On Factivity: Speculations on the split-cp in Upper Southern Italian Dialects

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1 On Fctivity: Specultions on split-cp in Upper Sourn Itlin Dilects Vlentin Colsnti St John s College, University of Cmbridge - Fine structure of left periphery (Rizzi 1997): much work on split-cp. - Itlo-Romnce: high degree of microvrition crucil in mpping structure of clusl domin (see.o. Ledgewy 2003; 2005; 2012; Dmonte 2006; Vecchio 2006; D Alessndro & Ledgewy 2010; Ledgewy & Lombrdi 2014). 1 Ferentinese triple complementiser system Ferentino (FR) shows triple complementiser system: c (<QUIA), (<QUID) 1 nd cu (<QUOD). synchroniclly productive in modern Ferentinese (cf. 1) dichroniclly documented in erlier Ferentinese (cf. 2) Ferentinese complementtion sensitive to: (i) semntics of selecting verb (i.e. declrtive/non-fctive, fctive, volitive): (1). Peppu dici/credi Angilu po uni cs [fctive/non-fctive] Peter sy/believe.ind.3sg tht Angelo cn to-come t home Peter sys tht Angelo cn come t home b. Mri ulessu/ulrì Peppu lor sempre [volitive] Mry wnt.subj/cond.3sg tht Peter work.ind.3sg lwys Mry would like tht Peter would lwys drink c. Giugni uò ie ci udu ll fest [volitive] John wnt.ind.3sg tht I not go.ind.3sg to- prty John would like tht you wouldn t go to prty Modern Ferentinese (2). Scci c tu nun si n bbon pezz [fctive] I-know.IND tht you not re good ptch b. Curi mu dissu, dcciforte, che tu si mgntu lu pne [declrtive/non-fctive] Curi to-me he-sid with-power tht you re eten bred c. Vurì cu gli vénto m nnriàsse [volitive] I-wnt.COND tht wind to-me rete.subj.imp Erlier Ferentinese (ii) fine structure of left periphery (cf. 3, 4); (iii) modlity (viz. relis vs irrelis; cf. 4). * I m grteful to Alessndro Pompeo, Alberto Volponi, Simon Leonetti nd her fmily for ir ntive grmmticlity judgements on Ferentinese. Unless orwise indicted, exmples re from uthor s own field notes. ** I would like to thnk: Adm Ledgewy for his extremely helpful comments on this pper; Luigi Rizzi nd Enoch Aboh for ir feedbck. Any errors re responsibility of uthor. 1 The complementiser forms from Ltin QUID re in modern Ferentinese nd che in erlier Ferentinese. In cse of erlier Ferentinese I m respecting ortogrphy used in texts underlying tht in Itlo-Romnce does not exist specific grpheme tht usully is represented with grpheme <e>. Hence, I consider nd che s two different representtions of sme lexicl item. 1 of 7

2 (3). Peppu Peter dici Force sy.ind.3sg tht uni cs come.inf to home Peter sys tht Angelo cn come t home tomorrow b. [ ForceP c [ TopP [ FocP [ FinP Fin... [ IP...]]]]] Angilu ADDUMANU Fin ) po Angelo tomorrow tht cn.ind.3sg Modern Ferentinese (4). Mri ulèssu ADDUMANU c/cu Fin Giuàgni Mry wnt.subj.3sg tomorrow tht John Mry would wnt tht tomorrow John would come b. Ndoni Antony vò wnt.ind.3sg l figli dughter ALLOCU re Fin tht più nymore Antony wnts tht his dughter wouldn t go re nymore c. [ ForceP Force [ TopP [ FocP [ FinP [ IP...]]]]] unesse come.subj.3sg n not ci l mnnssu send.subj.3sg Modern Ferentinese Triple complementiser system in erlier nd modern Ferentinese: different distribution of complementisers. Min focus of this tlk: ccount for fctivity selection in Ferentinese. 2 Fctivity selection in Ferentinese Dul complementiser distribution in SIDs: strongly depends on semntics of mtrix verb. Sourn Itlin Dilects: declrtive vs volitive selection Ferentinese: fctive vs declrtive/non-fctive vs volitive selection (cf. 2) Tble 1: Declrtive nd non-declrtive/fctive complementiser distribution in Ferentinese 2 Semntics of mtrix verb Sentence type Selected complementiser Selected complementiser in erlier Ferentinese in modern Ferentinese Non-fctive dire to sy, credere to believe, supporre to suppose, etc. Declrtive c/che Fctive spere to know, comprendere to comprehend, etc. Non-declrtive/fctive c Syntctic nd semntic behviour of sententil complement cluses under fctive vs non-fctive verbs widely nlysed (see Kiprsky & Kiprsky 1970; Ross 1970; Zuber & Zuber 1983; Jckendoff 1985; 2007; Rizzi 1990; Cinque 1990; Acquviv 1990; Giorgi & Pinesi 1997; Schulz 2003; De Cub 2007; De Cub & Ürögdi 2009; Colonn Dhlmn 2015; Kstner 2015 nd mny ors). 3 erlier Ferentinese: specific complementiser selected only by fctive verbs (viz. c/*che) modern Ferentinese: generlistion of use of complementiser c for both fctive nd nonfctive verbs 2 Cf. Kiprsky & Kiprsky (1970) s clssifiction of fctive nd non-fctive predictes. 3 See Appendix 1 for different behviour of fctive vs non-fctive verbs in Ferentinese. 2 of 7

