II. Support Activities 3. Planning The McGraw Hill Companies, 2006

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1 CHAPTER THREE Planning External Influences Economic Conditions Labor Markets Labor Unions Human Resource Planning Process and Example Initial Decisions Forecasting HR Requirements Forecasting HR Availabilities External and Internal Environmental Scanning Reconciliation and Gaps Action Planning Staffing Planning Staffing Planning Process Core Workforce Flexible Workforce Legal Issues Affirmative Action Plans (AAPs) Legality of AAPs Diversity Programs EEO and Temporary Workers Summary Discussion Questions Ethical Issues Applications Tanglewood Stores Case

2 86 PART TWO Support Activities HR planning is the process of forecasting the organization s future employment needs and then developing action staffing plans and programs for fulfilling these needs in ways that are in alignment with the strategy. It is important to recognize and consider the impact of external influences on HR planning and the resultant staffing planning. Three major external influences are economic conditions, labor markets, and labor unions. The nature and examples of these forces are described first. Attention then turns to HR planning, staffing planning, and legal issues. The HR planning process involves several components, simplified examples of which are presented for the sales and customer service unit of an organization. Then, each of these components is described in detail. These components consist of making initial planning decisions, forecasting HR requirements, forecasting HR availabilities, scanning the external and internal environments, determining employee shortages and surpluses, and developing action plans. For each of these components specific examples are provided, drawing from the initial example of the sales and customer service unit. Staffing planning is shown to be a logical outgrowth of HR planning. Guided by staffing strategy, one of the key staffing planning areas involves planning for the core (regular employees) and flexible (temporary employees and independent contractors) workforces. The unique nature and requirements for planning each type of workforce is indicated. The major legal issue for HR staffing planning is that of affirmative action plans (AAPs). The basic components of an AAP are provided, along with the AAP requirements for federal contractors. A summary of the legality of AAPs is then presented. Diversity programs represent a natural extension of AAPs. They seek to prepare organizational members for a diverse workforce and to develop HR programs that will foster successfully acquiring, managing, and retaining a diverse workforce. A different legal issue, that of EEO coverage for temporary employees and their agencies, is also discussed. EXTERNAL INFLUENCES There are three major sources of external influence on HR and staffing planning, namely, economic conditions, labor market, and unions. Exhibit 3.1 provides specific examples of these influences, which are discussed next. Economic Conditions Numerous macro forces operate to determine the overall economic climate in which the organization functions. These include product and labor market competition (both national and global), inflation, interest rates, currency exchange

3 CHAPTER THREE Planning 87 EXHIBIT 3.1 Examples of External Influences on Staffing ECONOMIC CONDITIONS Economic expansion and contraction Job growth and job opportunities Internal labor market mobility Turnover rates LABOR MARKETS Labor demand: employment patterns, KSAOs sought Labor supply: labor force, demographic trends, KSAOs available Labor shortages and surpluses Employment arrangements LABOR UNIONS Negotiations Labor contracts: staffing levels, staffing quality, internal movement Grievance systems rates, and government fiscal and monetary policy. Resulting from such forces is the degree of overall economic expansion or contraction. A direct derivative of expansion and contraction forces is the amount of job creation and growth, both positive and negative. Positive job growth means expanding job opportunities for individuals, while slowdowns or contractions in job growth yield dwindling job opportunities. Organizations move people into (new hires), within (internal labor markets), and out of (turnover) the organization in varying rates, depending on the amount of job growth. Job growth thus functions like a spigot governing the movement of people. Consider the case of job expansion. When new jobs are created, new hire rates begin to increase for both entry-level and higher-level jobs. These new hires are either new entrants into the labor force (e.g., recent college graduates) or current members of the labor force, both unemployed and employed. There will also be increased movement within organizations internal labor markets through the operation of their promotion and transfer systems. This movement will be necessitated by a combination of new jobs being created that will be filled internally and the exit of current employees from the organization. Most likely, the departure of employees will be due to their leaving the organization to take new jobs at other organizations. Some, however, may be temporarily unemployed (while they look for new job opportunities), and others may leave the labor force entirely.

