д дцд дед»дедфдд дцдфд»д дд дедад д дедфд»д д д дфдфд»дбд»д дадбд дедгдед»д дад д дедфдед»д 2009

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1 д дцд дед»дедфдд дцдфд»д дд дедад д дедфд»д д д дфдфд»дбд»д дадбд дедгдед»д дад д дедфдед»д 2009 д дцд дхд»д 6д дл Ая дл Ам А АВ АВ А Ас А Ая Ас дл дл А

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4 IIOKTHTH: IATPIKO YАВАВOАсO AАсPINIOY EKOTH: АкАКАК АсАКАсА дла, Ав IA IEYYNTH: AАсPAITH АсEPАсIO, Ав IA E A Ас, Ав IA Ас Ая, АУ длая АВАв, АУ IA K B, длая дл M N, АУ IA Ав, АУ IA Ам Ас, дл Ав: Ак Ас AАв: A Ас Ас АсАУ: T: Ая MАУ: Ас Ая, АВАв, Ам Ая, АУ, Ая, АвАУ K/, T K/ E I Ам,, Ам/, Ая Ав: AАв: дл T MАУ: Ак, Ам, Ая, Ав АУ,, Ав E E Ая дл, Ам Ас, Ая 5 АК АУАв 6 7 Ас Ая Ам АУ Ав Ас 14 Ав дл Ая 18 АК АУ дл 22 (АяАя АяАКАВАК АяАК-Low Intensity Stimulators) 26 Ас А O & K E: Ая Ам/ длаядлама АВАВА АсА АяАсдлдлА АК АК 5, Ая /fax: wwwisagriniogr Ас: Ая T АУ Ав I A E Ав HMIOYPАсIKO - APAАсАсH ENTYOY: АсPAIKE TEXNE AXENH, Ас 41, A T-Fax: , H дмдмд дк дфд»дедгдидгдедфда д д дкд длд д дмд д д д днд д дк дмдпд дмднд д д д дндпд длд дн д днд д д днд д д дмд д д дпдмдмд длд д д д дмдмдк дмднд дмд д дмд д д длд дмдлд дл дадлд дмдмд д д дмд дмд длд длд дмд длд длд дмдкдлдмд д дмд дмдмд 6

5 А АВА АсА АяАУ Ая Ав Ая, - Ам - АУ АУ АУ, Ав -, АУ Ам Ав -, Ас Ак Ав IA АК АУАв АК Ав Ав длав- АУ, АУ, - Ав ( АУ ) - АУ АУ АУ, Ав, Ав- АУ - А Ав -, АУ, - Ав А дламая ( - ) АУ АУ, АУ АУ, Ая Ав Ав - АУ Ас Ав - - АУ АУ АсАКАсА АК АкАКАК А А АядлдлАмА А А длаяасдлдла 5

6 А АВА АсА дл- Ая & - Ав Ая- 6

7 длаядламая АяАя АсдлАмА А А АмА дла АяАсдлдлА АмА А АВАяА длаядла АсАяАяАВА АмАядл А А длаядл Ав АУ,, Ас дл А А А АсАядлАмАК дла АК дл А» Ас дл Ав Ав/АУ Ав А АсАядлАмАК дла АК АвАв Ас дл Ас А» Ас дл Ас дл / Ас дл Ак Ас дл Ав Ас дл Ая Ас дл дл длакасак : дл Ас дл Ак Ас дл / Ас дл А дл: АвАв Ас дл Ав Ас / Ам АУ Ам Ам/ Ая / АмАУ Ав Ас дл - Ав, АУ АУ - АВАсдлАя Ав Ав - - Ав АК Ав Ас дл Ав А Ас А дл АУ АУ Ав, Ав дл АмАУ АУ АУ Ав -,, АУ АУ Ав Ая Ас А - дл АУ АУ, -, АУ, Ав- Ав,, 1, АУ Ав 2 АУ Ав 3 Ас А дл - АК Ав Ас А - АУ АУ - Ав, Ав,,,, АУ- Ам дл- 7

