1 Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities is the very first Polish scientific journal published exclusively on the Internet, founded on January 1, 1998 by the following agricultural universities and higher schools of agriculture: University of Technology and Agriculture of Bydgoszcz, Agricultural University of Cracow, Agricultural University of Lublin, Agricultural University of Poznan, Higher School of Agriculture and Teacher Training Siedlce, Agricultural University of Szczecin, and Agricultural University of Wroclaw. ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF POLISH AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITIES 2002 Volume 5 Issue 2 Series FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Copyright Wydawnictwo Akademii Rolniczej we Wroclawiu, ISSN SAWICKA B., MIKOS-BIELAK M QUALITY OF FRENCH-FRIES OF 37 POTATO CULTIVARS IN CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION OF GROWTH REGULATORS MIVAL AND POTEITIN Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities, Food Science and Technology, Volume 5, Issue 2. Available Online QUALITY OF FRENCH-FRIES OF 37 POTATO CULTIVARS IN CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION OF GROWTH REGULATORS MIVAL AND POTEITIN Barbara Sawicka 1, Maria Mikos-Bielak 2 1 Department of Plant Cultivation, Agricultural University of Lublin, Poland 2 Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University of Lublin, Poland ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES ABSTRACT Use of growth regulators at potato cultivation and its effect on subsequent french-fries quality. The qualitative analyses of french-fries were based on tuber samples from a field experiment carried out on sandy-loamy soil in in Parczew, Biała Podlaska Province. The experiment was set up with randomized subblocks in three replications. The subblocks of 1st row were made by the growth regulators: a) Mival concentration 500 mg l -1 water; b) Poteitin concentration 10 mg l -1 water; c) the control with distilled water. The growth regulators were applied onto the tubers in a spray form just before the planting. A factor of 2nd row was made by 37 potato cultivars out of all the earliness groups. Regulator Mival contributed to french-fries taste and flavour improvement in the years of a warm and dry potato vegetative period and Poteitin preparation has contributed significantly to improve french-fries consistency. Both growth regulators concurred to increase of fat absorptiveness of french-fries. Key words: french-fries, potato, quality, growth regulators
2 INTRODUCTION Tubers for fried food products should meet the highest quality requirements. These products are obtained through frying raw potato tubers whole, or more often, adequately cut in fat. Alike Poland, in the western countries chips and french-fries are most popular. Their production is quite simple, yet it presents numerous technological difficulties [9, 10, 14, 15, 24, 16, 21]. French-fries as a ready product should be of high quality, i.e. show a light golden yellow colour, its outer part being crispy, delicate without any hard, gummy or leathery consistency. The inside is not expected to be mealy or separate from crust, while moisture being conditioned by a french-fries type should reach 50-70% [2, 10, 16, 24]. The most important parameters of raw material for french-fries production go as following: tubers of oblong or elongated-oval shape, transversal >45 mm, smooth skin, no cracks, mechanical damages or shallow buds, insusceptible to dark spotting, without necrosis or hyperchromatism, no rust-coloured or green spotting; consumer type B-BC (Consumption type B tubers of middle dense but not crumbling after boiling parenchyma, comprehensively useful, that type cultivars are mostly processed for chips, instant soups and wet products (canned food); consumption type BC comprehensively useful, less flour-like, slightly loose): raw tuber flesh darkening should amount to > 6.5, cooked > 7.5 in the 9-score scale; proper chemical composition: starch content 14-18%; reducing sugars content up to 0.5%; sugar sum content up to 1% [2, 3, 16, 24, 27]. Out of the agroecological factors affecting quality of potatoes as a raw material for french-fries production in a significant way the following ones ought to be mentioned: cultivar properties, mineral fertilization, herbicide use, time and storage conditions etc. Nitrogen fertilization applied in high doses deteriorates french-fries quality causing their colour darkening and increase of fat absorption [5, 20]. According to Leszczyński and Lisińska  early potato planting can partly absorb the negative effect of intensive nitrogen fertilization on potato tuber quality. A french-fries colour is also affected by the temperature and tuber storage time [3, 27]. It is connected with reducing sugars content increase in tubers as early as after 2 month-storage period . Leszczyński and Lisińska  assume that potato tuber chemical composition may change due to herbicides use at cultivation. On the one hand, they increase average tuber weight, while on the other hand, induce a decrease of dry mass and starch content, while amount of sugars sum and reducing sugars as well as amide nitrogen go up. A similar effect is observed at delayed planting. Fried products obtained out of such material absorb more fat and show a darker colour [10. The synthetic growth regulators operating as stimulators or inhibitors in dependence on the conditions or character of a process they participate in may have too tan influence on fried products quality [28, 1, 18, 6]. In the literature there are not much data available considering this subject. According to Sawicka  Mival and Poteitin application caused the decrease of content of fat in the chips, with somebody s the higher positive effect of examined regulators was observed in the group of late cultivars while the lower was in the group of middle late cultivars. Mikos-Bielak et al.  found that due to synthetic growth regulator Poteitin, the decrease of oligo- and polysaccharides occurred. Therefore, the present work aims at determination the effect of synthetic growth regulators Mival and Poteitin on the quality of french-fries obtained from 37 potato cultivars. Studies were carried out several years ago but the results are still significant because over 80% potato cultivars used in tests is cultivated. Moreover, studies using such large set of cultivars make possible to eliminate great phenotypical variability of the species, that