Assessment of SAR in a human exposed to GSM electromagnetic fields

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Assessment of SAR in a human exposed to GSM electromagnetic fields"

Transcription

1 Assessment of SAR in a human exposed to GSM LUAN AHMA, MIMOZA IBRANI, ENVER HAMITI Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Prishtina Bregu i Diellit, nn KOSOVO Abstract: Exposure to celular mobile communication has raised public concern regarding possible adverse effects to people exposed to such radiation. At frequency 900 MHz the most important parameter used to assess human exposure to is SAR (Specific Absorption Rate). In this paper are addressed two exposure scenarios: Human exposure to 900 MHz GSM base station, whereby with EMR-300 is measured field strength on different points located meters away from base station antenna. Using SAR prediction formula we have calculated induced SAR values for people located near base station antenna Human exposure to mobile phone GSM, whereby with a software (FDTD code) have simulated human head exposure to mobile phone radiation and have calculated Spatial Peak SAR over 1 gr and 10 gr of human body biological tissues. SAR is calculated for human of middle age, no gender or age distinction. Obtained results are presented graphically and tabulary and are compared with ICNIPR Guidelines Key-Words: GSM, SAR, base station antennas, field strength, mobile phone 1 Introduction Tremendous growth of mobile communications in general and of GSM in particular has been accompainned with public concern about potential biological impacts to living organisms. Even though mobile communications are considered by many as fundamentals of their lifestyle, concerns for potential health impacts caused by operation of mobile communications are becoming an issue for individuals, researchers, governments and other relevant institutions. Many studies have been done and are on going regarding potential biological, thermal non-thermal and behavioral effects to humans exposed to GSM electromagnetic fields. Interaction of GSM (Global System Mobile Communication) with a human is a multidimensional issue that depends from electromagnetic properties of human biological tissues as well. Dosimetric studies are performed to quantify the interactions of with biological tissues ISSN: ISBN:

2 At frequencies above 100 MHz, included here frequencies of mobile telephony GSM 900 MHz, the most important dosimetric parameter used to assess human exposure to is SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) For this reason almost all national and international safety guidelines and recommended limits on human exposure to GSM are given in terms of SAR. SAR is defined as: E SAR 2 = ( W / kg) ρ...( 1) where : -Conductivity of body tissue, E - root mean square of intensity of electrical field at considered point, ρ -mass density of tissue at that point. Since SAR, time rate of RF energy absorbed per unit mass is very difficult and complex to be measured in biological tissues, alternatives as: measurement of field strength, power density, software simulations etc are being used to assess human exposure to. In the other hand, while analyzing architecture of GSM, it is obviously we should address particularly radiation coming from base station antenna and mobile phone. Since these are two different situations of human exposure we have studied them independently In this paper we have presented results of two exposure situations: Human exposure to 900 MHz GSM base station. Human exposure to mobile phone GSM 2 Assessment of SAR in a human exposed to GSM base station antenna Widespread use of mobile communication led to sitting of GSM base station antennas in densely populated areas. This raised concern particularly to people living in the vicinity of base station antennas which are being exposed to such radiation long time and cumulative effect of exposure may become an issue. To evaluate exposure we have decided to assess human exposure to 900 MHz GSM base station antenna located on suburb of Prishtina. As all parts of human body are exposed to such radiation the attention is focused on whole-body averaged SAR. Since measuring of induced field in human body exposed to base station is impossible, in order to asses such exposure we have measured incident field strength in few locations meters away from base station antenna. Measurements are performed using radiation meter EMR-300, sensor type 8 E- field probe, 200 KHz -3 GHz, three axial sensors, so measurements are done independently of direction or polarization of radiating source. Obtained measurements results are used in SAR prediction formula to calculate SAR for people exposed to BTS radiation. At 900 MHz, average dielectric parameters of human body are ε = 55 and =1.4 r In dependence of incident electric field, SAR can be calculated as follows [12] SAR = ρ μ ω E 2 inc ( 1+ γ r ) ε ω Z (2) Since there are different issues for above mentioned type of exposures they will be addressed separately on next paragraphs. 2 ε ' γ r = ε ' + ε 0 ε ' = ε + j ω 1...(3)...(4) ISSN: ISBN:

3 where: γ - Corresponding reflection coefficient r ' ε - complex permittivity of the medium E - rms of the incident electrical field inc Even though measurements are done on few points meters away from base of antenna, ground level, in paper are presented results of measurements on 5 points. Authors should be contacted for a complete list of measurements. Results for field strength and SAR are given in Tables 1 and 2 Measu. E (V/m) point Distan (m) Inst. Avg. Max. of avg Table 1 3 Assessment of SAR in a human exposed to mobile phone Radiation from mobile phone mostly covers human head. Moreover the transmitted power is not such a big so we cannot expect big values of induced SAR in other parts of body. In order to assess human exposure to mobile phone GSM electromagnetic field we have run simulations with SEMCAD (FDTD code) for model: human head + mobile phone. As model for human head is used SAM (Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin) phantom while mobile phone is modeled as perfectly conducting box with monopole antenna. Measu. point Distan. (m) SAR ( μ W / kg ) Table 2 Figure 1 We have calculated Spatial Peak SAR as per IEEE 1529 recommendation. Obtained result of Spatial Peak SAR averaged over 1g of body tissues is 2.1 ISSN: ISBN:

4 mw/g for typical transmitting power of mobile phone 250 mw. Visually and graphically SAR distribution at different position in human head are shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4. As European safety standards give Peak Spatial SAR averaged over 10 g of body tissues we have run the simulations for the same model with unchanged parameters. Obtained value for PeakSpatial SAR averaged over 10 g of biological body tissue is 1.7 mw/g. Figure 2 Figure 3 As noticed Peak SAR appears near human ear. 4 Conclusion Modeling of inside a human body is a complex issue and more work should be done to answer actual research questions. Analyzing results of practical measurements performed in limited number of locations, the field strength from GSM 900 MHz base station antenna never exceed the reference levels as per ICNIRP guidelines. Values of calculated SAR for people living in houses near BTS are within basic restrictions of actual safety standards. For human exposure to mobile phone, with simulations, for simplified model, without any optimization, obtained result of Spatial Peak SAR averaged over 1g of body tissues is 2.1 mw/g for typical transmitting power of mobile phone 250 mw. Obtained value for Spatial Peak SAR averaged over 10 g of biological body tissue is 1.7 mw/g. Maximum SAR is noticed on human ear. Even though all obtained results are within actual safety standards, many countries are setting country local limits and are taking precautionary measures for mobile communication usage. Better safe than sorry! Figure 4 ISSN: ISBN:

5 References: [1] Dragan Poljak, Niksa Kovac A Simplified Electromagnetic-thermal Analysis of Human Exposure to Radiation from Base Station Antennas, Automatika 45(2004), 1-2, [2] Dariusz Wojcik, Tomasz Topa and Krzysztof Szczepanski, Absorption of EM energy by human body in the vicinity of GSM base station antenna 2005 Journal of telecommunications and information technology, pg34-38 [3] Laurent Nicolas, Interactions between Electromagnetic Fields and Biological tissues [4] J.Klima, R.Scehovic, The field strength measurement and SAR experience related to human exposure in 110 MHz to 40 GHz, MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 6, Section 2, No.4, 2006 [5] S. Miclaus, P. Bechet, Estimated and measured values of the radiofrequency radiation power density around cellular base stations, Rom.Journ.Phys, Vol.52, Nos.3-4 P Bucharest, 2007 [6] Andre Vander Vorst, Arye Rosen and Youji Kotsuka, RF/Microwave Interaction with Biological Tissues, 2006 by John Willey & Sons, Inc. pg 7-50 [7] ARRL Handbook for Radio Amateurs, 1996 American Radio Relay League, Inc. Chapter 9 [8] [9] ICNIRP Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and up to 300 GHz, Health Physics 74, pg ,1998 [10] [11] Vesna Hrvoje, Wire Antenna Theory Applied ti the Assessment of the Radiation Hazard in the Vicinity of the GSM Base Station, Serbian Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol.1, No.1, November 2003, [12] Dragan Poljak, Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields, Witt Press 2003 [13] Outi Kivekas, Tuuka Lehtiniemi, Pertti Vainiakainen; On the general energyabsorption mechanism in the human tissues, Microwave and Optical Technology Letters / Vol.43,No.3,November [14] IEEE C Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, khz to 300 GHz, Standards Coordinating Committees [15] M. Ibrani, L.Ahma,E.Hamiti and R.Sefa, Exposure Assessment in the vicinity of 900 Mhz GSM base station antenna, Proceedings of 11 th WESEAS Conference on Communications, Crete,,2007,pg [16] M. Ibrani-Pllana, L.Ahma and E.Hamiti, Human exposure assessment in vicinity of 900 MHz GSM base station antenna ; North Atlantic University Union (NAUN) International Journal of Communication, 2008, pg [17] M. Ibrani-Pllana, L.Ahma and E.Hamiti,Human exposure in vicinity of 900 MHz GSM base station antenna WSEAS Transactions on Communications, Issue 4, Volume 7, April 2008 pg ISSN: ISBN:

Human exposure assessment in the vicinity of 900 MHz GSM base station antenna

Human exposure assessment in the vicinity of 900 MHz GSM base station antenna Human exposure assessment in the vicinity of 9 MHz GSM base station Mimoza Ibrani Pllana, Luan Ahma, Enver Hamiti Abstract - Daily exposure to GSM electromagnetic fields has raised public concern of possible

More information

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) Induced in Human Heads of Various Sizes When Using a Mobile Phone

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) Induced in Human Heads of Various Sizes When Using a Mobile Phone , June 30 - July 2, 2010, London, U.K. Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) Induced in Human Heads of Various Sizes When Using a Mobile Phone Adel Z. El Dein Alaeddin Amr Abstract - This paper analyzes the specific

More information

Effect of Metallic Materials on SAR

Effect of Metallic Materials on SAR Contemporary Engineering Sciences, Vol. 5, 2012, no. 9, 407-411 Effect of Metallic Materials on SAR Asma Lak Department of Electrical Engineering, Genaveh branch Islamic Azad University, Genaveh, Iran

More information

Thermal Effects of Mobile Phones

Thermal Effects of Mobile Phones Thermal Effects of Mobile Phones S. Kassimi 1, A. ELfadl, S. Bri 3, A. Nakheli 4, M. Habibi 5, M. Ben Ahmed 6 Systems and Telecommunications Engineering Decision Laboratory,Ibn Tofail University, Faculty

More information

Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation onto Human Head with Variation of Holding Cheek and Tilt Positions

Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation onto Human Head with Variation of Holding Cheek and Tilt Positions Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation onto Human Head with Variation of Holding Cheek and Tilt Positions M. R. Iqbal-Faruque* 1, N. Aisyah-Husni 2, Md. Ikbal-Hossain 1, M. Tariqul-Islam 2 and N. Misran 2 1

More information

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Tablet user's

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Tablet user's 7th Latin American Workshop On Communications - 2015 Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Tablet user's Juliana Borges Ferreira Post-graduation program in Electrical Engineering Federal University

More information

Human Exposure to Outdoor PLC System

Human Exposure to Outdoor PLC System 1602 PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, MOROCCO, March 20 23, 2011 Human Exposure to Outdoor PLC System Vicko Doric 1, Dragan Poljak 1, and Khalil El Khamlichi Drissi 2 1 University of Split, Croatia 2 Blaise