8 Engel: АУ дл - 3 :, - Ав -, Ая Ав АУ, АУ Ав АУ А Ав, Ая Ав- Ав - Ав Ав Ас - АУ АУ длаядламак А А АВА АсдлАя Ая: - АяАв: АвАв Ая: АУ - : АУ; : : : : АУ ; АК Ав АУ А» АК Ав : Ая АК Ая АУ АУ АК АУ -, Ав Ав АвАУ 8, АУ- Ая Ая; АК Ав АУ, АУ - АК Ая Ав - Ав Ав АУ Ам,,,, АУ 140 АУ- 85 Ав Ая, АУ, АУ Ая АК АУ - АУ АУ АУ 2 Ав АУ АУ АУ АУ Ам АУ ; АК АУ ' ' Ав АУ АУ А АУ АУ АУ А АУ - АК Ав АвАв ' 2-3 cm А АУ -

9 Ав Ав- Ав 30 АУ - АУ- Ав АУ АУ - Ав - Ав Ав Ав АУ 20 - АУ АУ АУ АУ Ав Ав АУ АУ Ав Ав- АвАв АК Ав ' АУ АК АУ АУ 2-3 АУ - ' 2 3 АУ АУ Ав АУ Ав Ав Ав, Ав - Ав АУ Ав АУ- Ас Ав ; АК Ав 24, АУ - Ав Ав 24 - АвАв АУ Ав

10 Ав- АУ Ав - ' АУ АУ ' - АУ АУ Ав- АУ ' Ав - АУ АУ Ав - АУ - - ; ' АУ - АУ АУ АвАв Ав Ав АУ Ая АвАвАУ АУ АУ Ав- АУ- - 3 АУ, - - Ав YАУ АУ Ав - Ав АУ Ав - - Ав- АУ Ав - Ав Ас Ав АУ, - АУ АУ Ав - АУ 24 АУ - Ав АУ АУ "АУ" АУ (masked hypertension), АвАв - АУ - АУ АУАв "АУ" АУ - АвАУ АУ Ав Ав, АУ АК Ав 24, АУ Ав - АУ Ав АвАв Ав АУ, - 95% Ав - Ав АУ Ав АУ Ав 5% - -, АУ - Ав - Ав АУ АядлАя Ас Ав 2-3 Ам АУ - АУ - Ав Ав Ав 10

11 >160/100 mmhg ( 2 АУ 2 - ), Ав- Ав АК - АУ АУ - Ая - АУ АУ -, - АУ - Ав Ав - АУ Ав (, АУ - ) ( 2) А Ав- Ав 2 -, АУ АУ - ( 2) АУ - 1 АУ Ав (, АУ- ), - Ая Ав АУ- Ав - Ав -,, АУ Ав Ав ( 2) АУ Ав Ав АУ, Ав 1, АвАУ Ав- 11

12 2 10 АУ - ; - АяАяАмдлАмАя Ая : - - АяАУ АвАУ : - Ав АУ АУ Ав Ая : - АУ АУ Ав Ав АяАУ Ав : - Ав- АУ Ая 2: -, Ав - Ав, АУ- Ая АКАяАя 3 АУ Ав- 6 Ав АУ Ав 9 Ав АУ 140/85 АУ ; А АВдлАяА А АВАКдлАК Ав ; АяАв - :Ав - АУ АвАв, АУ - АмАУ : - АУ, (АУ),, - : 1 Ас АУ ; Ас Ав Ав- (, А, Ая) 2 ; Ая Ав АК - АвАвАУ Ав

13 А» АУ АУ 3 Ам Ав ; А АУ АУ АУ Ав - - АУ, АУ; АК АК LDL - Ая HDL - АУ ; АУ А Ая; Ам, АУ, HDL, >45 Ав > 55, Ав, -, Ав; Ав АвАУ АУ АУ, АУ -, АУ АУ Ая - Ав Ав Ав - Ав, АвАв -,, АУ Ав Ав 2-19 ; А (mg/dl) 170 А LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 110 А ;( -, ;) Ая 60 Ав- 3-4 АУ АвАв, АУ АядлАя А АУ АУ Ав; 1 - Ав - Ав Ав Ав 30% АУ АУ 2000 Ав, 30% Ав Ав - АУ 9 Ав, Ав АУ 65 : АУ Ав - А АвАУ : 50% (Ав- Ав Ав), 25% - (Ав АУ, - АУ, АУ, АУ- д д дгдцдхдцдеда д д дд д дцдф 16 13