will increase their usability in practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present work is based on a field experiment carried out on sandy loamy soil in Parczew in the years Experiment was set by means of randomized sub-blocks in dependent system, in three replications. The first order factors were cultivation technologies: a) with Mival at 500 mg dm -3 conc.; b) with Poteitin at 10 mg dm -3 conc.; c) control object with distilled water. The second order factors were 37 potato varieties of all earliness groups including 34 Polish and 3 Dutch varieties (Diamant, Escort, Premieur). Water solutions of both growth regulators were applied for spraying the potatoes before setting. Their concentrations were applied according to producer recommendations. Mival and Poteitin are commercial names for the preparations. Irkuckij Institut Organiczeskoj Chimii (Russia) is a producer of Mival, and Institut Bioorganicznoj Chimii na Naftochimii NAN (Ukraine) is a producer of Poteitin. Their concentrations were applied according to producer recommendations. Both preparations used are the synthetic growth regulators in form of water-soluble fine-crystalline powder that is slightly toxic, nonallergic or carcinogenic. An active substance of Mival is 1-(chloromethyl) silatrame (1-CMS). It is organic silicon-derivative compound (siloxan derivative) of the following formula:
3 The compound decomposes into SO 2, CO 2, H 2 O, monoethyloamine, urea or other small MW compounds being the components of the preparation [22, 1]. It does not invoke allergies, it is little toxic, lethal dose for the preparation is 3090 mg/kg body weight. Mival stimulates protein and nucleic acid biosynthesis [23, 1]. Poteitin is pyridine derivative of cyclic structure. succinic acid and 2,6-dimethylpyridine N-oxide salt is the active substance of the preparation [1, 18]. Poteitin regulates oligo-and polysaccharide biosynthesis . The organic and mineral fertilization was maintained at the constant level (100 kg N, 100 kg P 2 O 5, 150 K 2 O ha -1 and 250 dt ha -1 manure). Seed material was made by elite seed. From the field experiment there were collected 20 potato tubers out of 10% of each 80 potato busk-plot for futher examination. The potato tubers were of > 55 mm diameter, with no green spots or damage. The tubers for french-fries evaluation were peeled first, then cut with a slicing machine. The french-fries were of the following dimensions: 5 5 mm section and > 5 cm length. After cold water rinsing, they were dried superficially, centrifuged and fried in vegetable oil, in a single phase. Out of every field experiment replications there were 10 portions of french-fries fried, being considered as technological replications. Charge of one frying cycle amounted 200 g of raw french-fries per 3 l of oil. The french-fries were fried in vegetable oil at temperature 180 C, each portion for 8 min on average. The oil was changed after 10 portions of the french-fries have been fried. Evaluation involved colour, consistency, taste and flavour as well as fat content in french-fries. Colour estimation was performed according to the following scores: 5 light golden colour, very uniform; 4 light golden colour, ununiform; 3 light golden to dark golden colour with brown edging, rather ununiform; 2 slightly dark colour with brown spots, ununiform; 1 dark colour with brown spots, very ununiform. Consistency estimation of french-fries was made after a 5-score scale where 5 stands for very crispy surface, delicate tender pulp, 4 - crispy surface, tender pulp, a little loose; 3 surface crispy enough, slightly granular or a bit sticky pulp; 2 a little crispy surface, granular or sticky pulp; 1 improper surface, improper sticky pulp. Taste and flavour were estimated according to a 5-score scale where 5 stands for intensive taste and flavour, very good typical with a delicate fat after-taste; 4 less intensive, good with a fat after-taste; 3 fairly typical, a slightly perceptible strange after-taste and vapid flavour; 2 a little typical, clearly perceptible strange after-taste and vapid flavour; 1 atypical strange taste and flavour of rancid fat. French-fries quality was performed by a standing group of five people previously examined for sensoric predispositions, according to the PN-A Fat content determination in french-fries was performed after soxlet method. The results were worked out statistically according to variance analysis method, the significance of differences was checked by Tukey`test. The weather during the experiment was variable as shown in Figure 1.
4 Fig. 1. Rainfalls and air temperature during potato vegetation period in the years , according to IMGW at Włodawa French-fries colour. None of the growth regulators studied modified french-fries colour significantly, as against the control. A product got better colour in the objects with Poteitin preparation use than in a object with Mival one (Table 1). Table 1. The influence of years and growth regulators on some the traits development of french-fries (Mean for 37 potato cultivars) Growth regulators Years Mean The colour in the 5-score scale Mival Poteitin Control object LSD (α 0,05) n* 0.2 Mean LSD (α 0,05) n The taste in the 5-score scale Mival Poteitin Control object LSD (α 0,05) Mean LSD (α 0,05) n The consistency in the 5-score scale Mival Poteitin Control object LSD (α 0,05) Mean LSD (α 0,05) 0.2 The fat content in % Mival Poteitin Control object LSD (α 0,05) n 0.17 Mean LSD (α 0,05) n
5 The growth regulators used had a differentiated impact on the cultivars studied (Fig. 2). Significant deterioration in french-fries colour after a synthetic growth regulator Mival application was recorded in 4 cultivars (Ceza, Dryf, Frezja, Heban), while their colour improvement in only one cultivar (Bryza). However, Poteitin caused some favourable changes in french-fries colour in 3 cvs (Bryza, Irys, Fala) and significantly unfavourable in only 1 cultivar (Frezja). Fig. 2. The differences in the colour of french-fries heated with Mival, Poteitin against control object in the differential, 5-score scale This property turned out to be connected with cultivar properties most (Fig. 3). A cultivar group where the tubers gave subsequent french-fries of the best colour (evaluation values 4.5 and > 4.5 in the 5 scale) included: Aster, Orlik, Elipsa, Jaśmin, Perkoz, Bliza, Elida, Fauna, Atol, Bogna, Brda, Certa, Cisa, Fregata, Diamant, Bzura, Stobrawa, Tarpan. The french-fries of the poorest colour (< 3.5 in the 5 scale) were: Frezja, Ceza, Fala.