More information

Real-life Applications of ICNIRP Guidelines to Various Human EMF Exposure Issues

Real-life Applications of ICNIRP Guidelines to Various Human EMF Exposure Issues Technical Forum Overview and Latest Development of Standards in Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Real-life Applications of ICNIRP Guidelines to Various Human EMF Exposure Issues Dr. Brian

More information

Millennium Product Inc. Model: Cell Shield / Zorb

Millennium Product Inc. Model: Cell Shield / Zorb Millennium Product Inc. Cell Shield / Zorb Prepared by PCTEST LAB Issued on: 10/22/2015 Report Version 2.6 NOTE: SAR results only apply to the device tested. Although the device may have had different

More information

AN OVERVIEW OF STANDARDS AND REGULATION CONCERNING EXPOSURE TO RADIOFREQUENCY FIELDS

AN OVERVIEW OF STANDARDS AND REGULATION CONCERNING EXPOSURE TO RADIOFREQUENCY FIELDS AN OVERVIEW OF STANDARDS AND REGULATION CONCERNING EXPOSURE TO RADIOFREQUENCY FIELDS Annamaria PALJANOS, paljanosanna@yahoo.com Călin MUNTEANU calin.munteanu@et.utcluj.ro TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY CLUJ NAPOCA,

More information

Electromagnetic Field Safety

Electromagnetic Field Safety SAR A Basic Restriction for Electromagnetic Field Safety David Baron, PE Consulting Engineer Electromagnetic Field Safety d.baron@ieee.org NOTE. CENAM is not responsible for the content of this document.

More information

Human Exposure Limits

Human Exposure Limits Human Exposure Limits Session 3 0 Version December 2014 Learning objectives In this session we will: Learn about the international exposure limits for workers and the public Learn about methods for assessing

More information

Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Compliance of Radiocommunication Apparatus (All Frequency Bands)

Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Compliance of Radiocommunication Apparatus (All Frequency Bands) Issue 3 June 2009 Spectrum Management and Telecommunications Radio Standards Specification Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Compliance of Radiocommunication Apparatus (All Frequency Bands) Aussi disponible

More information

EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION FROM MOBILE PHONES AND CASE STUDIES OF COMPUTATIONAL MODELS FOR CALCULATING SAR DISTRIBUTION IN HUMAN BODY Settapong Malisuwan National Broadcasting and Telecommunications

More information

IEC TC106. Standards for the Assessment of Human Exposure to Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields, 0 to 300 GHz

IEC TC106. Standards for the Assessment of Human Exposure to Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields, 0 to 300 GHz International Electrotechnical Commission IEC TC106 Standards for the Assessment of Human Exposure to Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields, 0 to 300 GHz R. C. Petersen Chairman Secretariat and

More information

FDTD Computation of Sar Distributions in Human Head for Mobile Phones V.Purushothaman, N.Vignesh, S.Vijayakumar

FDTD Computation of Sar Distributions in Human Head for Mobile Phones V.Purushothaman, N.Vignesh, S.Vijayakumar FDTD Computation of Sar Distributions in Human Head for Mobile Phones V.Purushothaman, N.Vignesh, S.Vijayakumar Veltech Engineering College, purushothamanece@gmail.com, Vicky.ganapathy@gmail.com,vijayeee333@gmail.com

More information

The field strength measurement and SAR experience related to human exposure in 110 MHz to 40 GHz

The field strength measurement and SAR experience related to human exposure in 110 MHz to 40 GHz The field strength measurement and SAR experience related to human exposure in 110 MHz to 40 GHz J. Klima, R. Ščehovič Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Mathias Bel, Tajovského

More information

Selected Radio Frequency Exposure Limits

Selected Radio Frequency Exposure Limits ENVIRONMENT, SAFETY & HEALTH DIVISION Chapter 50: Non-ionizing Radiation Selected Radio Frequency Exposure Limits Product ID: 94 Revision ID: 1736 Date published: 30 June 2015 Date effective: 30 June 2015

More information

COUNCIL RECOMMENDATION of 12 July 1999 on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) (1999/519/EC)

COUNCIL RECOMMENDATION of 12 July 1999 on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) (1999/519/EC) COUNCIL RECOMMENDATION of 12 July 1999 on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) (1999/519/EC) THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, Having regard to

More information

Official Journal of the European Communities. (Acts whose publication is not obligatory) COUNCIL

Official Journal of the European Communities. (Acts whose publication is not obligatory) COUNCIL 30. 7. 1999 EN Official Journal of the European Communities L 199/59 II (Acts whose publication is not obligatory) COUNCIL COUNCIL RECOMMENDATION of 12 July 1999 on the limitation of exposure of the general

More information

RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION, (RFR): (RFR Information - Technology Newsletter, Full Version)

RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION, (RFR): (RFR Information - Technology Newsletter, Full Version) RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION, (RFR): (RFR Information - Technology Newsletter, Full Version) George M. Harris, P.E. (Revised February, 2011) Questions: -What is Radiofrequency Radiation, (RFR)? -With SO MANY

More information

THE ANSI/IEEE RF SAFETY STANDARD AND ITS RATIONALE. Om P. Gandhi and Gianluca Lazzi Department of Electrical Engineering Salt Lake City, Utah 84112

THE ANSI/IEEE RF SAFETY STANDARD AND ITS RATIONALE. Om P. Gandhi and Gianluca Lazzi Department of Electrical Engineering Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 Introduction THE ANSI/IEEE RF SAFETY STANDARD AND ITS RATIONALE Om P. Gandhi and Gianluca Lazzi Department of Electrical Engineering Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 In 1960, the American Standards Association

More information

Compliance Testing of Mobile Phones. Masao Taki Tokyo Metropolitan University JAPAN