3 Fctivity selection: nor pttern of microvrition found in Itlo-Romnce. Question: Why does Ferentinese (overtly) mrk fctivity in CP? 3 Proposl: fctivity selection s phse edge phenomenon Wht is position of c nd che in Ferentinese left periphery? (5). pro it-seems FACTIVE b. Po Then c tht dici you-sy NON-FACTIVE tunev hold.imp.3sg che tht ci gli mzzoslto slt btte bet.ind.1pl n in i nd pett chest mu fcév do.imp.3sg mle hurt gli ziméo butt c. [ ForceP che/c [ TopP [ FocP [ FinP Fin... [ IP...]]]]] Erlier Ferentinese C nd che: lexiclise Force (= fcing outside ). Ferentinese complementiser distribution influenced by: semntico-functionl fctors (i.e. fctivity); structure of left periphery. How cn se two ingredients be put toger? Are both fctors strongly relted? Declrtive cluses: no feture in Force (cf. Roberts 2004:313 on bsence of UG declrtive feture). (6). Force [Ø] = Declrtive by defult (unspecified for fetures; cf. 7) b. Force [+f] = Non-declrtive (specified for fetures; i.e. fctive; cf. 8) (i) unspecified Force overtly lexiclised by complementiser che selected by non-fctive verbs in declrtive cluses: (7). [ IP [ VP V-non-fctive [Ø] [ ForceP che [Ø] [ TopP *Top [ FocP *Foc [ FinP Ø... [ IP...]]]]]] b. [ IP Gli The bistém swer frintinénisi inhbitnts-of-ferentino ficc softly è is pu for ssi those vóto sometimes snti sints du of ss se [ VP dici Ø sy.ind.3sg àtri or pesi towns ]]]]] [ ForceP che [Ø] tht [ FinP Ø [ IP (ii) specified Force [+fct] lexiclised by complementiser c selected by fctive verbs in non-declrtive cluses: (8). [ IP [ VP V-fctive [+fct] [ ForceP c [+fct] [ TopP *Top [ FocP *Foc [ FinP Ø... [ IP...]]]]]] b. [ IP S er be.ind.imp.3sg cmminènnu wlking.ger to Frintinu]]]]] Ferentino pull for- vi street [ VP sputu [+fct] know.past.part Ltin Ltin [ FinP Ø [ IP s [ ForceP c [+fct] tht [ TopP gli vvicinàunu get-close.ind.3pl sempru lwys Mòri Moors du of più more declrtive cluses: non-fctive verb selects complementiser che (no fctive fetures), hence extrction nd fronting possible in modern Ferentinese becuse che hs no [+fct] feture. 3 of 7