6 Fig. 3. The influence of cultivars on the colour of french-fries (Mean for the years ) The meteorologic conditions over the experimental years have not differentiated this feature in a significant way (Fig. 1, Table 1). French-fries taste and flavour were modified by the growth regulators. Mival preparation improved these features of product quality compared to control as well as to the object with Poteitin use (Table 1). This beneficial influence of Mival preparation on french-fries taste and flavour was observed in the years at potato vegetation period when high mean air temperature and precipitation deficit were recorded. Genetic traits of the cultivars examined differentiated the taste and flavour of a product (Fig. 4). In a group of cultivars which tubers allowed to obtain the french-fries of the best taste and flavour (values obtained 4.0 and > 4.0 at 5-score scale) included: Ceza, Fauna, Fregata, Bliza, Bryza, Diamant, Dryf, Fala, Tarpan, Duet, Pilica, Pola. The poorest taste and flavour of french-fries (< 3.0 at 5-score scale) was demonstrated by the following cultivars: Premieur, Lotos, Bronka, Stobrawa, Heban, Frezja, Mila.
7 Fig. 4. The influence of cultivars on the taste and flavour in the 5-score scale (Mean for the years ) French-fries consistency, just like their colour, depended on the growth regulators used and cultivar characteristics. Poteitin preparation has contributed significantly to improve french-fries consistency (Table 1). This product consistency in the samples with Mival preparation has not differed significantly from control. The cultivar properties turned to be a factor of the greatest influence on fried tuber quality (Fig 5). The group of cultivars whose tubers provided subsequent fries of the best consistency (4 and > 4 in the 5 scale) contained: Certa, Ceza, Fauna, Fregata, Bliza, Orlik, Bzura. Poor consistency (< 3 in the 5 scale) showed the french-fries from the following cvs: Frezja, Irys, Beryl, Pola, Escort, Bogna, Bryza, Sokół, Dryf, Pilica.
8 Fig. 5. The influence of cultivars on the consistency in the 5-score scale (Mean for the years ) The weather conditions over the experimental period caused differentiation of french-fries consistency (Fig. 1, Table 1). A higher evaluation of the product, for this feature, was obtained in the years , the time of sufficient precipitation for potato at vegetative period than in the year 1992 with serious rain deficiency. Taking into account the sensoric properties of french-fries, especially their colour, taste and flavour as well as consistency, the cultivars examined were divided into 3 groups: group of cultivars of the highest suitability for french-fries; sum of sensoric estimation points over 12: Brda, Orlik, Duet, Ceza, Elida, Bzura, Certa, Diamant, Bliza, Fregata, Fauna; group of cultivars of average suitability for french-fries; sum of points 11 to 12: Brda, Heban, Irys, Ronda, Jaśmin, Pilica, Ruta, Perkoz, Tarpan, Atol, Aster, Cisa; group of cultivars unsuitable for processing for french-fries sum of points below 11: Frezja, Premieur, Lotos, Beryl, Mila, Bronka, Dryf, Elipsa, Pola, Sokół, Bogna, Escort, Stobrawa, Fala (Fig. 6).
9 Fig. 6. Sequence of potato cultivars according to sum of scores of various sensory attributes (colour, taste and consistency) in french-fries Fats content is one of the most substantial qualitative analyses at french-fries production. Their high content causes rise in production costs and lowers product value. Fat content in the french-fries examined turned to be a lot over the product standard. That could result from higher dry mass and starch content in the tubers of cultivars examined, technological reasons also could have occurred. Application of new cultivation technologies with growth regulators has modified this property of french-fries significantly (Table 1) Both growth regulators concurred to increase of fat absorptiveness of french-fries, still only in Mival case it was significant. Genetic traits of the cultivars under investigation determined fat content in french-fries extremely (Fig. 7). A variety of the least fat absorptiveness at frying process showed medium-late variety Brda (15.82 %), while the most - medium early Dutch variety Escort (24.53 %). A group of < 20% fat content in french-fries included 26 cultivars (Aster, Orlik, Duet, Jaśmin, Lotos, Beryl, Bliza, Elida, Fauna, Pola, Mila, Ronda, Atol, Bogna, Brda, Bryza, Certa, Cisa, Fala, Fregata, Diamant, Bzura, Ceza, Dryf, Heban, Pilica).
10 Fig. 7. The influence of the potato cultivars on the fats content in french-fries (Mean for the years ) The cultivars studied showed various responses to synthetic growth regulators (Fig. 8). Mival application brought about a significant decrease in french-fries fat content in 5 cultivars (Pola, Jaśmin, Diamant and Bronka), while in 14 cultivars (Frezja, Irys, Elipsa, Ruta, Orlik, Elida, Kos, Escort, Brda, Certa, Cisa, Fregata, Bzura, Dryf, Heban) a significant growth of their concentration in the product as against the control. Poteitin use as a growth regulator at potato cultivation incited significant decrease of fat content in the french-fries from tubers of 11 cultivars (Jaśmin, Perkoz, Beryl, Fauna, Mila, Bogna, Fala, Bronka, Pilica, Stobrawa, Tarpan), whereas in the french-fries from tubers of 12 cultivars fat absorptivness rise (Aster, Frezja, Orlik, Bliza, Bryza, Certa, Fregata, Cisa, Ceza, Dryf, Duet, Heban) in relation to the control. A negative reaction to both growth regulators expressed by a fat absorptivness growth in french-fries occurred in 7 cultivars (Certa, Cisa, Dryf, Fregata, Frezja, Heban, Orlik).