Compliance Testing of Mobile Phones. Masao Taki Tokyo Metropolitan University JAPAN Compliance Testing of Mobile Phones Masao Taki Tokyo Metropolitan University JAPAN Outline Exposure Standards/Guidelines Product Standard of MTE and Standard Procedures of Compliance Testing Some remarks

More information

Human EMF Exposure Limit Regulation

Human EMF Exposure Limit Regulation Human EMF Exposure Limit Regulation Document for consultation -- / -- / 2009 1 Chapter 1: Purpose and scope of the Regulation Article 1. Background 1. This human (Electro-Magnetic Field) EMF Exposure Limit

More information

Radio waves and health. Mobile communications

Radio waves and health. Mobile communications Radio waves and health Mobile communications Mobile communications and health Mobile telephony Radio communications have been used for more than a hundred years in various sorts of applications. Already

More information

SAMSUNG GT-S5369 (mobile phone) Serial number: IMEI 358858043716587. Mr. Antoine SAMAKH and Mr. Mathieu SAMAKH 92100 FRANCE

SAMSUNG GT-S5369 (mobile phone) Serial number: IMEI 358858043716587. Mr. Antoine SAMAKH and Mr. Mathieu SAMAKH 92100 FRANCE R052-DAS-12-104374-7/A Ed. 1 This report cancels and replaces the test report R052-DAS-12-104374-7/A Ed. 0 SAR TEST REPORT According to the standard: EN 62209-1: 2006 Equipment under test: Antenna patch

More information

COMMON REGULATORY OBJECTIVES FOR WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK (WLAN) EQUIPMENT PART 2 SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF WLAN EQUIPMENT

COMMON REGULATORY OBJECTIVES FOR WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK (WLAN) EQUIPMENT PART 2 SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF WLAN EQUIPMENT COMMON REGULATORY OBJECTIVES FOR WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK (WLAN) EQUIPMENT PART 2 SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF WLAN EQUIPMENT 1. SCOPE This Common Regulatory Objective, CRO, is applicable to Wireless Local Area

More information

The Existing Public Exposure Standards Cindy Sage, MA Sage Associates, USA

The Existing Public Exposure Standards Cindy Sage, MA Sage Associates, USA SECTION 3 _ The Existing Public Exposure Standards Cindy Sage, MA Sage Associates, USA Prepared for the BioInitiative Working Group August 2007 The US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Exposure Standard

More information

Human exposure to RF

Human exposure to RF INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION Human exposure to RF Don Heirman ACEC/TC106 Liaison Representative APEMC symposium May 2015 Copyright IEC, Geneva, Switzerland TC106 Scope To prepare international

More information

Determination of Safe Distance Limit from Cellular base Station Radiation Exposure using SAR Analysis

Determination of Safe Distance Limit from Cellular base Station Radiation Exposure using SAR Analysis 2nd International conference on Computing Communication and Sensor Network (CCSN-213) Determination of Safe Distance Limit from Cellular base Station Radiation Exposure using SAR Analysis Chinmay Chakraborty

More information

RF EXPOSURE LIMITS AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS

RF EXPOSURE LIMITS AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS RF EXPOSURE LIMITS AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS Jay Moulton Vice President March 12, 2013 1 OVERVIEW Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) Standards and Limits Evaluation Methods

More information

Occupational Exposure Assessment on an FM Mast: Electric Field and SAR Values

Occupational Exposure Assessment on an FM Mast: Electric Field and SAR Values International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE) 2012, Vol. 18, No. 2, 149 159 Occupational Exposure Assessment on an FM Mast: Electric Field and SAR Values Blaž Valič Institute of Non-Ionizing

More information

Advanced Measurements of Microwave Oven Leakage

Advanced Measurements of Microwave Oven Leakage Conference paper Advanced Measurements of Microwave Oven Leakage M. Bangay [1] C. Zombolas [2] 1. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency 2. EMC Technologies Pty Ltd Abstract Reports

More information

Annex to the joint statement: Exposure of the general public to radiofrequency fields

Annex to the joint statement: Exposure of the general public to radiofrequency fields 16 November 2009 Annex to the joint statement: Exposure of the general public to radiofrequency fields 1. Introduction This document presents typical exposure of the general public to radiofrequency (RF)

More information

Wireless Broadband: Health & Safety Information

Wireless Broadband: Health & Safety Information Wireless Broadband: Health & Safety Information Introduction The increasing use of mobile phones and other wireless technology has been accompanied by public debate about possible adverse effects on health.

More information

Statement of the Chief Medical Health Officer

Statement of the Chief Medical Health Officer Statement of the Chief Medical Health Officer June, 2011 Health Concerns About Cellular Phone Transmission Antennae and Base Stations In 2005, in response to community concerns and after reviewing the

More information

ARIB TR-T12-34.925 V3.0.0. Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) requirements and regulations in different regions

ARIB TR-T12-34.925 V3.0.0. Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) requirements and regulations in different regions ARIB TR-T12-34.925 V3.0.0 Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) requirements and regulations in different regions Refer to "Notice" in the preface of ARIB TR-T12 for Copyrights. Technical Report 3rd Generation

More information

September 26, 2000 IMST GmbH Carl-Friedrich-Gauß-Str. 2 D-47475 Kamp-Lintfort

September 26, 2000 IMST GmbH Carl-Friedrich-Gauß-Str. 2 D-47475 Kamp-Lintfort TTI-P-G 158 Report Dosimetric Assessment of the Mobile Ericsson T18z with an without the PAM System Technologies devices According to the American FCC Requirements September 26, 2000 IMST GmbH Carl-Friedrich-Gauß-Str.