4 non-declrtive cluses: [+fct] verb selects [+fct] c in Force, hence Force nd T shre sme feture blocking ny elements from pssing through phse edge. Clim: leftwrd movement in fctive complement blocked by Reltivized Minimlity (Rizzi 1990; 2005). (i) Force nd T hve sme fctive feture feture islndhood condition t phse edge (ii) fctive element cnnot be probed by n element in left periphery becuse its movement is blocked (iii) this explins tht extrction phenomen re ruled out in cse of fctive cluses (cf. Appendix 1) Evidence: erlier Ferentinese fctive vs non-fctive morphologiclly spelt out in Comp c vs che Fctivity selection = phse edge phenomenon. 4 Conclusions New pttern in Itlo-Romnce microvrition: fctivity selection; Selection of 2 different complementisers in Ferentinese: phse edge phenomenon; Trditionl descriptions of Itlo-Romnce dul complementiser systems: role of semntics of mtrix predicte; Recent nlyses: different positions of complementisers in split-cp; Trditionl descriptions & recent nlyses: unified through phse edge phenomenon ccount. Appendix 1: Fctive verbs behve differently from non-fctive verbs in Ferentinese The complement of fctive verbs cnnot be negted: (1) *So I-m sputu known / mu to-me dispici I-regret / mu to-me su I-m recurdtu remembered c tht gliu n er veru not ws true #I knew / regretted / remembered tht building collpsed, but it didn t The complement of non-fctive verbs cn be negted: (2) So dittu / penstu / credutu c gliu plzzu er cdutu, m I-m sid thought believed tht building ws fllen but I sid / thought / believed tht building collpsed, but it didn t plzzu building n not er ws er ws veru true cdutu, fllen Fctive verbs cn introduce its complement directly or by mens of NP/DP gliu fttu fct : (3) Scciu / mu dispici / mu recordu gliu fttu c Ginni I-know to-me I-regret to-me I-remember fct tht John I know / I regret / I remember fct tht John stolen cookies hs rubbtu stolen glie m but biscotti biscuits Non-fctive verbs cn not introduce its complement directly or by mens of NP/DP gliu fttu fct : 4 of 7

5 (4) *Dicu / pensu / mu credu gliu fttu c Ginni I-sy I-think to-me I-believe fct tht John I sy / think / remember fct tht John hs stolen hs rubbtu stolen Syntctic property of fctive complements: islndhood (Ross 1967; see lso Kiprsky&Kiprsky 1970; Cinque 1990; Rizzi 1990; De Cub 2007; Hegemn & Ürögdi 2010, b, nd mny ors). Extrction of complements from non-fctive is generlly llowed in Ferentinese (5). sti di c Ginni s rubbtu? who sty to sy tht John hs stolen Wht do you sy tht John stole? b. Ndà ndò dici c Giugni uè? from where you-sy tht John cme-from Where do you sy tht John cme from? c. Chi dici c s rubbàtu glie biscotti? SUBJECT who you-sy tht hs stolen cookies *Who do you sy tht stole cookies? d. Purché sti di c Giugni rubbtu glie biscotti? ADJUNCT why you-sty to sy tht John hs stolen #Why do you sy tht John stole cookies? Only complements cn be extrcted from fctives in Ferentinese: cookies (6). nnu si c Ginni rubbtu? wht you-know tht John hs stolen Wht do you know (tht) John stole? b. D ndò si c Ginni uè? from where you-know tht John come-from Where do you know John cme from? c. *Chi si c rubbtu glie biscotti? SUBJECT who you-know tht stolen cookies Who do you know stole cookies? d. #Purché si c Ginni rubbtu glie biscotti? ADJUNCT why you-know tht John hs stolen Why do you know tht John stole cookies? Argument fronting is generlly llowed in non-fctives: (7). Giugni su credu c stu libbru Mri John believe tht this book Mry John believs tht this book Mry red hs b. Ie dicu c stu filmu nu gli uogli più udè I sy tht this film not wnt never see I sy tht this film I don t wnt to see it nymore Argument fronting is generlly disllowed in fctives: cookies lettu red 5 of 7