14 АмАКАВАК длаядлама 21 дл :00 длая АК АвАУ Ав Ас Ав Ав - Ав : Ая Ав Ая- дламая Ая - Ав Ав дл АУ Ав Ас АУ Ав АУ Ав- Ав АмАУ Ав

15 АВАВА АсА АяАсдлдлА

16 д д дгдцдхдцдеда дад д» д дцдф 13 ) 25% АУ (- АУ АУ ) Ав Ав- 15% АУ, 30% - 55% Ав H - (1 АвАв), АУ (1 АвАв) АУ ( АУ) - АУ АУ, АУ АУ -, АУ АУ АвАв A АУ, - Ав, - АУ Ав Ав Ая АУ АУ - H - АУ Ав АУ 300 АУ Ас, O Ав- T Ав Ав, Ав, Ая Ав - АУ O АУ Ав- - - Ав Ав АУ Ав АУАв Ав, АУ Ам Ав АУ Ав АУ Ав, АУ - Ав ( Ав - ) Ав Ав АУ-, Ав Ав 3 АУ АУ - АУ АУ,, - АУ Ая АУ АУ АяАУ, (, АУ ) Ая - ( ) (АУ АУ - ) Ая АУ АУ,,, Ая, - АУ,,,, 4 Ав АУ,, АУ - АУ 5 АУ Ав АУ АУ - АУ Ая- Ав АУ АУ АУ 6 АУ - АУ Ав - Ав Ав Ав Ав- АУ Ав АУ Ав АУ АУ Ая Ав, - АУ 16

17 1 Ав АУ АУ, АУ АУ 2 АУ АУ- А АУ 3 АУ,,, - АУ, Ав, 4 АУ T Ав 5 АУ 6 Ав - АУ 7 АУ АУ АУ T Ав 8 X АУ - АУ АУ АУ Ав Ав 9 A АУ Ав 10 АУ, (Ав) АУ АУ АУ АУ АУ, Ав - АУ 11 AАУ АУ АУ, - 12 Ав - АУ (100 АУ 72 -, 89) 13 A Ав Ая АУ АУ -, АУ АУ АУ 14 Ам Ав 15, АУ АУ -,, АвАв - АУ АУАв,,,,,, АмАКАВАК дламая Ая дламая Ав -, АУ Ав АвАУ, Ая дламая А Ав Ая, АУАв - АвАУ & АУАУ - АУ Ая Ав длая АУ дламая Ак АУ АУ Ав дламая АсАУ - -АвАУ А АУ - АУ Ав- Ав дламая д»д дмд дкд д дмд д д дмдлд д дмд д длдлд д длд дмд дн д дцд д дедфда дад длд д д дн 17

18 длаядламая АяАя H NEA А АК АК MOдлАяАмАК длаядламак PhD, MS А АмАУ Ая Ая 1953 o Watson Crick АУ Ав Ав Ав DNA - Ав Ав 50, АУ Ав (Human Genome Project) (1,2) АУ - (molecular medicine) H АУ АУ, АУ, АУ, АУ АУ АУ АУ АвАУ, Ав Ав АУ, АУ АУ Ав Ав Ая АУ Ав '80, АУАв АУ АУ АУ DNA RNA Ас Ав DNA Ав Ав DNA АУ АУ АвАУ Ав Ам АУ АУ АУ Ав Ав, Ав АУ Ав, АУ,,, Ав, АУ АУ Ав DNA, RNA Ая АУ Ав АУ АУ Ав АУ АК АУ Ав Ав АУ, АУ, АУ АУ Ав Ав АУ АК АУ Ав АУ АУ Ав АУ Ав 20 АУ АУ Ав АУ АУ Ав 18