More information

sources in our environment i.e. Natural and man-made. The sun, earth and ionosphere are the natural source.

sources in our environment i.e. Natural and man-made. The sun, earth and ionosphere are the natural source. Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) consist of waves of electric and magnetic energy moving together at the speed of light and sometimes is referred as electromagnetic field (EMF) They are basically two forms

More information

A study on specific absorption rate (SAR) due to non-ionizing radiation from wireless/telecommunication in Bangladesh

A study on specific absorption rate (SAR) due to non-ionizing radiation from wireless/telecommunication in Bangladesh American Journal of Physics and Applications 2013; 1(3): 104-110 Published online December 30, 2013 (http:// www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajpa) doi: 10.11648/j.ajpa.20130103.18 A study on specific

More information

ETSI TR 101 870 V1.1.1 (2001-11)

ETSI TR 101 870 V1.1.1 (2001-11) TR 101 870 V1.1.1 (2001-11) Technical Report Fixed radio transmitter sites; Exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields; Guidelines for working conditions 2 TR 101 870 V1.1.1 (2001-11) Reference DTR/SAFETY-00004

More information

The range of RF spans 3 KHz (3000 Hz) to 300 GHz (300 million Hz)

The range of RF spans 3 KHz (3000 Hz) to 300 GHz (300 million Hz) 1 2 The range of RF spans 3 KHz (3000 Hz) to 300 GHz (300 million Hz) Frequencies of RF devices range from the low frequency AM broadcasts (80 MHz) to higher frequency mobile phones (1900 MHz) smart meters

More information

EMR Exposure Limits & Assessment Methods for Mobile Phone Communications. Lindsay Martin Manager, Non-Ionising Radiation Section

EMR Exposure Limits & Assessment Methods for Mobile Phone Communications. Lindsay Martin Manager, Non-Ionising Radiation Section EMR Exposure Limits & Assessment Methods for Mobile Phone Communications Lindsay Martin Manager, Non-Ionising Radiation Section Introduction How can we use Wireless Communication Safely? Wireless communication

More information

Exposure Assessment of a High-Resonance Wireless Power Transfer System under the Misaligned Condition

Exposure Assessment of a High-Resonance Wireless Power Transfer System under the Misaligned Condition , pp.11-15 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/astl.2015.116.03 Exposure Assessment of a High-Resonance Wireless Power Transfer System under the Misaligned Condition SangWook Park 1, ByeongWoo Kim 2, BeomJin Choi

More information

SAR Test Report: Type Number FAD-3022012-BV; FCC ID PY7FD022012; IC 4170B-FD022012

SAR Test Report: Type Number FAD-3022012-BV; FCC ID PY7FD022012; IC 4170B-FD022012 1 (34) Report issued by an Accredited Laboratory Rapport utfärdad av ett ackrediterat laboratorium This laboratory is accredited to SS-EN ISO/IEC 17025 (SWEDAC accreditation no. 1761). SAR Test Report:

More information

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Google glasses and Bluetooth user's

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Google glasses and Bluetooth user's Specific Absorption Rate () in the head of glasses and user's Y. A. A. Pizarro Post-graduation program in electrical engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Yuli.alvarez@ufrgs.br

More information

Consequence for a dualband application

Consequence for a dualband application rel. bandwidth -6dB [%] DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR INTEGRATED MOBILE PHONE ANTENNAS D. Manteuffel, A. Bahr, D. Heberling, I. Wolff IMST GmbH, Germany, e-mail: manteuffel@imst.de Abstract Based on the investigation

More information

SAR Distribution in Test Animals Exposed to RF Radiation

SAR Distribution in Test Animals Exposed to RF Radiation German Mobile Telecommunication Research Programme, July 25th, 2006 SAR Distribution in Test Animals Exposed to RF Radiation Verónica Berdiñas Torres, Andreas Christ, Niels Kuster IT IS Foundation, ETH

More information

Environmental Health and Safety

Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Health and Safety Standard Operating Guideline RF & Microwave Safety Program 1.0 Purpose and Requirements This guide will present a summary of the basics of radiofrequency (RF) and microwave

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation towards Adult Human Head from Handheld Mobile Phones

Electromagnetic Radiation towards Adult Human Head from Handheld Mobile Phones Electromagnetic Radiation towards Adult Human Head from Handheld Mobile Phones D.A.A. Mat 1, W.T. Kho 2, A. Joseph 3, K. Kipli 4, K. Lias 5, A.S.W. Marzuki 6 and S. Sahrani 7 1 Universiti Malaysia Sarawak,

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation Compatibility Survey and Safety Analysis around Mobile Base Transceiver Stations: Case Studies around Kathmandu Valley

Electromagnetic Radiation Compatibility Survey and Safety Analysis around Mobile Base Transceiver Stations: Case Studies around Kathmandu Valley Research Journal of Engineering Sciences ISSN 2278 9472 Electromagnetic Radiation Compatibility Survey and Safety Analysis around Mobile Base Transceiver Stations: Case Studies around Kathmandu Valley

More information

RF safety at base station sites

RF safety at base station sites RF safety at base station sites CONTENTS 1 Purpose and scope................................................. 2 2 Introduction........................................................ 2 3 Basic information...................................................

More information

CITY UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG. A Study of Electromagnetic Radiation and Specific Absorption Rate of Mobile Phones with Fractional Human Head Models

CITY UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG. A Study of Electromagnetic Radiation and Specific Absorption Rate of Mobile Phones with Fractional Human Head Models CITY UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG A Study of Electromagnetic Radiation and Specific Absorption Rate of Mobile Phones with Fractional Human Head Models Submitted to Department of Electronic Engineering in Partial

More information

Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation

Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

GSM Base Station Radiation Level: A Case Study of University of Nigeria Environment

GSM Base Station Radiation Level: A Case Study of University of Nigeria Environment INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 1, ISSUE 8, SEPTEMBER 212 ISSN 2277-8616 GSM Base Station Radiation Level: A Case Study of University of Nigeria Environment Mamilus. A.

