Orbital Dynamics. Orbital Dynamics 1/29/15

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1 Orbital Dynamics Orbital Dynamics 1/29/15

2 Announcements Reading for next class Chapter 5: Sections Homework #2 due next class (Tuesday, Feb. 3) Project #1 topic ideas due next Tuesday (Feb. 3) also. Both assignments are posted on the website

3 Recently discovered extrasolar planet with enourmous ring system This image was obtained from an article on cnn.com

4 Recently discovered extrasolar planet with enourmous ring system This image was obtained from an article on cnn.com

5 Hohmann Transfer Orbit An elliptical orbit (2, yellow) that transfers an object from one circular orbit (1, green), to another circular orbit (3, red) e.g., taking a spacecraft from Earth to Mars

6 Effects from the gravity of other planets Strictly speaking, it is not correct to say that planets orbit the Sun. In fact, the planets and Sun orbit about a common center of mass By studying the motion of distant stars, scientists can use this fact to determine that a planet must exist even without seeing it. The combination of gravitational fields from a planet and the Sun, as well as the centrifugal forces resulting from the both objects orbiting the center of mass, can lead to a rather complicated global force field. There exist places where all the forces cancel each other out, leading to locations that are fixed relative to the Sun and planet. These are known as Lagrange points. Orbital Dynamics 1/29/15

7 Lagrange Points L1-L5 are called Lagrange Points, which are places in the Sun/Earth system where a small object (such as a spacecraft) can remain stationary relative to the Sun and Earth

8 It is sometimes said that the L1 Lagrange point is the place between the Earth and the Sun where the force of gravity on an object from the Earth would exactly cancel the force of gravity do to the Sun. Do you think this is right?

9 Lagrange Points Note that there is one behind Earth! L1-L5 are called Lagrange Points, which are places in the Sun/Earth system where a small object (such as a spacecraft) can remain stationary relative to the Sun and Earth

10 Asteroids that collect in the Lagrange points of Jupiter are known as Trojan asteroids Stable orbits, same period as Jupiter Named for Trojan war characters About 50 Trojan s are known, many more are suspected Trojan Asteroids Earth has one Trojan And, several spacecraft (e.g. ACE/SOHO/Genesis and others at L1)

11 Show video clip (start at 9:45)

12 The motion of dust and other small objects in the solar system For objects that are much smaller than planets, in addition to gravity from the Sun, other important forces can effect their motion. These include Pressure from light (radiation pressure) Light aberration (Poynting-Robertson effect) Unequal heating from dawn/dusk hemispheres (Yarkovsky effect) Gas drag (solar wind, protoplanetary disks, planetary atmospheres) Electromagnetic Forces

13 Comet Mcknaught (2007)

14 Meteorites Orbital Dynamics / Comets 4/29/08 1/29/15

15 The Zodiacal Light Dust in orbit around the Sun, illuminated by sunlight

16 Artist s depiction of a solar sail Orbital Dynamics 1/29/15

17 Yarkovsky effect Orbital Dynamics 1/29/15

18 Tidal Forces A secondary force caused by the difference in gravitational forces at different positions Responsible for: some planet-moon orbital resonances tides on Earth The reason why the same side of the Moon always faces the Earth the incredible volcanism on Jupiter s moon Io is due to tidal flexing from Jupiter

19 An illustration of how Tidal Forces arise

20 An illustration of how Tidal Forces arise The tidal force is what causes the 1 ball and 3 ball to move away from the 2 ball, as seen by an observer on the 2 ball

21 The tidal force due to the moon causes ocean tides on Earth

22 Alma New Brunswick High tide Low tide Orbital Dynamics 1/29/15

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