19 2000 Ав Ав АУ, АУ Ав Ас Ав, АУ АУ (3), (4), Ав Ав (5), (6), (7), Ав (8), Ая (9) (10) АУ АУ (11), АУo Ав АУ Ав-Ав АУ АУ Ав Ав Ав АК А длаяамак АяА дламак длаядламак Ав, АУ АвАв Ав АУ АК дл АУ Ав АУ АУ, АУ АУ АУ АУ (personalized medicine), АУ АУ АУ АУ Ав, АУ АК АУ АУ,, АУ АУ АУ А Ав АУ, АУ АвАУ АУ, АУ ( 1) 1: Ая DNA (microarray), АУ Ав mrnas Ам - АУ АУ Ав Ав АУ Ав Ав АУ Ав / Ам Ав АУАв Ав,, АУ АУ АУ АУ А Ав Ав АУ АУ Ав imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) АУ (CML) (12) АК Ав 99% CML АУ АУ, АвАв Ав Ав bcr-abl Abl, Ав АК CML Ав А Ав Ав Gleevec АУ 98% CML Gleevec (E 2) 2: Ав АУ Gleevec To 19

20 АУ Аяbl (CML Enzyme) АК Ав Ав АУАв DNA Ав Ав АвАУ 01%, 3 DNA Ая Ав, АвАУ АУ АУ АУ АвАв АУ Ав Ая АУ Ав, АУ АУ АУ Ав, Ав А АУ Ав АУ, АУ А АУ, АУ АУ Ав АУ,, АУ Ав АяА дламак длаядламак ME АяАяАмА АсдлАмАК, АУ Ав АУ (13) А АУ АУ Ав Ав, АУ АвАУ АУ Ав АУ АУ АК : ; АУ АУ АУ ; АУ ; АУ ; Ав Ав АУ АУ Ав АУ; T Ая 20 А (FDA) АУ АУ АУ АУ АУ АяАУ Ав АУ АУ CYP2C19 CYP2D6 (13) Ам АУ Ав Ая АУ Ав Ав Ав Ав, Ав АУ АУ Ая АУ Ав Ав АУ, Ав Ав АУ АвАУ Ав, АУ АУ АУ ( 3) АК АУ Ав АУ АУ, АУ Ав Ав Ав, АУ : 1) АУ 2) Ав 3: АК А Ав

21 Ав Ам Ав Ав, АУ АУ АУ, Ав АУ, АУ АяАя А АУ дл АУ Ав АУ АУ АУ АУ АУ АУ, Ав АУ Ав Ав Ав АУ АУ, АУ Ая АУ DNA АУ АвАУ Ав АУ АУ Ав АУ АУ Ав, АУ Ав АУ Ав АУ АУ, Ав АУ АУ АК дл АК Ав Ая А», дл АУ АУ АвАв АУ АвАвАУ АУ дл АУ АУ Ав, Ав АУ Ав АУ АУ Ав, АУ АУ АК дл АУ, АУ АУ АУ АУ АвАУ Ав АУ длавдла АсАядлАя 1 International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome Nature 2001; 409: International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome Nature 2004; 431: Lifton RP, Gharavi AG, Geller DS Molecular mechanisms of human hypertension Cell 2001; 104 : Hobbs HH, Brown MS, Goldstein JL Molecular genetics of the LDL receptor gene in familial hypercholesterolemia Hum Mutat 1992; 1: Florez JC, Hirschhorn J, Altshuler D The inherited basis of diabetes mellitus: implications for the genetic analysis of complex traits Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2003; 4: Cohen MM Jr The new bone biology: pathologic, molecular, and clinical correlates Am J Med Genet 2006; 140A: Bell CG, Walley A J, Froguel P The genetics of human obesity Nat Rev Genet 2005; 6: Keating MT, Sanguinetti MC Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias Cell 2001; 104: Hardy J, Orr H The genetics of neurodegenerative diseases J Neurochem 2006; 97: Narod SA, Foulkes WD BRCA1 and BRCA2: 1994 and beyond Nat Rev Cancer 2004; 4: Rustgi AK The genetics of hereditary colon cancer Genes Dev 2007; 21: Druker BJ, Talpaz M, Resta DJ, Peng B, Buchdunger E, Ford JM, Lydon NB, Kantarjian H, Capdeville R, Ohno- Jones S, Sawyers CL Efcacy and safety of a specic inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase in chronic myeloid leukemia N Engl J Med 2001; 344(14): Swen JJ, Huizinga TW, Gelderblom H, et al Translating pharmacogenomics: challenges on the road to the clinic PLoS Med 2007; 4: e209 дфд»дедгдидгдедфда д д д дмд дн дед да д д дндлдкд д дмд дмднд д дкдлдкдмдлд дмд дн дмдмд д дм д длд д длд д дф дбд д д д длд днд д д д д дмдкд д длд д д д дмд дн длд дмдлд дмд дн д д д дмд дн дед да д д дндлдкд д дмд дмднд д дкдлдкдмдлд дмд дн дмдмд д дм д длд д длд д дц д д длд дмдмд длд д дн д д д дмдкд д длд д д д дмдк дмдндкд д дн дмд дн 21

