What goes up must come down: New techniques to improve downstream fish passage Olle Calles

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1 What goes up must come down: New techniques to improve downstream fish passage Olle Calles

2

3 Study sites NRRV Österdalälven Västerdalälven Gavleån Testeboån Klarälven Alsterälven Gullspångsälven Storelva Göta älv Motala ström Ätran Emån Mörrumsån Lyckebyån Rönne å Kävlingeån Pielinen Daugava (Latvenergo & BIOR) + Italy, Costa Rica, Greece, US

4 Swedish River Rehabilitation Upstream passage

5 Swedish River Rehabilitation Nature-like design can provide much more than passage for salmonids!

6 Swedish River Rehabilitation Upstream passage Habitat Downstream passage

7 What is the current rehabilitation need? Hydropower plants Vattenkraftverk Fishways

8 The Swedish standard solution Klarälven

9 Stopping is not saving Klarälven

10 Stopped but not saved Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO.org)

11 Stopped but not saved Emån

12 Put an end to one-way rivers! Fish need two-way rivers!

13 Conventional trash rack Water velocity 1 m/s

14 α-rack

15 α-rack

16 α-rack

17 α-rack

18 α-rack

19 α-rack

20 α-rack

21 β-rack

22 Swedish downstream passage rehabilitation 2007

23 Swedish downstream passage rehabilitation Ätran 2. Emån 3. Alsterälven 4. Mörrumsån 5. Ätran Ume- Vindelälven, Piteälven Rolfsån, Ätran, Lyckebyån, Gavleån, Testeboån, Säveån Klarälven, Göta älv, Motala ström, Rönne å, Kävlingeån

24 Case studies (2008-1st test) - River Ätran, Ätrafors HEP (72 m 3 s -1 ) Atlantic salmon European eel Sea lamprey

25 Racks without passage - Ätrafors old 20 mm racks

26 Racks without passage - Ätrafors old 20 mm racks Loss (N=135) 58% on racks (68 cm / 27 ) Passage efficiency 28%

27 Racks and collection facility - Ätrafors new 18 mm racks Loss (N=50) 0% on rack >80% FGE Passage efficiency >90%

28 Racks and collection facility - Ätrafors new 18 mm racks

29 Racks and collection facility - Ätrafors new 18 mm racks Two entrances per rack (250 x 1000 mm)

30 Racks and collection facility - From fyke-nets to cages

31 Racks and collection facility - From fyke-nets to cages

32 Racks and collection facility - From fyke-nets to cages silver eels in cages 25 dead eels on rack (27% with nets) Some other species + rats and minks!

33 Case studies (2009-2nd test) - River Emån, Övre Finsjö HEP (14 m 3 s -1 ) Foto: Jonas Hedlund

34

35

36 33 spp!

37 Former HEP1 in the River Emån

38 Racks and bypass - Övre Finsjö (HEP3) new 18 mm racks

39 Racks and bypass - Övre Finsjö new 18 mm racks

40 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) Baltic vimba (Vimba vimba) Bleak (Alburnus alburnus) Brown trout (Salmo trutta) Chub (Leuciscus cephalus) Common bream (Abramis brama) European catfish (Silurus glanis) European eel (Anguilla anguilla) Ide (Leuciscus idus) Perch (Perca fluviatilis) Pike (Esox lucius) Evaluation >1000 fish springs of 25 species (33 in total) Passage efficiency trout smolts Was 30% Now is 84% Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) River lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) Roach (Rutilus rutilus) Rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua) Tench (Tinca tinca) White bream (Blicca bjoerkna) Zander (Sander lucioperca)

41 Case studies (2010, 3rd test) - River Alsterälven, Alsters HEP (5 m 3 s -1 ) Racks + bypass Ø 150 mm 20 mm α-racks Steep but low V A Depth preference? 1. Eels 2. Other species?

42 Racks and bypass (pipes) - Alster new 20 mm racks Surface Middle Surface preference perch, bleak, white bream, common bream, pike, ruffe, zander, roach, smelt, tench & trout Mid-preference - Bottom Deep preference eel & burbot

43 Case studies (2012 4th test) - River Mörrumsån Granö HEP (60 m 3 s -1 ) Racks x 3 Submerged entrances Collection facility Composite

44 Racks and collection facility - Granö new 18 mm composite racks Two entrances / rack (Ø Max: 195mm)

45 Racks and collection facility - Granö new 18 mm composite racks Two entrances / rack (Ø Max: 195mm) Ø 195mm Ø 150mm Ø 100mm

46 Case studies (2013-5th test) - River Ätran, Herting HEP (60 m 3 s -1 ) Atlantic salmon European eel Sea lamprey

47 River Ätran 20 km HEP B - Lia HEP A - Nydala HEP 1 - Herting HEP 2 - Ätrafors

48 β-racks and large nature-like fishway - Herting new passage facilities 11 m 3 /s > 20% FILM? 15 mm rack

49 IV. River Ätran Herting HEP - Large nature-like fishway ( 11 cms)

50

51

52 Ätran HEP 1 Herting Nature-like fishway ( 11 m 3 /s)

53 Ätran HEP 1 Herting Nature-like fishway ( 11 m 3 /s)

54 Ätran HEP 1 Herting Nature-like fishway ( 11 m 3 /s)

55 Ätran HEP 1 Herting Nature-like fishway ( 11 m 3 /s)

56

57

58

59

60

61

62 Ätran HEP 1 Herting Low-sloping rack with large bypass

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64

65

66 HEP 1 evaluation : Atlantic salmon, European eel & sea lamprey Upstream and downstream using radio-telemetry

67

68

69 At last we have taken off, but More examples in grey literature!? Ger, Fra more? Species specific behavior lab experiments? Rack design Dimensioning gap width vs. fish size & rack angle Rack material: iron, steel, composite β-types: single vs. double, horizontal vs. vertical bars Flat vs. hydrodynamically shaped bars Bypass design Entrance design: size, shape Discharge: absolute and relative How to combine bypass forpassage, monitoring and collection? Can low-sloping racks be applied to large HEPs? Perhaps Johan Lind knows?

70 Edsforsen HEP River Klarälven/Trysilelva Norconsult Johan Lind Johan Östberg, Petter Norén Axel Emanuelsson

71 Summary Downstream passage can be rehabilitated Goal should be two-way rivers for all species Lessons learned from first attempts: Racks with low slope (35 ) and increase area Decreased gap width (18 mm) Passage ideal solution, but not always feasible Collection facilities problematic, but preferred in rivers with multiple HEPs Solutions for large HEPs need to be tested!

72

73 TACK! County boards: Värmland Kalmar Jönköping Blekinge Skåne Gävleborg Halland Kronoberg Dalarna Västra Götaland, m.fl.

74 Interested in taking a Master course in stream ecology? Including river rehabilitation and fish tagging techniques Free of charge for EU-citizens

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