More information

A Survey of Radiation Levels Associated with Mobile and Wireless Communication Technology Masts in Public Areas in Kaduna Metropolis

A Survey of Radiation Levels Associated with Mobile and Wireless Communication Technology Masts in Public Areas in Kaduna Metropolis International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology Volume 3, Issue, November 25, PP 7-2 ISSN 2349-4395 (Print) & ISSN 2349-449 (Online) A Survey of Radiation Levels Associated with Mobile

More information

Comments on the Draft Report by the California Council on Science and Technology Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters

Comments on the Draft Report by the California Council on Science and Technology Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters Comments on the Draft Report by the California Council on Science and Technology Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters by Daniel Hirsch 1 31 January 2011 Abstract The draft report by the

More information

Technical limits of Human Exposure to RF from Cellular Base Stations and Handsets

Technical limits of Human Exposure to RF from Cellular Base Stations and Handsets Ministry of Environmental Protection Ministry of Communications Technical limits of Human Exposure to RF from Cellular Base Stations and Handsets Based on author s PhD thesis/book- An analysis of regulatory

More information

REVIEW OF EXPOSURE LIMITS AND HEALTH CONCERNS SANTA ANA. Base Station Telecommunication Transmitters UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT

REVIEW OF EXPOSURE LIMITS AND HEALTH CONCERNS SANTA ANA. Base Station Telecommunication Transmitters UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT SANTA ANA UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT REVIEW OF EXPOSURE LIMITS AND HEALTH CONCERNS Base Station Telecommunication Transmitters Dr. Karl Rodenbaugh, Senior Scientist SCOPE OF SERVICES Review, Describe, Discuss,

More information

What are radio signals?

What are radio signals? Mobile phones and other wireless technologies have become an integral part of everyday life. But does using a mobile phone regularly, or living near a base station, have any implications for our health?

More information

Low SAR planar antenna for multi standard cellular phones

Low SAR planar antenna for multi standard cellular phones Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 33604 (011) DOI: 10.1051/epjap/010100064 Regular Article THE EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL APPLIED PHYSICS Low SAR planar antenna for multi standard cellular phones M. Ben Ahmed

More information

MRET-Shield Synopsis of Scientific Research Updated on June 1, 2007

MRET-Shield Synopsis of Scientific Research Updated on June 1, 2007 MRET-Shield Synopsis of Scientific Research Updated on June 1, 27 MRET-Shield material and devices made, when placed in proximity to persons, animals and plants serve to lessen adverse health effects caused

More information

Interaction of Mobile Phone Waves with Tissues of Skeletal Muscles and Bone of Human Beings

Interaction of Mobile Phone Waves with Tissues of Skeletal Muscles and Bone of Human Beings IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSRJPBS) ISSN : 78-3008 Volume 1, Issue 6 (July-August 01), PP 06-16 Interaction of Mobile Phone Waves with Tissues of Skeletal Muscles and Bone of Human

More information

For many years the general public

For many years the general public David Seabury, ETS-Lindgren An Update On SAR Standards And The Basic Requirements For SAR Assessment For many years the general public has been concerned about the possible health effects of exposure to

More information

Assessment of Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation from Wireless Devices in Home and Office Environments

Assessment of Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation from Wireless Devices in Home and Office Environments Assessment of Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation from Wireless Devices in Home and Office Environments Sven Kühn, Urs Lott, Axel Kramer, Niels Kuster Foundation for Research on Information Technologies

More information

Measurement of Output Radio Frequency Field Generated by Mobile Phones with Applied Sound in Different Strengths & Frequencies

Measurement of Output Radio Frequency Field Generated by Mobile Phones with Applied Sound in Different Strengths & Frequencies Gazi University Journal of Science GU J Sci 23(3):281-286 (21) www.gujs.org Measurement of Output Radio Frequency Field Generated by Mobile Phones with Applied Sound in Different Strengths & Frequencies

More information

Implications for SAR when. using a symmetric phantom exposed to RF radiation using the FDTD method. Loughborough University Institutional Repository

Implications for SAR when. using a symmetric phantom exposed to RF radiation using the FDTD method. Loughborough University Institutional Repository Loughborough University Institutional Repository Implications for SAR when using a symmetric phantom exposed to RF radiation using the FDTD method This item was submitted to Loughborough University's Institutional

More information

3 Radio Waves and Human Body 8 Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)... 8 SAR value of a mobile handset... 8 Radiation level by a mobile tower...

3 Radio Waves and Human Body 8 Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)... 8 SAR value of a mobile handset... 8 Radiation level by a mobile tower... i Mobile Communication- Radio Waves & Safety Content 1 Overview 3 2 Radio Waves in Cellular Communication System 4 Radio waves... 4 Electric field, Magnetic field... 4 Electromagnetic field (EMF)... 4

More information

IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Standards (Active & Archive) Collection: VuSpec

IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Standards (Active & Archive) Collection: VuSpec IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Standards (Active & Archive) Collection: VuSpec This value-packed VuSpec CD-ROM represents the most complete resource available for professional engineers looking for

More information

Mobile Phone SAR Analysis through Experimental and Numerical Simulation

Mobile Phone SAR Analysis through Experimental and Numerical Simulation 2010, 12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment, OPTIM 2010 Mobile Phone SAR Analysis through Experimental and Numerical Simulation Mihaela Morega 1, Andrei Marinescu

More information

HERMES: Human Exposure and Radiation Monitoring of Electromagnetic Sources. www.hermes-program.gr

HERMES: Human Exposure and Radiation Monitoring of Electromagnetic Sources. www.hermes-program.gr HERMES Program: The Greek Experience of an Electromagnetic Radiation Monitoring System A. Manassas, A. Boursianis, T. Samaras and J. N. Sahalos HERMES: Human Exposure and Radiation Monitoring of Electromagnetic