6 (8). #Giugni s c chigli libru Mri John knows tht tht book Mry John knows tht Mry hs red tht book b. *Giugni ci dispici c chigli libbru John regret tht tht book John regrets tht Mry red tht book hs Mri Mry lettu red hs lettu red Textul Sources Angelisnti, Alberto Pensieri. Ferentino. Binchi, Ferdinndo Imbròsi figliett. Rom: Tipogrfi Rom. Binchi, Ferdinndo L serent figlimen. Rom: Tipogrfi Rom. Binchi, Fernndo Fiuri i Fruschi. Poesie in diletto ferentinese. Frosinone: Editrice Frusinte. Binchi, Fernndo L cummeddi du... vincci. Ferentino: Tipogrfi Glssi. Binchi, Fernndo Drènt i Fòri pòrt. Rom: Tipogrfi Rom. Cedrone, Alberto Gli Mori ttornu Frintinu. Frosinone: Tipogrfi Frosinone. Prosperi, Giovnni, &, Binchi, Fernndo Rusbiglitu Frintinu!. Rom: Tipolitogrf. References Acquviv, Polo Un nlisi dell complementzione dei predicti fttivi. Rivist di grmmtic genertiv Benincà, Pol, & Poletto, Cecili Topic, focus, nd V2. In L. Rizzi (ed.), The Structure of CP nd IP. The Crtogrphy of Syntctic Structures, 2. Oxford University Press: Oxford, Cinque, Guglielmo Types of A-dependencies. Cmbidge, MA: MIT press. Colsnti, Vlentin. 2015, The Complementiser System of Ceprnese. M.Phil disserttion, University of Cmbridge. Colsnti, Vlentin. 2015b. Dul complementiser systems in Sourn Lzio dilects: microprmetric pproch. Pper presented t Romnce Syntx. Comprtive nd Dichronic Perspectives November, University of Buchrest. Colsnti, Vlentin On triple complementtion in Upper-sourn Itlin Dilects: syndichronic cse study. Ms. University of Cmbridge. Colonn Dhlmn, Robert Studies on Fctivity, Complementtion, nd Propositionl Attitudes. Études Romnes de Lund 102. PhD disserttion, Lund University. Dmonte, Federico. 2006, Complementtori e complementi congiuntivi in lcuni diletti Srdi. In A. Pdovn, N. Penello (eds.), Osservzioni sul srdo (Quderni di lvoro ASIt n. 6), De Cub, Crlos Frncisco On (non) fctivity, clusl complementtion nd CP-field. PhD disserttion, Stony Brook University. De Cub, Crlos, & Ürögdi, Brbr Eliminting fctivity from syntx: Sententil complements in Hungrin. Approches to Hungrin D Alessndro, Robert, & Ledgewy, Adm At CT boundry: Investigting Abruzzese complementtion, Lingu 120: Giorgi, Alessndr, & Pinesi, Fbio Tense nd Aspect: From Semntics to Morphosyntx. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Jckendoff, Ry Believing nd intending: two sides of sme coin. Linguistic inquiry 16(3) Jckendoff, Ry Lnguge, consciousness, culture: Essys on mentl structure. Cmbridge, MA: MIT Press. Kstner, Itmr Fctivity mirrors interprettion: The selectionl requirements of presuppositionl verbs. Lingu of 7

7 Kiprsky, Pul, & Kiprsky, Crol Fct. In M. Bierwisch nd K. E. Heidolph (eds.), Progress in linguistics. The Hgue: Mouton, Ledgewy, Adm Il sistem completivo dei diletti meridionli: l doppi serie di complementtori, Rivist Itlin di Dilettologi 27: Ledgewy, Adm Moving through left periphery: dul complementiser system in dilects of Sourn Itly, Trnsctions of Philologicl Society, 103/3: Ledgewy, Adm L soprvvivenz del sistem dei doppi complementtori nei diletti meridionli. In P. Del Puente (ed.), Atti del II Convegno internzionle di dilettologi - Progetto A.L.B. Rionero in Vulture: Clice Editore, Ledgewy, Adm, & Lombrdi, Alessndr The development of sourn subjunctive. Morphologicl Loss nd Syntctic Gin. In P. Benincà, A. Ledgewy nd N. Vincent (eds.), Dichrony nd Dilects. Grmmticl Chnge in Dilects of Itly. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Rizzi, Luigi Reltivized minimlity. Cmbridge, MA: MIT Press. Rizzi, Luigi The fine structure of left periphery. In L. Hegemn, Elements of grmmr: Hndbook in Genertive Syntx. Springer, Rizzi, Luigi Phse ory nd privilege of root. In H. Broekhuis, N. Corver, R. Huybregts (eds.), Orgnizing grmmr: studies in honor of Henk vn Riemsdijk. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Roberts, In The C-system in Brythonic Celtic lnguges, V2, nd EPP. In L. Rizzi (ed.), The structure of CP nd IP: Crtogrphy of syntctic Structures Ross, John Robert Constrints on vribles in syntx. PhD disserttion, MIT. Schulz, Petr Fctivity: Its Nture nd Acquisition. Linguistische Arbeiten. Vol Tübingen: Niemeyer. Vecchio, Pol L distribuzione dei complementtori k e ku nel diletto slentino settentrionle di Frncvill Fontn (BR). In D Alessndro, R., Ledgewy, A. & I. Roberts, Syntctic Vrition: The Dilects of Itly. Cmbridge: University Press, Zuber, Richrd, & Zuber, Ryszrd Non-declrtive sentences. Amsterdm: John Bejmins Publishing. 7 of 7