIS and TRP Requirements This document describes the issues related to meeting Total Isotropic Sensitivity and Total Radiated Power requirements for cellular products. May 2006

More information

EMC STANDARDS STANDARDS AND STANDARD MAKING BODIES. International. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) http://www.iec.

EMC STANDARDS STANDARDS AND STANDARD MAKING BODIES. International. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) http://www.iec. EMC STANDARDS The EMC standards that a particular electronic product must meet depend on the product application (commercial or military) and the country in which the product is to be used. These EMC regulatory

More information

Human Exposure to Outdoor PLC System

Human Exposure to Outdoor PLC System 1602 PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, MOROCCO, March 20 23, 2011 Human Exposure to Outdoor PLC System Vicko Doric 1, Dragan Poljak 1, and Khalil El Khamlichi Drissi 2 1 University of Split, Croatia 2 Blaise

More information

Mobile use, radio signals and health

Mobile use, radio signals and health Mobile use, radio signals and health Mobile use, radio signals and health How does the mobile network work? Since the 1970s, the use of various types of radio transmitters has risen dramatically, to the

More information

EMR Electro Magnetic Radiation (a more friendly term is EME.. Electro Magnetic Energy)

EMR Electro Magnetic Radiation (a more friendly term is EME.. Electro Magnetic Energy) Acknowledgements WIA Spectrum Committee Michael Owen.. SK VK3KI.. founder of the modern WIA. Phil Wait VK2ASD [President WIA]. Roger Harrison VK2ZRH [WIA Director]. Peter Young VK3MV [ex Director and ACMA].

More information

What the experts say: The consensus of scientific opinion

What the experts say: The consensus of scientific opinion What the experts say: The consensus of scientific opinion AMTA relies on the expert judgment of independent public health authorities, such as the World Health Organization, for assessments of safety and

More information

Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation

Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

Synthetic Sensing: Proximity / Distance Sensors

Synthetic Sensing: Proximity / Distance Sensors Synthetic Sensing: Proximity / Distance Sensors MediaRobotics Lab, February 2010 Proximity detection is dependent on the object of interest. One size does not fit all For non-contact distance measurement,

More information

Interference to Hearing Aids by Digital Mobile Telephones Operating in the 1800 MHz Band.

Interference to Hearing Aids by Digital Mobile Telephones Operating in the 1800 MHz Band. Interference to Hearing Aids by Digital Mobile Telephones Operating in the 1800 MHz Band. Reference: EB968 Date: January 2008 Author: Eric Burwood (National Acoustic Laboratories) Collaborator: Walter

More information

MUCH work has been reported on determining the specific

MUCH work has been reported on determining the specific IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 46, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999 911 Heating of Tissue by Near-Field Exposure to a Dipole: A Model Analysis Pere J. Riu, Senior Member, IEEE, and Kenneth R. Foster,*

More information

Section 14. Strategies for Radiofrequency Exposure Reduction

Section 14. Strategies for Radiofrequency Exposure Reduction Section 14 Strategies for Radiofrequency Exposure Reduction Table of Contents Summary... 340 14.1 Introduction... 340 14.1.1 Substitution... 340 14.1.2 Engineering controls... 341 14.1.3 Administrative

More information

EFFECTS OF MOBILE PHONE RADIATION ON THE HUMAN HEALTH

EFFECTS OF MOBILE PHONE RADIATION ON THE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS OF MOBILE PHONE RADIATION ON THE HUMAN HEALTH Mobile or cellular phones are now an integral part of modern telecommunications. In many countries, over half the population use mobile phones and

More information

Human exposure to RF

Human exposure to RF INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION Human exposure to RF Don Heirman ACEC/TC106 Liaison Representative APEMC symposium May 2015 Copyright IEC, Geneva, Switzerland TC106 Scope To prepare international

More information

A. Jraifi, R. A. Laamara, A. Belhaj, and E. H. Saidi Lab/UFR-groupe Canal Propagation Radio PHE, Faculté des Sciences, Rabat, Morocco

A. Jraifi, R. A. Laamara, A. Belhaj, and E. H. Saidi Lab/UFR-groupe Canal Propagation Radio PHE, Faculté des Sciences, Rabat, Morocco Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 12, 15 25, 2010 A PROPOSAL SOLUTION FOR INTERFERENCE INTER-OPERATORS A. Jraifi, R. A. Laamara, A. Belhaj, and E. H. Saidi Lab/UFR-groupe Canal Propagation

More information

ADDRESSING EMF ISSUES TO ACHIEVE SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES

ADDRESSING EMF ISSUES TO ACHIEVE SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES ADDRESSING EMF ISSUES TO ACHIEVE SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES Dr. Fryderyk Lewicki ITU-T SG5, Vice-chairman of WP2 Rapporteur for Q 7/5 Orange Polska, Poland Bangkok, Thailand, 30 September 2014 Outline Introduction

More information