11 Fig. 8. The differences in the fats content in the french-fries between Mival, Potejtin & control object in the differential scale DISCUSSION The synthetic growth regulators have modified the value of fried products from potato tubers. Mival preparation improved french-fries taste and flavour, while Poteitin contributed to their better consistency. However, both growth regulators increased fat content at the same time. In the literature there are no data available considering this subject. Still, it is probable that improvement of taste, colour or consistency of a fried product, that is frenchfries, may result from some chemical composition changes in tubers treated with the growth regulators Mival and Poteitin. The studies of Mikos-Bielak et al.  showed growth of reducing sugars content due to Mival preparation use at most of the cultivars examined, whereas changes in saccharose and starch content were differentiated. As to Poteitin preparation, the authors  proved that in most cultivars increase of reducing sugars content went together with a slight decrease of starch concentration and a drastic decline of saccharose content. That can testify inhibition of olio- and polysaccharides synthesis. Growth regulators application at potato cultivation is comparable to herbicide introduction at potato cultivation as they can operate as inhibitors or stimulators for plants, subject to a dose and term of their use. Effect of
12 herbicide use on chemical composition of potato tubers was analysed by Leszczyński and Lisińska . They claim that chemical preparations decrease dry matter content and in turn, starch content; besides, can incite an increase of nitrates and reducing sugars in tubers. The mentioned authors imply that french-fries taste and flavour is a resultant of aroma coming from the following materials: potato, oil, taste and flavour substance as well as technological processing. The authors maintain that potato grown with chemical means eg. insecticides, herbicides or potato cultivated at improper soil conditions may have unpleasant smell or taste that is transported to ready product. Summing up, a positive influence of both preparation on french-fries sensorial quality can be stated. However, as Mival and Poteitin conduce to a significant increase of tuber yield  the authors hold that some technological measures should be taken to regular process of french-fries production in order to improve product savouriness (for example, protection against surface darkening of the product and partial sugar washing out due to blanching; additional effect can be obtained by introduction the sulfites or complex-forming compounds). The present technological changes consider mainly the ways to decrease unfavourable reducing sugars content. French-fries quality was significantly affected by cultivar properties. According to Frydecka-Mazurczyk  and Zgórska [24, 27] they are the reason for modification of potato tuber chemical composition, among others dry matter, starch and reducing sugars that influence fried products quality. A high content of reducing sugars, as it is believed by Lewosz , Lisińska , Zgórska and Frydecka-Mazurczyk , gives rise to decrease of taste qualities and fried product colour (bitter or sweet taste, brown colour). Improper french-fries colour is a result of reducing sugars condensation with the compounds containing free amino groups (Maillard reaction) and sugar caramelization . In Lewosz`s opinion  a great quantity of free amino acids and saccharose contribute to chips and french-fries darkening. Lisińska  proved that the best indicator of potato tubers usability for frenchfries production, apart from glucose and fructose content), is a content of saccharose and organic acids: oxalic, citric and apple one. A high saccharose content with tuber ph decrease conduce to fried products browning. The studied cultivars response to Mival and Poteitin use expressed by a colour, consistency and fat absorptivness of french-fries turned out to be differentiated. Various reactions of potato cultivars to the preparations could be caused by the fact that these compounds can be inhibitors or stimulators of process of photosynthesis, tuberization process as well as defensive reactions of plant to pathogenic factors . The weather conditions over the vegetative period influenced french-fries consistency significantly. Better consistency of a product was obtained in the years of sufficient precipitation amount at the vegetative time as against the year of its severe deficiency. Furthermore, Zgórska and Frydecka-Mazurczyk  stated that the years of little precipitation and strong insolation brought about lower content of reducing sugars, thus less darkening of fried products. CONCLUSIONS 1. Growth regulator Mival contributed to french-fries taste and flavour improvement in the years of a warm and dry potato vegetative period and Poteitin preparation has contributed significantly to improve french-fries consistency. 2. Application of new cultivation technologies with growth regulators has modified of fat contents of french-fries significantly. Both growth regulators concurred to increase of fat absorptiveness of frenchfries. 3. The cultivars response to the growth regulators used at potato cultivation expressed by colour, consistency of tubers fried as well as their fat absorptivness turned out to be differentiated; some cultivars reacted positively, others negatively and some group of cultivars did not show any significant changes. 4. Genetic properties determined a colour, consistency and fat content of french-fries extremely. Favourable colour of french-fries was recorded for the following cultivars: Fregata, Ibis, Elida, Diamant, Bzura, Aster, Cisa, Bliza, Duet, Stobrawa, Orlik, Jagoda, Certa, Bogna, Tarpan, Jagna, Perkoz, Jaśmin, Brda, Atol, Ronda. A group of cultivars with subsequent french-fries of the best consistency included: Certa and Ceza, Ibis, Fregata, Bliza, Orlik, Jagna, Bzura. A group of cultivars of the best suitability for french-fries with the highest sum of sensoric estimation points included: Brda, Orlik, Duet, Ceza, Elida, Bzura, Certa, Diamant, Bliza, Fregata, Fauna. 5. The weather conditions over the experimental years influenced french-fries consistency. Better consistency of the product was obtained in the years of precipitation amount sufficient for potato vegetative period as compared to the year with serious deficit.