22 длаядламая АяАя длама АяАя (АяАя АяАКАВАК АяАК-Low Intensity Stimulators) () АУ АУ 1 ma (1000 Ая), Ав Ав- АУ АУ АУ,,, Ав -, АУ АК Ая (1Ая =1000 ma 1 ma =1000 Ая), - (Microcurrent Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulators) Ая (MES) Ав - () 1 дламая А Ая АУ - АУ АвАУ АУ Ав АУ АУ, - АУ АУ АУ 32 А АУ АУ АУ АУ Ав- 0,3 АУ 50 Hz АК Ав,, Ав 1 АУ 500 msec АУ, АУ, АУ, АУ АУ ma5, (>1 ma) Dr АК дл АсА АВ АмАВАяАК Ая АсАмдлАяАК / Ая 2 АмАВдлдлАмАК АяА АВАядлАмА АКАя-АКдлАмАя А - Ая АУ Ав - Ав: ) Ая ) АвАв ) АвАв АвАУ АвАУ- 19 Ав) Ам Ав ) Ая АУ Ав АУ АУ Ав Ав - АУ АУ47 Ая Ав АУ - Ав, АУ АУ Ав - АУ 8,37 Ав Ав 22

23 43-47 Ав АУ - Ав АУ - Ав Ав () Ав Ав АУ АвАУ Ав Ав АК АУ - - Ав - 24,25,27,33,34 А АУ АУ Ав АУ (DOMS) АУ- Ав Ав Ав - АУ placebo ( - )1,5,10,24,25,27,33,34,39,41 ) АК - Ав - АУ АУ - АУ АУ - АУ - АУАв Ав - АУ Ав - АУ АК Ав Ав Ав АУАв-, - АУ -, Ав - АУ АУ АУ Ая,, АУ Ав, Ав АвАв 7, 9, 12, 14, 17, 18, 31, 36 А АУ АвАУ АУ - АУ АУ - 4,6,18 Ав, АУ Ав АК - Ав- Ав - 3,20 ( ) АУ АУ, Ав АУ TENS, АяАУ АУ- АУ АУ -, 6 26 АК АУ, Ав Ав, 26 ) - АУ АУ ( Ав АУ - -, АУ ) АУ АУ - Ав, АУ Ав Ав,, АУ АУ АУ Ая АУ - АУ АУ: 1) АК АУ Ая АвАУ 400 АУ 800 Ая АУ 2) Ав АУ 3) АК АУ 4) АУ, Ав АУ Ав - АУ - АУ АУ - Ав (intensities adjusted to subsensory levels) АУ АУ 5) А 2-4 6) 2-3 Ав АУ 7) Ав 3 АУ Ав АУ 25 8) 3 АУ, АУ - Ав 9), Ав АУ АУ - 3 АУ 10) АУ -, Ав АУ 3 АУ Ав) - Ав АУ - АвАУ, Ав Ав - Ая Ав АУ - АУ, Wolff АУ АУ - АУ АУ АУ, - 23

