Project PESSIS 2 Title: Social Dialogue in the Social Services Sector in Europe

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1 Project PESSIS 2 Title: Social Dialogue in the Social Services Sector in Europe Location Brussels Date 23 September 2014 Presenter/contact details: Jane Lethbridge, Director, Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), Business Faculty, University of Greenwich, London, UK

2 AIM To critically assess the role of social dialogue in the social services sector in Europe OBJECTIVES To highlight some of the results of 17 cases studies of social dialogue in the social services sector in Europe To make recommendations to strengthen social dialogue

3 SOCIAL SERVICES - DEFINITIONS Long-term care for older people Care and rehabilitation for people with disabilities Child care Other services to reach disadvantaged or excluded groups only included if have strong social dialogue sector DEFINITION OF SOCIAL DIALOUGE A dialogue between employers and employees

4 COUNTRY CASE STUDIES Central/ Eastern Europe: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Poland, Slovenia Continental Europe Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Nordic region Finland, Sweden Southern Europe Greece, Italy, Spain UK & Ireland Scotland, Ireland

5 COUNTRY CASE STUDIES Social dialogue in social services in Europe is underresearched Difficulties in estimating the contribution of social services to social and economy how to measure social value added? Statistics about workforce often collected by different government departments so fragmented Workforce often defined by occupation rather than sector Large number of part time jobs in social services often measured in full-time equivalents Details of collective agreements increasingly fragmented and difficult to access

6 MAIN TRENDS Form of social services changing from institutional to personalised care Increasing focus on enabling people to cope as compared to doing things for people Funding of social services major political issue different solutions introduced - social insurance, care allowance, health and social care integration Increased role of for-profit/not for profit private sector providers Social services an economic growth sector in some countries

7 LABOUR FORCE PROFILE Majority workers - women Use of migrant labour Low pay Low status as caring not valued Mainly poorly trained Ageing workforce Shortages of workers in many countries

8 SOCIAL DIALOGUE STRUCTURES Well-defined social dialogue structures (from mid 20 th century) The Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Belgium, France Finland, Sweden, Scotland, Italy (dialogue/ negotiations but term social dialogue not used) Newly established social dialogue structures (post-1990) Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Poland, Slovenia Recently reformed social dialogue structures France, Greece, Ireland, Spain

9 REPRESENTATIVITY - EMPLOYERS Several employers organisations covering social services Germany, Poland, Belgium, Scotland Some unified employers organisations Austria, France, The Netherlands No employers organisations Bulgaria Creation of new potential employers organisations Spain

10 TYPES OF EMPLOYERS ORGANISATIONS SECTOR PUBLIC NOT-FOR-PROFIT FOR-PROFIT Types of groupings Representing municipal authority providers Subsector, e.g. older care, child care Voluntary organisations Faith based organisations Sub-sector, e.g. older care, child care Social enterprises Types of service e.g. associations of nursing homes, kinder-gardens Sub-sector, e.g. older care, child care

11 REPRESENTATIVITY TRADE UNIONS Single trade union Germany, Czech Republic Several trade unions covering social services Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Poland, Scotland, Slovenia, Spain

12 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENTS (1) Social services sector coverage by general collective agreements Austria collective agreement which covers health sector, social services, disability, child/youth & welfare services, labour market services Finland public social services comply with municipal service agreements Scotland covered by CA in NHS (health service) and local government

13 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENTS (2) Social services sector coverage by specific sectoral collective agreements The Netherlands 3 CA s disability care, childcare and older people care Spain CA for workers in elderly care (institutional and home care) and workers with people with disabilities Bulgaria CA at enterprise level with social services providers, municipal level for municipal employees, branch level for Agency of Social Assistance for employees under contract & union members

14 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENTS (3) Social services sector coverage by industry / enterprise collective agreements Lithuania Social services CA in 17 institutions Poland Sectoral agreement for local government social assistance but only few CAs Italy 9 in socio-charitable sector and 40 in social services sector Czech Republic 200 out of 2,500 social services providers have a CA

15 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING ISSUES COVERED Basic coverage wages and some working conditions Well developed collective agreements (CAs) cover employer/ employee relations, contracts, working hours, holidays and other absences, training, and trade union rights Some CAs include organisational changes, work changes, redundancies

16 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGE/ MATURITY OF AGREEMENTS Collective bargaining arrangements of several countries over 50 years old, for example, Belgium, the Netherlands Newly established systems in Central/ Eastern Europe An established industrial relations system can inform the way in which relationships between employers and employees are managed. Industrial relations systems - not static arrangements and are subject to change in recent decades very important impact of austerity e.g. Greece, Poland

17 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING COVERAGE (public, not-forprofit, for-profit) Highest coverage 50% + The Netherlands (100%), Austria (95%), Finland (84.7%), Germany (52%) 20-49% coverage Bulgaria 25% Below 20% Czech Republic, Poland

18 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING ROLE OF STATE Finland - government plays a role of looking after the common good through employment laws, social policy reforms and tax relief Belgium - government, as the public authority funding social enterprises, is involved in the tri-partite negotiations with employers and employees. AUSTERITY Spain, Greece fundamental changes in labour legislation and move to company level bargaining Poland - changes in Labour Code for flexible working hours led to breakdown of social dialogue Austria, Germany, The Netherlands, Bulgaria, Lithuania - budget cuts contribute to difficult negotiations

19 CONCLUSIONS Social services sector labour intensive sector so budget cuts affect workers Increasing for profit- not for profit providers response to personalisation of social services Representativity of employers limited Representativity of workers more extensive, often with more than 1 union History of social dialogue establishes systems and procedures Even in countries with national social dialogue structures social partners often excluded Collective agreement coverage for social services wide national variations in public sector and for-profit/ not for profit coverage lower Increasing trend towards enterprise/ company level collective agreements where coverage is limited Influence of austerity on collective bargaining continues

20 RECOMMENDATIONS Wide range of common problems facing the social services sector should be addressed through the development of social dialogue at European level More research is needed to further understand how to support the development of social dialogue at different levels New opportunities to promote reflection within the not-for-profit sector needed to identify employer responsibilities across Europe More work is needed to develop systems of employer representativity Support the creation of social dialogue pilots at national level to create effective dialogue between employers and employees National governments and other stakeholders should commission research to explore how social services delivery could be restructured, using new technology and new forms of organisation.

21 Partnership:

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