13 REFERENCES 1. Djakov V.M., Korzinnikov S., Matyèenkov V.V., Ekologiczeskije reguljatory rosta Mival i Krezacin. [Ecological growth regulators Mival and Krezacin]. Plant Growth Regulators. Reg. Rost. Rast. Agropromizdat, Moskva [in Russian]. 2. Frydecka-Mazurczyk A., Surowiec do produkcji frytek i chipsów. [Raw material to french-fries and chips production]. Ziemn. Pol. 3; 9-13 [in Polish]. 3. Frydecka-Mazurczyk A., Zgórska K., Wpływ warunków klimatycznych podczas wegetacji oraz przechowywania na jakość ziemniaków przeznaczonych na produkty smażone. [Effects of climatic conditions during vegetation and storage on the potato tubers quality intending to fried products]. Proc. Sci. Conf. Bonin ; [in Polish] 4. Leszczyński W., Lisińska G., Effects of herbicides on chemical composition of potato tubers and quality of the subsequent chips and starch. Starch (Stärke) 37: Leszczyński W., Lisińska G., Wpływ nawożenia azotem i terminu sadzenia ziemniaków odmian Atol, Cisa, Reda na zmiany jakości bulw. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization and planting date on the tuber quality of 3 potato cultivars - Atol, Cisa, Reda]. Bull. Potato Inst. 34; [in Polish]. 6. Lewak S., Regulacja procesów fizjologicznych na czynniki endogenne. [w:] Podstawy fizjologii roślin. [Regulation of physiological processes by internal factors. In: Basis of plant physiology]. Edited by Kopcewicz J. & Lewak S., Sci. PWN, Warsaw; [in Polish]. 7. Lewosz J., Czipsy przegląd technologii. [Chips - Review of technologies]. Office of the Potato Inst. Bonin. [in Polish]. 8. Lisińska G., Wpływ różnych czynników na skład chemiczny bulw ziemniaka i jakość otrzymanych z nich czipsów. [Influence of various factors on the chemical composition of potato tubers and quality of subsequent chips]. Sci. Pap. Agric. Univ. Wrocł., 3; 5-45 [in Polish]. 9. Lisińska G., Pawłowska A., 1986 a. Jakość ziemniaka smażonego. Cz. IV. Obiektywne metody oznaczania konsystencji frytek. [Quality of fried potatoes. Part 4. Objective methods for french fries texture determination]. Sci. Pap. Agric. Univ. Wrocł. 163; [in Polish]. 10. Lisińska G., Pawłowska A., 1986 b. Jakość ziemniaka smażonego. Cz. IV. Obiektywne metody zonaczania barwy frytek. [Quality of fried potatoes Part 5. Objective method for determination of colour of french fries]. Sci. Pap. Agric. Univ. Wrocł. 163; [in Polish]. 11. Lisińska G., Pęksa A., Tajner A., Pawliczko H., Jakość ziemniaka smażonego. Cz. IX. Wpływ podsuszania frytek ziemniaczanych po blanszowaniu na ich jakość. [The quality of fried potatoes. Part. 11. Effect of french fries dehydration after blanching on their quality]. Sci. Pap. Agric. Univ. Wrocł. Food Technol. 8 (273); [in Polish]. 12. Mikos-Bielak M., Sawicka B., Rudzińska B., Czeczko R., 1999 a. Syntetyczne regulatory wzrostu uprawie ziemniaka. Cz. I. Wpływ Poteitinu na wybrane składniki chemiczne bulw róznych odmian ziemniaka. [Synthetic growth regulators in the cultivation of potato. Part 1. Effect of the preparation Poteitin on some chemical components of various tubers of potato cultivars]. Ann. UMCS, EEE 7; [in Polish]. 13. Mikos-Bielak M., Sawicka B., Rudzińska B., Czeczko R., 1999 b. Syntetyczne regulatory wzrostu w uprawie ziemniaka. Cz. II. Wpływ Mivalu na wybrane składniki chemiczne bulw kilkudziesięciu odmian ziemniaka. [Synthetic growth regulators in the cultivation of potato Part 2. Effect of the preparation Mival on some chemical components of various tubers of potato cultivars]. Ann. UMCS, EEE 7; [in Polish]. 14. Mozolewski W., Ocena przydatności wybranych odmian ziemniaka do przetwórstwa. [Estimation of usefulness of various potato cultivars to food processing]. Proc. Sci. Conf. Jadwisin ; [in Polish]. 15. Pęksa A., Tajner A., Porównanie metody wizualnej z metodą obiektywną oznaczania frytek ziemniaczanych. [Comparison of visual and objective method of french fries colour estimation]. Sci. Pap. Agric. Univ. Wrocł. Food Technol. 7 (244); [in Polish]. 16. Piasecki M., Gruchała L., Wpływ wybranych zabiegów technologicznych na jakość i właściwości sensoryczne frytek. [Effects of selected technological treatments on quality and characters of french-fries]. Proc. Sci. Conf. Szczecin ; [in Polish]. 17. PN-A-82201, Półprodukty i potrawy. Mrożone wyroby kulinarne. [Semi-finished products and dishes. Chilled cooking products]. Office for Official Publications of the Stand. Communities Alfa-Wero, Warsaw [in Polish]. 18. Ponomarenko S.P., et all., 1992, Potejtin a regulator of potato growth. Plant growth regulators. Ukrainian Acad. Sci. [in Rusian]. 19. Sawicka B., Gospodarczy efekt stosowania regulatorów wzrostu w uprawie 37 odmian ziemniaka. [Economic effect of phytohormones application to 37 potato cultivars]. Pestycides 3: 1-12 [in Polish]. 20. Sawicka B., Mikos-Bielak M., Badania jakości frytek z bulw wczesnych odmian ziemniaka w warunkach stosowania wysokiego nawożenia azotem. [Research of french-fries quality of tubers of early potato varieties in conditions applications of nitrogen fertilization]. Proc. Sci. Conf. Szczecin ; [in Polish]. 21. Skrabule I., The relationship of french fries quality with dry matter content and starch grain size of different potato cultivars. Proc. 14th Triennial Conf. of the European Association for Potato Research (EAPR). Sorrento, Italy : Voronkov M. G., Djakov V. M Pat. USA N , Brit. Pat N /1977. Franc. Pat. N Voronkov M. G., Kuzniecov I. G., Djakov W. M., Nowyj biostimulator Mival w selskom chozjajstwie. Rezultaty naucznych isledowanij w praktiku sielkogo chozjajstwa. [New biostymulant Mival in the farm. Results of scientific applications into the practice of the farm]. Science Moskva; [in Rusin].