4 88 PART TWO Support Activities Labor Markets With lesser rates of job growth or actual job contraction, the movement flows are lessened. Organizations will be hiring fewer people, and job seekers will have longer job searches and few job opportunities to choose from. Promotion and transfer opportunities for current employees will dry up, voluntary turnover rates will decrease, and many employees may even experience termination through involuntary layoff or a voluntary early retirement program. In and through labor markets, organizations express specific labor preferences and requirements (labor demand) and persons express their own job preferences and requirements (labor supply). Ultimately, person/job matches occur from the interaction of the demand and supply forces. Both labor demand and supply contain quantity and quality components, as described below. Labor shortages and surpluses, and a variety of possible employment arrangements are also discussed. Labor Demand: Employment Patterns Labor demand is a derived demand, meaning it is a result of consumer demands for the organization s products and services. The organization acquires and deploys its workforce in ways that will allow it to be responsive to consumer demand in a competitive manner. To learn about labor demand, national employment statistics are collected and analyzed. They provide data about employment patterns and projections for industries, occupations, and organization size. Projections to year 2112 indicate that most job growth will occur in the services sector, led by the education and health services industries, followed by business and professional services, transportation and warehousing, leisure and hospitality, and information. Manufacturing and federal government employment will remain steady, and declines will occur in mining and agriculture. 1 Employment growth to 2112 will vary across occupations. Examples of growth winners include registered nurses (27%), medical assistants (59%), computer software engineers (46%), home health aides (48%), management analysts (30%), and post-secondary teachers (38%). Examples of growth losers include word processors and typists ( 39%), telephone operators ( 59%), team assemblers ( 30%), textile machine operators ( 23%), and computer operators ( 17%). 2 Labor Demand: KSAOs Sought KSAO requirements or preferences of employers are not widely measured, except for education requirements. Occupations requiring an associate (two-plus years post high school) degree or more education will account for 40% of the job growth, and occupations requiring no education beyond high school will account for 57% of the job growth. A very small proportion of jobs (3.5%) will require more than a bachelor s degree. 3

5 CHAPTER THREE Planning 89 Surveys of employers regarding labor quality often reveal perceived deficiencies among job applicants. In manufacturing, for example, employers note many such deficiencies. They include a lack of skills in: The use of production machines or tools Specific plant and system operations Reading, writing, and math Supervision English language usage Work ethic (attendance, work effort) 4 A very thorough and systematic source of information about KSAOs needed for jobs is the Occupational Outlook Handbook (available at It does not indicate KSAO deficiencies. Rather, it provides detailed information about the nature of work and the training and KSAOs required for the entire spectrum of occupations in the United States. At the managerial level, an interesting attempt was made to have experts forecast the most critical skills that managers will need for the future. The six identified skills are rapid response, sharp focus, stress busting, strategic empowerment, juggling, and team building. 5 The above survey results show that employers have multiple general KSAO requirements that accompany their quantitative labor requirements. Naturally, the more specific requirements vary according to type of employer and type of job. It also appears that employers have identified general future KSAO needs for their workforces on the basis of skill gaps in their current workforces and, in the case of managers, what their projected critical KSAO requirements will be. Labor Supply: The Labor Force and Its Trends Quantity of labor supplied is measured and reported periodically by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the U.S. Department of Labor. An example of basic results for September 2003 and 2004 is given in Exhibit 3.2. It shows that the labor force reached about 146 million individuals (employed unemployed), and that unemployment fell from 6.1% to 5.4%. Data reveal several labor force trends that have particular relevance for staffing organizations. Labor force growth is slowing, going from an annual growth rate of around 2% in the early 1990s to a projected rate of 1.1% by the year There are increasingly fewer new entrants to the labor force. This trend, coupled with the severe KSAO deficiencies that many of the new entrants will have, creates major adaptation problems for organizations. Demographically, the labor force has become more diverse, and this trend will continue. If current demographic levels are extrapolated to the year 2012, the composition of the labor force will include (1) fewer men and more women; (2)