More information

College of Engineering, University of Kirkuk, -IRAQ

College of Engineering, University of Kirkuk, -IRAQ Comparative Study of Radiofrequency Radiations from GSM Base Stations in Residential Areas Sabah Hawar Saeid Abstract: As technology progresses and data demands have increased on mobile network, towns

More information

Keywords Mobile Tower Radiations, Electromagnetic Radiations, Signal Strength, Mobile Phone

Keywords Mobile Tower Radiations, Electromagnetic Radiations, Signal Strength, Mobile Phone Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2015 ISSN: 2277 128X International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Research Paper Available online at: www.ijarcsse.com Analysis of

More information

SAR TEST REPORT. According to the standard: EN 62209-1: 2006

SAR TEST REPORT. According to the standard: EN 62209-1: 2006 R052-DAS-12-104374-2/A Ed. 1 This report cancels and replaces the test report R052-DAS-12-104374-2/A Ed. 0 SAR TEST REPORT According to the standard: EN 62209-1: 2006 Equipment under test: Antenna patch

More information

$ $; #! $ $ $ $. $ $, $ $,! $ # $ -$.! #,! # #. ' () «-,» ( ),. 2-3!!!, - $# (RF) #! $., - #! $ $, #. - & # $!.

$ $; #! $ $ $ $. $ $, $ $,! $ # $ -$.! #,! # #. ' () «-,» ( ),. 2-3!!!, - $# (RF) #! $., - #! $ $, #. - & # $!. & :!!" $%&', 15701 ' 7274548, fax: 7274742 e-mail: lmargar@bioluoagr http://kyttarikibioluoagr () %& *&!+ $ ',-" () (),, ( 310 11 Hz ),,!!! ", $! " (! 810 14 Hz! $,,, %, ), & &, ( ), $,!!!! $ $ &, ( mcurie),!!

More information

Wire Antenna Theory Applied to the Assessment of the Radiation Hazard in the Vicinity of the GSM Base Stations

Wire Antenna Theory Applied to the Assessment of the Radiation Hazard in the Vicinity of the GSM Base Stations SERBIAN JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Vol. 1, No. 1, November 3, 15-6 Wire Antenna Theory Applied to the Assessment of the Radiation Hazard in the Vicinity of the GSM Base Stations Vesna Roe 1 Abstract:

More information

SAR Simulation in Human Head Exposed to RF Signals and Safety Precautions

SAR Simulation in Human Head Exposed to RF Signals and Safety Precautions Sahar Aqeel Abdulrazzaq et al IJCSET September 2013 Vol 3, Issue 9, 334-340 SAR Simulation in Human Head Exposed to RF Signals and Safety Precautions Sahar Aqeel Abdulrazzaq 1, Asst. Prof. Dr. Jabir S.

More information

SERVICES BROCHURE +61 8 9381 7199 +61 8 9381 7166. email: info@t-r-s.com.au www.t-r-s.com.au. PO BOX 680, Claremont, 6910, Western Australia

SERVICES BROCHURE +61 8 9381 7199 +61 8 9381 7166. email: info@t-r-s.com.au www.t-r-s.com.au. PO BOX 680, Claremont, 6910, Western Australia SERVICES BROCHURE +61 8 9381 7199 +61 8 9381 7166 email: info@t-r-s.com.au www.t-r-s.com.au PO BOX 680, Claremont, 6910, Western Australia COMPANY INFORMATION Total Radiation Solutions Pty Ltd (TRS) is

More information

Mobile Phone Base-Station Audit

Mobile Phone Base-Station Audit Mobile Phone Base-Station Audit Audit site: Aylesbury Road Wing Leighton Buzzard Beds LU7 0NY The Office of Communications (Ofcom) is responsible for management of the civil radio spectrum in the UK. Following

More information

Technical Specification. GSM Base Station and Repeater Equipment

Technical Specification. GSM Base Station and Repeater Equipment Technical Specification for GSM Base Station and Repeater Equipment IDA TS GSM-BS Issue 1 Rev 1, July 2009 Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore Resource Management & Standards 8 Temasek Boulevard

More information

Body SAR and EU. B. Derat

Body SAR and EU. B. Derat Body SAR and EU B. Derat Overview / Outline New Approach: Directive / Standards Current applicable standard IEC/EN 62209-2:2010 Tablet case study Future of EU body SAR testing Maintenance of IEC 62209-2

More information

Dr MH Repacholi Co-ordinator. ordinator,, Radiation and Environmental Health World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Dr MH Repacholi Co-ordinator. ordinator,, Radiation and Environmental Health World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Dr MH Repacholi Co-ordinator ordinator,, Radiation and Environmental Health World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland WHO EMF Project Scientific Evidence Risk Assessment Standards and Policies Risk

More information

INFLUENCE OF AVERAGING MASSES ON CORRELATION BETWEEN MASS-AVERAGED SAR AND TEMPERATURE RISE

INFLUENCE OF AVERAGING MASSES ON CORRELATION BETWEEN MASS-AVERAGED SAR AND TEMPERATURE RISE INFLUENCE OF AVERAGING MASSES ON CORRELATION BETWEEN MASS-AVERAGED SAR AND TEMPERATURE RISE A. Razmadze, L. Shoshiashvili, D. Kakulia, R. Zaridze Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, 0128, Georgia, lae@laetsu.org

More information

http://www.cisjournal.org Effect of GSM Phone Radiation on Human Pulse Rate (Heartbeat Rate) wuleemu@yahoo.co.uk, ayeni@unilorin.edu.

http://www.cisjournal.org Effect of GSM Phone Radiation on Human Pulse Rate (Heartbeat Rate) wuleemu@yahoo.co.uk, ayeni@unilorin.edu. Effect of GSM Phone Radiation on Human Pulse Rate (Heartbeat Rate) A. A. Ayeni 1, K.T. Braimoh 2, O. B. Ayeni 3 1 Department of Telecommunication Science, University of Ilorin wuleemu@yahoo.co.uk, ayeni@unilorin.edu.ng