14 24. Zgórska K., Elementy technologii przetwórstwa ziemniaka na cele spożywcze. [Elements of food technology of potato to nutritive purposes]. Proc.Sci. Conf. Bonin 22.02; [in Polish]. 25. Zgórska K., Frydecka-Mazurczyk A., 1995.Zbiór i przydatność odmian wczesnych do przetwórstwa spożywczego. [Harvesting and usefulness of early varieties to food processing]. Polish Potato, 3; [in Polish]. 26. Zgórska K., Frydecka-Mazurczyk A., Zmiany cech jakości ziemniaków jadalnych w czasie przechowywania. [Variations of quality characters of table potatoes during storage]. Polish Potato, 1; [in Polish]. 27. Zgórska K., Temperatura przechowywania ziemniaków w zależności od kierunku użytkowania. [Temperature of potato storage conditioned from direction of utilization]. Polish Potato, 4; [in Polish]. 28. Zurzycki J., Michniewicz M Fizjologia roślin. [Plant physiol]. Office of PR&L, Warsaw [in Polish]. Barbara Sawicka Department of Plant Cultivation Agricultural University of Lublin 15. Akademicka Str., Lublin, Poland Maria Mikos-Bielak Department of Chemistry Agricultural University of Lublin, 15. Akademicka Str., Lublin, Poland Responses to this article, comments are invited and should be submitted within three months of the publication of the article. If accepted for publication, they will be published in the chapter headed Discussions in each series and hyperlinked to the article. [BACK] [MAIN] [HOW TO SUBMIT] [SUBSCRIPTION] [ISSUES] [SEARCH]
1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set
Study on Combined Hot-air and Microwave Vacuum Drying for Scallion Yifan Li, Shujun Li*, Bingnan Yang, Qinghua Han, Jiwei Ma, Donglin Zhao Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences,Beijing
What Is Humic Acid? Humic and Fulvic acids are the final break-down constituents of the natural decay of plant and animal materials. These organic acids are found in pre-historic deposits. Humic matter
7 Answers to end-of-chapter questions Multiple choice questions 1 B 2 B 3 A 4 B 5 A 6 D 7 C 8 C 9 B 10 B Structured questions 11 a i Maintenance of a constant internal environment within set limits i Concentration
Importance of whey ingredients in confectionery products Andréa Pernot-Barry Technical Director ZDS Central College of the German Confectionery Industry Whey ingredients in confectionery Lactose Whey powder
The Effects of Different Oils during Deep Fat Frying of Doughnut Holes on Sensory and Quantitative Evaluations By: Julie Sankbeil Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to observe sensory qualities
Volume 4, Issue 10 March 2016 216 RESEARCH ARTICLE ISSN: 2278-5213 Effect of Adding Guava Powder to Wheat Flour on Bread Making Amir M.M. Bushara 1*, Abdelmoneim A. Mustafa 2, Hamid A. Elfaki 3, Khadir
6 th INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY CONFERENCE THE EFFECT OF NUTRIENT SUPPLY ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF MAIZE HYBRIDS Zoltán Futó Péter Jakab Tessedik Sámuel Collage, Agricultural College Faculty, Department
Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities is the very first Polish scientific journal published exclusively on the Internet, founded on January 1, 1998 by the following agricultural universities
Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods Abstract Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and vitamins to meet their energy requirements. In this lab, reagents
The frying process 1 Frying is a unit operation which is mainly used to alter the eating quality of a food. A secondary consideration is the preservative effect that results from thermal destruction of
POLISH SOCIETY FOR HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE LUBLIN DIVISION International Scientific Conference HORTICULTURE IN SHAPING LIFE QUALITY and 45th JUBILEE OF THE FACULTY OF HORTICULTURE AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
EFFECTS OF VARYING IRRIGATION AND MEPIQUAT CHLORIDE APPLICATION ON COTTON HEIGHT, UNIFORMITY, YIELD, AND QUALITY Glen Ritchie 1, Lola Sexton 1, Trey Davis 1, Don Shurley 2, and Amanda Ziehl 2 1 University
SUMMARY The doctorate thesis " The researches regarding the productivity of some wheat cultivars and the quality of bread manufacture in the ecological conditions from Dobrogea is based on the researches
Elements in Cells The living substance of cells is made up of cytoplasm and the structures within it. About 96% of cytoplasm and its included structures are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
Soil quality testing Soil Core A soil core is useful when conducting the following tests for soil quality. It allows you to see and test soil properties that you otherwise would not have access to. You
UNECE STANDARD FFV-52 concerning the marketing and commercial quality control of EARLY AND WARE POTATOES 2011 EDITION UNITED NATIONS New York and Geneva, 2011 NOTE Working Party on Agricultural Quality
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION Pineapple is a tropical fruit, it contains a proteolytic enzyme bromelain, which helps in the digestion of protein. Pineapple can prevent blood clot formation because of its bromelain
Method 4 (carbon dioxide) Aim Making a batch of scones, and investigating the most effective raising agent in terms of external and internal appearance, texture, degree of rise and flavour. Equipment You
Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements
Syllabus M.Tech. Food Technology DSC- FT- 1 A: FUNDAMENTALS OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PART I Unit 1 Introduction to Food Science and Technology Definition, scope and current trends in food science
IMPORTANCE OF LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS IN STUDYING THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE N. HARNOS 1, É. ERDÉLYI 2 and T. ÁRENDÁS 1 1 AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE HUNGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, MARTONVÁSÁR,
CPO Science and the NGSS It is no coincidence that the performance expectations in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are all action-based. The NGSS champion the idea that science content cannot
Onion & Leek Planting Guide Important Remove plants from box immediately. Do not put in soil or water before planting. Keep cool and dry until you can plant. Follow the instructions inside for best results.