6 90 PART TWO Support Activities EXHIBIT 3.2 Labor Force Statistics September 2003 September 2004 Civilian noninstitutional population 221,779, ,941,000 Civilian labor force 146,610, ,483,000 Employed 137,644, ,480,000 Unemployed 8,966,000 8,003,000 Not in labor force 75,168,000 76,458,000 Labor force participation rate (%) 66.1% 65.9% Unemployment rate (%) 6.1% 5.4% Source: U.S. Department of Labor, The Employment Situation, News, Oct. 8, fewer whites; (3) more blacks, Asians, and Hispanics; (4) fewer younger (age 16 24) workers; and (5) more older (age 55 ) workers. Other, more subtle labor force trends are also under way. There has been a slight upward movement overall in the average number of hours that people work and a strong rise in the proportion of employees who work very long hours in certain occupations, such as managers and professionals. Relatedly, there is an increase in multiple job holding, with 6.2% of employed people holding more than one job. There are a growing number of immigrants in the population; nearly 1 in 10 people is foreign born, the highest rate in more than 50 years. New federal and state policies are increasingly pushing welfare recipients into the labor force, and they are mostly employed in low-wage jobs with low educational requirements. People historically out of the labor force mainstream such as those with disabilities and the growing number of retirees may assume a greater presence in the labor force. 6 Labor Supply: KSAOs Available Data on KSAOs available in the labor force are very sparse. A labor force survey showed that about 32% of the population age 25 or older had attained a college degree or higher, whereas 10% had less than a high school diploma; the remainder had education attainment levels within this band. 7 A more focused survey found that 38% of the job applicants tested by organizations lacked the necessary reading, writing, and math skills to do the jobs they sought. This number is up from 23% in Another study found 33% of new labor force entrants fit into the bottom two categories of literacy levels. Here, literacy was measured in terms of prose, reading tables and charts, and quantitative data manipulation. 9 Data such as these reinforce the serious KSAO deficiencies reported by employees in at least some portions of the labor force.

7 CHAPTER THREE Planning 91 Labor Shortages and Surpluses When labor demand exceeds labor supply for a given pay rate, the labor market is said to be tight and labor shortages are experienced by the organization. Shortages tend to be job or occupation specific. Low unemployment rates, surges in labor demand in certain occupations, and skill deficiencies all fuel both labor quantity and labor quality shortages for many organizations. The shortages cause numerous responses, such as: Increased pay and benefit packages Hiring bonuses and stock options Use of nontraditional labor (e.g., retirees, people with disabilities) Use of temporary employees Recruitment of immigrants Lower hiring standards Partnerships with high schools, technical schools, and colleges Increased mandatory overtime work Increased hours of operation These types of responses are lessened or reversed when the labor market is loose, meaning there are labor surpluses relative to labor demand. Employment Arrangements Though labor market forces bring organizations and job seekers together, the specific nature of the employment arrangement can assume many forms. One form is whether the person will be employed on a full-time or a part-time basis. Data show that about 82% of people work full time and 18% work part time. 10 A second arrangement involves the issue of regular or shift work. About 82% of employees work a regular schedule, while 18% perform shift work. The latter, in turn, have a variety of different shift arrangements possible, such as evening, night, split, and rotating shifts. 11 Two other types of arrangements, often considered in combination, are various alternative arrangements to the traditional employer employee one, and the use of contingent employees. Alternative arrangements include the organization filling its staffing needs through use of independent contractors, on-call workers and day laborers, temporary help agency employees, and employees provided by a contract firm that provides a specific service (e.g., accounting). Contingent employees do not have an explicit or implicit contract for long-term employment; they expect their employment to be temporary rather than long term. Contingent employees may occur in combination with any of the four alternatives given above. National data on the use of alternative employment arrangements and contingent employees are shown in Exhibit 3.3. It can be seen that 90% of surveyed individuals worked in a traditional employer employee arrangement, and the vast