24 Ав АУ Ав- 20 Ая, АУ 8 АвАв АУ Ав (breaking strength) - 92%35 А АУ (in vitro) АУ АУ Ав А АУ - Ав АУ30 АУ АУ Ав АУ АвАУ Ав АУ Ав (rupture force), Ав, АУ АвАУ29, АУ АУ АУ Ав АУ АУ Ав АвАв АУ А АУ - Ав, () Ав Ав - - Ав 22 3 АКАядлА АяАК, Ав - А Ав, Ав АУ АвАв- АУ - Ав Ав АУ : АК Ав Ав - 3,20, (current of injury), АвАУ Ав,, Ав, 13,14 А АУ - Ав Ав-,,, DNA Ав АвАУ Ав АУ - 11, 15, 16, 21, 23, 28, 38, 40, 42 АУ, Ав 22 АяАяАя АУ, АУ АУ АУ 24 АУ, Ав,,, -- Ав Ав 43-47, Ав Ав АУ - Ас АУ: 1) АК АУ АУ 1 ma ( - Ав ) 2) АУ Ав - АУ 3) 4) АК АУ АУ - Ав - АвАв 5) АУ АУ Ав, АУ АУ Ая Ав, - Ав длавдла АсАядлАя 1) Allen JD, Mattacola CG, Perrin DH Effect of microcurrent stimulation on delayed-onset muscle soreness: a double-blind comparison, J Athletic Training, 1999, 34 (4): , 2) Alon G А MicrocurrentА stimulation: a progress report 1998, Athletic Ther Today, 1998, 3 (6): 15, 3) Alon G High voltage stimulation: effects of electrode size on basic excitatory responses, Phys Ther, 1985, 65:890, 4) Alon G, DeDomeico G High voltage stimulation: an integrated approach to clinical electrotherapy Chattanooga, Tennessee, Chattanooga Corp, ) Ansoleaga E, Wirth V Microcurrent electrical stimulation may reduce clinically induced DOMS, J Athletic Training, 1999, 34 (2): S-67, 6) Becker R, Bachman C, Friedman H The direct current control system, NY J Med 62: , ) Becker R, Selden G The body electric, New York, William Morrow & Co, Inc, ) Bonacci JA, Higbie EJ Effects of microcurrent treatment on perceived pain and muscle strength following eccentric exercise, J Athletic Training 1997, 32 (2): , 9) Brighton C Bioelectric effects on bone and cartilage, Clin Orthop 1977, 124: 2-4, 10) Brown S The effect of microcurrent on edema, range of motion and pain in treatment of lateral ankle sprains, abstract, J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1994, 19: 55, 11) Carley P, Wainapel S Electrotherapy for the acceleration of wound healing: low-intensity direct current, Arch Phys Med Rehab, 1985, 66: , 12) Castel J Pain management with acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation techniques and photo simulation (laser) Symposium on Pain Management, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Nov 13, 1982