Understanding the Soil Test Report Page 1 of 7 Crops absorb the nutrients required from soil in order to grow, so ensuring that your soil is meeting the crops needs is critical. Having the proper level
GROWTH DYNAMICS AND YIELD OF WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES GROWN AT DIVERSE NITROGEN LEVELS E. SUGÁR and Z. BERZSENYI AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE HUNGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, MARTONVÁSÁR The growth
HOME FREEZING GUIDE F FRESH VEGETABLES Freezing most vegetables at home is a fast, convenient way to preserve produce at their peak maturity and nutritional quality. The following links provide information
L 104/40 Official Journal of the European Union 24.4.2010 COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 352/2010 of 23 April 2010 approving minor amendments to the specification for a name entered in the register of protected
INTRODUCTION Growth of microorganisms in a food material can be inhibited by adding certain chemical substances. However the chemical substances should not be harmful to the human beings. Such chemical
Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Hot Seat Hot Seat Instructions You are competing against classmates in your row (across the classroom). The hot seat is the seat in each row closest to the outside
Moringa Oleifera a Multipurpose Tree: 1.0 Introduction: Amandla Resources 1.1 Moringa Oleifera belongs to the onogeneric family of shrubs and trees and originated south of the Himalayas in Northern India.
POLISH JOURNAL OF NATURAL SCIENCES Abbrev.: Pol. J. Natur. Sc., Vol 27(4): 353 358, Y. 2012 THE ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN LINK OF ROTATION: WINTER RYE POTATO IN SYSTEM OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL
5 Training Objectives:! Knowledge of the most important function of nutrients! Description of both, mechanism and function of gluconeogenesis! Knowledge of the difference between essential and conditionally
Conduct A Qualitative Test For Starch, Fat, A Reducing Sugar, A Protein Biology Leaving Cert Experiments Materials/Equipment Starch solution (1%) Iodine Solution Glucose Solution (1%) 100 C) Benedict s
Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3) : 59-63 (2011) Printed in India Nitrogen uptake in cotton+greengram intercropping system as influenced by integrated nutrient management S. M. NAWLAKHE 1 AND D. D. MANKAR 2 Department
Enzymes: Practice Questions #1 1. Compound X increases the rate of the reaction below. Compound X is most likely A. an enzyme B. a lipid molecule C. an indicator D. an ADP molecule 2. The equation below
What you eat and how much you eat has an impact on your blood glucose levels. Your blood glucose level reflects how well your diabetes is controlled. There are many aspects to eating for target BG (Blood
Pineapples Ian Hewett Horticultural Marketing Inspectorate United Kingdom Version - October 2011 1 Definition Of Produce This Standard applies to pineapples of varieties (cultivars) grown from Ananascomosus(L).
Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Agriculture Now a Real Option Guy Webb B.Sc. REM Agricultural Consultant The Pursuit of Protein and Profit All agricultural enterprises, in essence, are based on the pursuit
AIJN Guideline for Vegetable Juices and Nectars 1. INTRODUCTION This guideline is applicable without prejudice to the national legislation of each Member State and/or Code of Practice and cannot be used
4 - H S U P P L E M E N T A L M AT E R I A L EM4748 JUDGING BAKED PRODUCTS COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Judging Baked Products Sandra Garl Brown Quality baked products must look and taste good. Recognizing excellence
Journal of Agri-Food and Applied Sciences Available online at jaas.blue-ap.org 2014 JAAS Journal. Vol. 2(8), pp. 230-234, 31 August, 2014 E-ISSN: 2311-6730 Reconditioning of cold stored Potato Varieties
How mineral fertilizers can feed the world and maintain its resources in an Integrated Farming System european fertilizer manufacturers association Global trends in population growth (Population 1000 million),
CAC/RCP 51-2003 Page 1 of 8 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE PREVENTION AND REDUCTION OF MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION IN CEREALS, INCLUDING ANNEXES ON OCHRATOXIN A, ZEARALENONE, FUMONISINS AND TRICOTHECENES CAC/RCP
Fly lab report p. 1 SAMPLE LAB REPORT Perception of Different Sugars by Blowflies by Alexander Hamilton Biology 101 October 24, 2009 Lab Partners: Sharon Flynn, Andi Alexander Fly lab report p. 2 ABSTRACT
Science Unit: Lesson 1: Water Quality ph and Red Cabbage Juice School year: 2004/2005 Developed for: Developed by: Grade level: Duration of lesson: Laura Secord Elementary School, Vancouver School District
Welcome! We give you vegetarian frankfurter sausages, sliced, tofu and fried products. All our products are vegan and have always been known for their reliable quality and exceptional taste. All Polsoja
E-511 11-10 Easy Gardening Joseph Masabni, Assistant Professor and Extension Horticulturist, The Texas A&M University System Irish potatoes are one of America s most popular vegetables the average American
DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount
GOT MILK? Background Food Processing and Preservation Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for consumption. Food processing occurs from the farm
Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Worksheets (Opening image courtesy of David Iberri, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:camkii.png, and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.) Lesson 2.1: Matter
Composition of Grapes By Murli Dharmadhikari Grapes are the most important raw material for making wine. A good understanding of grape composition is essential to understanding the process of winemaking