More information

Regulation for wireless telecommunication equipment

Regulation for wireless telecommunication equipment Wireless devices Regulation for wireless telecommunication equipment * Wireless home telephones * Baby monitors * Wireless on the Internet * Bluetooth * Comparison of SAR values Introduction Do you wonder

More information

EMFs Exposure Monitoring and SAR Certification in Telecom Italia

EMFs Exposure Monitoring and SAR Certification in Telecom Italia GRUPPO TELECOM ITALIA ITU Workshop on Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) Turin, Italy, 9 May 2013 EMFs Exposure Monitoring and SAR Certification in Telecom Italia Mauro Francavilla Paolo Gianola

More information

EXPOSURE INDICES IN RF EPIDEMIOLOGY

EXPOSURE INDICES IN RF EPIDEMIOLOGY EXPOSURE INDICES IN RF EPIDEMIOLOGY Paolo Vecchia National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy Advances in Biological effects and Dosimetry of Low Energy Electromagnetic Fields Erice, 28 March - 8 April 1981

More information

Exposure Assessment of Smartphones and Tablets

Exposure Assessment of Smartphones and Tablets Exposure Assessment of Smartphones and Tablets Carla Oliveira, Michał Maćkowiak, Luis M. Correia Instituto Superior Técnico / INOV-INESC University of Lisbon, Portugal email: {carla.oliveira, luis.correia}@inov.pt

More information

Compliance with TIS and TRP Requirements

Compliance with TIS and TRP Requirements White Paper Compliance with TIS and TRP Requirements This document describes the issues related to meeting Total Isotropic Sensitivity and Total Radiated Power requirements for cellular products. May 2006

More information

Radiation Protection Series

Radiation Protection Series Radiation The Radiation is published by the Australian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) to promote practices which protect human health and the environment from the possible harmful effects

More information

Measurement of Shielding Effectiveness with the Method Using High Power Electromagnetic Pulse Generator

Measurement of Shielding Effectiveness with the Method Using High Power Electromagnetic Pulse Generator Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Guangzhou, China, Aug. 25 28, 2014 2687 Measurement of Shielding Effectiveness with the Method Using High Power Electromagnetic Pulse Generator

More information

National Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields

National Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields November 2009 Contents 1 PRELIMINARY AND GENERAL... 5 1.1 CITATION... 5 1.2 ORIGIN AND STATUS OF THE NATIONAL GUIDELINES... 5 1.3 PURPOSE... 5 1.4 SCOPE AND APPLICATION... 6 1.5 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS...

More information

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PUBLIC HEALTH HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDELINES #1

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PUBLIC HEALTH HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDELINES #1 SINGAPORE, 16 AUGUST 2001 HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY PRESS RELEASE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PUBLIC HEALTH HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDELINES #1 THE EMF HEALTH ISSUE 1 Over the past years a large number of scientific

More information

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 101, 17 32, 2010

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 101, 17 32, 2010 Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 101, 17 32, 2010 ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF GSM BANDS TO THE ELECTROMAGNETIC POLLUTION IN THE RF SPECTRUM Ö. Genç, M. Bayrak, and E. Yaldız Faculty of Engineering

More information

Numerical Computation of the Combined Specific Absorption Rates Induced in Human Head due to Multiple Independent Sources

Numerical Computation of the Combined Specific Absorption Rates Induced in Human Head due to Multiple Independent Sources International Journal of Electromagnetics and Applications 2015, 5(2): 73-79 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijea.20150502.01 Numerical Computation of the Combined Specific Absorption Rates Induced in Human Head due to

More information

RWANDA UTILITIES REGULATORY AGENCY P.O BOX 7289 KIGALI,

RWANDA UTILITIES REGULATORY AGENCY P.O BOX 7289 KIGALI, REPUBLIC OF RWANDA RWANDA UTILITIES REGULATORY AGENCY P.O BOX 7289 KIGALI, Tel: +250 252 584562, Fax: +250 252 584563 Email: arms@rwanda1.com Website: www.rura.gov.rw GUIDELINES FOR LIMITING HUMAN EXPOSURE

More information

Effects of Cell Phone Radiation on the Head. BEE 4530 Computer-Aided Engineering: Applications to Biomedical Processes

Effects of Cell Phone Radiation on the Head. BEE 4530 Computer-Aided Engineering: Applications to Biomedical Processes Effects of Cell Phone Radiation on the Head BEE 4530 Computer-Aided Engineering: Applications to Biomedical Processes Group 3 Angela Cai Youjin Cho Mytien Nguyen Praveen Polamraju Table of Contents I.

More information

Risk of Brain Tumors From Wireless Phone Use. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography November/December 2010; Vol. 34, No. 6; pp.

Risk of Brain Tumors From Wireless Phone Use. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography November/December 2010; Vol. 34, No. 6; pp. Risk of Brain Tumors From Wireless Phone Use 1 Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography November/December 2010; Vol. 34, No. 6; pp. 799-807 Rash Bihari Dubey, Madasu Hanmandlu, PhD, and Suresh Kumar Gupta,

More information

The tradescantia micronucleus bioassay:

The tradescantia micronucleus bioassay: Investigation of the mutagenicity of electromagnetic fields using the tradescantia micronucleus bioassay H. Lehmann 1, C. Pickl 2, M. Urech 3 1 Environment & Electromagnetic Compatibility, Swisscom Innovations,

More information

MUCH work has been reported on determining the specific

MUCH work has been reported on determining the specific IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 46, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999 911 Heating of Tissue by Near-Field Exposure to a Dipole: A Model Analysis Pere J. Riu, Senior Member, IEEE, and Kenneth R. Foster,*

More information