25 13) Charman R Bioelectricity and electrotherapy-towards a new paradigm Part 6, environmental current and elds-the natural background, Physiotherapy 77:8-13; Part 7, environmental currents and elds-man made, Physiotherapy 77: ; Part 8, grounds for a new paradigm? Physiotherapy, 1991, 77: , 14) Charman R Bioelectricity and electrotherapy-towards a new paradigm? Part 1, The cell Part 2, Cellular reception and emission of electromagnetic signals, Physiotherapy 76: ; Part 3, Bioelectric potentials and tissue currents, Physiotherapy 76: ; Part 4, Strain generated potentials in bone and connective tissue, Physiotherapy 76: ; Part 5, Exogenous currents and elds-experimental and clinical applications, Physiotherapy 1990, 76: , 15) Chreng N, Van Houf H, Bockx E The effects of electric current on ATP generation, protein synthesis and membrane transport in rat skin, Clin Orthop Relat Res, 1982, 171: , 16) Chu C Weak direct current accelerates split thickness Graft healing on tangentially excised second-degree burns J Burn Care Rehab,1991, 12: , 17) Connolly J, Hahn H, Jardon O The electrical enhancement of periosteal proliferation in normal and delayed fracture healing, Clin Orthop, 1977, 124: , 18) Currier D, Mann R Muscular strength development by electrical stimulation in healthy individuals, Phys Ther, 1983, 63: , 19) Denegar C The effects of low-volt microamperage stimulation on delayed onset muscle soreness, J Sport Rehab,1993, 1: , 20) Fish D Effect of anodal high voltage pulsed current on edema formation in frog hind limbs, Phys Ther, 1991, 71: , 21) Gentzkow G Electrical stimulation to heal dermal wounds, J Derm Surg Oncol, 1993, 19: , 22) Gersh MR Microcurrent electrical stimulation: putting it in perspective, Clin Manage, 1990, 9 (4): 51-54, 23) Grifn J Efcacy of high voltage pulsed current for healing of pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injury, Phys Ther, 1991, 71: , 24) Jetter J, Valcenta D The effects of microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation on delayed onset muscle soreness and peak torque decits in trained weight lifters, abstract PO-R065-M, Phys Ther, 1993, 735: 5-24, 25) Johnson MI, Penny P, Sajawal MA Clinical technical note: an examination of the analgesic effects of microcurrent electrical stimulation (MES) on cold-induced pain in healthy subjects, Physiother Theory Practice, 1997, 13 (4): , 26) Kahn J Low-voltage technique, 4th ed, Syossett, New York, Joseph Kahn, ) Kulig K Comparison of the effects of high velocity exercise and microcurrent neuromuscular stimulation on delayed onset muscle soreness, abstract R284, Phys Ther, 1991, 715: 5115, 28) Leffmann D The effect of subliminal transcutaneous electrical stimulation on the rate of wound healing in rats, abstract R166, Phys Ther, 1992, 725: 567, 29) Litke D, Dahners L Effect of different levels of direct current on early ligament healing in a rat model, J Orthop Res, 1994, 12: , 30) Nessler J, Mass P Direct current electrical stimulation of tendon healing in vitro, Clin Orthop Rel Res, 1987, 217: , 31) Pettine K External electrical stimulation and bracing for treatment of spondylolysis a case report, Spine, 1993, 188: , 32) Picker R Current trends: low volt pulsed microamp stimulation Pt1&2, Clin Manage, 1990, 9: 11-14; 9: (3) ) Rapaski D Microcurrent electrical stimulation: comparison of two protocols in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness, abstract R286, Phys Ther,1991, 715: 5116, 34) Rolle W, Alon G, Nirschl R Comparison of subliminal and placebo stimulation in the management of elbow epicondylitis, abstract R280, Phys Ther, 1991, 715: 5114, 35) Stanish W, Gunnlaugson B Electrical energy and soft tissue injury healing, Sport Care and Fitness, 1988,: 12-14, 36) Szabo G, Illes T Experimental stimulation of osteogenesis induced by bone matrix, Orthopaedics, 1991, 14: 63-67, 37) Tan G, Monga T, Thornby J Electromedicine Efcacy of microcurrent electrical stimulation on pain severity, psychological distress and disability, Am J Pain Manage, 2000, 10 (1): ) Unger P A randomized clinical trial of the effects of HVPC on wound healing, Phys Ther, 1991, 715: ) Weber W The effect of MENS on pain and torque decits associated with delayed onset muscle soreness, abstract R034, Phys Ther, 1991, 715: ) Weiss D, Kirsner R, Eaglstein W Electrical stimulation and wound healing, Arch Dermatol 126: , ) Wolcot C A comparison of the effects of high voltage and microcurrent stimulation on delayed onset muscle soreness, abstract R287, Phys Ther 1991, 715: 5116, 42) Wood J A multicenter study on the use of pulsed lowintensity direct current for healing chronic stage II and stage III decubitus ulcers, Arch Dermatol, 1993, 129: , 43) Bertolucci LE, Grey T Clinical comparative study of microcurrent electrical stimulation to mid-laser and placebo treatment in degenerative joint disease of the temporomandibular joint Cranio,1995 ;13(2): ) DuPont JS Jr, Graham R, Tidwell JB Trigger point identication and treatment with microcurrentcranio 1999 Oct;17(4): ) Kim KH Atlanto-axial subluxation syndrome and management of intractable headache, neck pain and shoulder pain with auricular stimulation: a clinical case reportacupunct Electrother Res 2001;26(4): ) Lambert MI, Marcus P, Burgess T, Noakes TD Electromembrane microcurrent therapy reduces signs and symptoms of muscle damagemed Sci Sports Exerc 2002 ;34(4): ) Wieder DLicrocurrent therapy; wave of the future? Rehab Manag 1991;4(2):

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