5 Testing for the Presence of Macromolecules OBJECTIVE Students will learn confirmation tests for the presence of glucose, starch, lipids and proteins. Students will then apply the test procedures to a
DESSERT Apple and cinnamon crumble with custard DESSERT Apple and cinnamon crumble with custard Apple and cinnamon crumble Custard 90g 80g Apple and cinnamon crumble This recipe makes 4 portions of about
COTTON WATER RELATIONS Dan R. Krieg 1 INTRODUCTION Water is the most abundant substance on the Earth s surface and yet is the most limiting to maximum productivity of nearly all crop plants. Land plants,
Name: ate: 1. Which molecule supplies the energy for cellular functions?. TP. oxygen. N. water 2. Photosynthesis The following equation represents the process of photosynthesis in green plants. What happens
CORVINUS UNIVERSITY OF BUDAPEST EFFECT OF GROWING TECHNOLOGY ELEMENTS ON EARLINESS OF SWEET CORN Doctoral Theses Ferenc Orosz Supervisor: Dr. Katalin Angéla Slezák Assistant Professor Written at the Department
A SOIL TESTING SERVICE FOR FARMERS IN THAILAND, USING MOBILE LABORATORIES Narong Chinabut Office of Science for Land Development Land Development Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok
Video Education Australasia Bringing Learning to Life Program Support Notes Science Building Blocks Food and Digestion Junior Secondary 26mins Teacher Notes by Sue Wright B.Sc., Dip. Ed. Produced by Video
Soil Sampling for Nutrient Management Nutrient Management Factsheet No. 2 in Series Revised September 2010 Order Reference No. 631-500-1 For nutrient management, soil sampling is done to collect a soil
Process of producing sweetpotato flour Vital Hagenimana and Constance Owori 1. Raw material Sweetpotato roots can be a raw material for processing flour. The main characteristics of the fresh roots are
A3743-E GARDEN FACTS U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n E x t e n s i o n When are apples ripe? Teryl R. Roper DIFFERENT APPLE CULTIVARS RIPEN over a long season. In Wisconsin, apples ripen from
Azienda Agricola Borghese Cavazza The Farm The Borghese Cavazza Family has been olive farming on the western shores of lake Garda since the late 19 th century. The Farm occupies most of the San Fermo promontory
Chemical Reactions Topic 1 National Chemistry Summary Notes Rates of Reaction LI 1, 2 and 3 We know a chemical reaction has taken place when we notice one or more of the following things happening: Colour
The senses and food Learning objectives To appreciate the different senses that are involved in eating food. To name the senses that are used in tasting food and drink. To recognise the 5 basic tastes.
ABSTRACT Key words: pre-fermentative treatments, oxalic acid, activated carbon, papain. Currently, winemaking has the necessary technologies, oenological practices and products that enable the development
FRUIT LEATHER Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FRUIT LEATHER 1.- General information Fruit Leathers - general information Fruit leathers are dried sheets of fruit pulp which have
2014-2015 Culinary Arts STAR Events Menu Options Menu I Waldorf Salad Shaker Style Turkey Cutlets Potatoes Parmentier Sautéed Green Beans Menu II Sautéed Breast of Chicken with Mustard Cream Sauce Fresh
Last update: 20/04/2010, version 2.0 page 1 / 5 1 IDENTIFICATION OF SUBSTANCE/PREPARATION AND OF THE COMPANY/UNDERTAKING Product details Trade name: Application of the preparation: A vegetable oil that
LAB 5 PLANT NUTRITION I. General Introduction All living organisms require certain elements for their survival. Plants are known to require carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus
SOIL TEST LEVELS AND NUTRIENT BUDGETS IN THE WESTERN U.S. Robert L. Mikkelsen and Paul E. Fixen Potash & Phosphate Institute ABSTRACT The status of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) nutrient concentrations
Food Science & Chef School I. Introduction Lesson 1: Introduction to Food Science Learn about the course sections Learn why cooking skills are important Lesson 2: Food Science & Chef School Projects Learn
1 Lab 2 Biochemistry Learning Objectives The lab has the following learning objectives. Investigate the role of double bonding in fatty acids, through models. Developing a calibration curve for a Benedict
Name Biology 3 ID Number Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Section 1 - Organic Molecules Section 2 - Functional Groups Section 3 - From Building Blocks to Macromolecules Section 4 - Carbohydrates
PROFESSIONAL POTATO GROWING Planting CONTENTS Planting Seed bed Soil structure Moisture supply Which seed to use? The purpose of the crop Stem density Tuber size Seed required Examples Planting density
Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 1. Which statement best describes one of the events taking place in the chemical reaction? A. Energy is being stored as a result of aerobic respiration. B. Fermentation
Macromolecules in my food!! Name Notes/Background Information Food is fuel: All living things need to obtain fuel from something. Whether it is self- made through the process of photosynthesis, or by ingesting
URSZULA E. GOŁĘBIOWSKA Koszalin University of Technology ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF RAPE PRODUCTION FOR ENERGY PURPOSES Key words: rape, biofuels, structure of costs, price, area subsidies, profitability index
Raw Queenie Scallops, Celeriac and Tarragon PHOTOGRAPHY BY JEAN CAZALS 30 queenie scallops, roe removed and sliced width-ways Cornish sea salt Celeriac Stock 3 medium celeriac, peeled and diced 2l water
Unit 2 Metabolism and Survival Summary 1 Metabolism pathways and their control (a) Introduction to metabolic pathways This involves integrated and controlled pathways of enzymecatalysed reactions within
Cooking A World of New Tastes S E G M E N T 2 Cooking With Moist Heat Steaming Boiling Glazing Segment 2 Cooking With Moist Heat 19 S E G M E N T 2 Cooking With Moist Heat Learning Objectives Apply steaming