8 92 PART TWO Support Activities EXHIBIT 3.3 Usage of Alternative Employment Arrangements and Contingent Workers Arrangement Total (millions) Percent Percent Contingent Percent Noncontingent Alternative Arrangements Independent contractor % 4.1% 95.9% On-call workers and day laborers % 24.6% 75.4% Temporary help agency workers 1.2.9% 55.4% 44.6% Workers provided by contract firm.6.4% 17.1% 82.9% Traditional Arrangements % 2.9% 97.1% % Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Contingent and Alternative Employment Arrangements, Feb Labor Unions majority of these (97.1%) considered themselves noncontingent. The most prevalent alternative was to work as an independent contractor (6.2%), followed by on-call employees and day laborers (1.5%), temporary help agency employees (.9%), and employees provided by a contract firm (.4%). The percentage of contingent employees in these alternative arrangements ranged from 4.1% (independent contractors) to 55.4% (temporary help employees). The above survey also found that a smaller percentage of contingent employees than noncontingent employees receive employer-provided health insurance (20% versus 55%) and pensions (10% versus 47%). Labor unions are legally protected entities that organize employees and bargain with management to establish terms and conditions of employment via a labor contract. About 13% of the labor force is unionized, with about 10% unionization in the private sector and 40% in the public sector. 12 Labor and management are required to bargain in good faith to try to reach agreement on the contract. Many staffing issues may be bargained, including staffing levels, location of facilities, overtime and work schedules, job description and classifications, seniority provisions, promotion and transfers, layoffs and terminations, hiring pools, KSAO requirements, grievance procedures, alternative dispute resolution procedures, employment discrimination protections, and, very important, pay and benefits. Virtually all aspects of the staffing process are thus affected by negotiations and the resultant labor agreement. Once a contract is agreed to, it standardizes the terms and conditions of employment, making them uniform for all covered employees. The contract cannot

9 CHAPTER THREE Planning 93 be replaced or supplemented by individual agreements with employees, as would be the case in a nonunion setting. Moreover, the terms in the contract are binding and cannot be unilaterally changed by management, thus locking in everything agreed to. Labor unions thus have direct and powerful impacts on staffing and other HR systems. Even in nonunion situations the union influence can be felt through spillover effects in which management tries to emulate the pay and benefits, as well as staffing practices, found in unionized settings. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING Process and Example Human resource planning (HRP) is a process and set of activities undertaken to forecast an organization s labor demand (requirements) and internal labor supply (availabilities), to compare these projections to determine employment gaps, and to develop action plans for addressing these gaps. Action plans include staffing planning to arrive at desired staffing levels and staffing quality. A general model depicting the process of HRP is presented first, followed by an operational example of HRP. Detailed discussions of the major components of HRP are then given. 13 The basic elements of virtually any organization s HRP are shown in Exhibit 3.4. As can be seen, the HRP process involves five sequential steps: 1. Determine future human resource requirements. EXHIBIT 3.4 The Basic Elements of Human Resource Planning (3) Conduct Environmental Scans (1) Forecast Labor Requirements Compare (2) Forecast Labor Availabilities (4) Determine Gaps (5) Develop Action Plans

10 94 PART TWO Support Activities Initial Decisions 2. Determine future human resource availabilities. 3. Conduct external and internal environmental scanning. 4. Reconcile requirements and availabilities that is, determine gaps (shortages and surpluses) between the two. 5. Develop action plans to close the projected gaps. An example of HRP, including results from forecasting requirements and availabilities, is shown in Exhibit 3.5. The exhibit shows a partial HRP being conducted by an organization for a specific unit (sales and customer service). It involves only two job categories (A or sales, and B or customer service) and two hierarchical levels for each category (1 or entry level, and 2 or manager level). All of the HRP steps are confined to this particular organizational unit and its job categories/levels, as shown. The current workforce size (number of employees) is given for each job category/level. Requirements and availabilities are forecast for a one-year time frame, and the results are shown in the relevant columns. After the reconciliation process, final gap figures are agreed on and entered into the gap column. It can be seen that in total there is an estimated shortage of 145 employees. This overall shortage is very unevenly distributed across the four job categories/levels. In three of these, there are shortages projected (39, 110, and 3), and in the remaining one, there is a projected surplus (7). These gap data serve as the basic input to action planning. Because the gaps show both shortages and a surplus, and because the gaps vary in severity relative to the current workforce, a specific action plan will probably have to be developed and implemented for each job category/level. The resultant four staffing (and other) plans hopefully will bring staffing into an orderly balance of requirements and availabilities over the course of the planning period. The above process and example identify and illustrate the rudiments of HRP. Within them are several distinct HRP components that require elaboration. We turn now to these components, emphasizing that each component represents a factor that must be considered in HRP and that there are specific choices to be made regarding the operational details for each component. Before HRP per se can be undertaken, there are several critical decisions that must be made. These decisions will shape the nature of the resultant HRP process, and they will influence the output of the process, namely, the gap estimates. The quality and potential effectiveness of the action plans developed from the gap estimates are thus at stake when these initial decisions are confronted and made. Comprehensiveness of Planning Often, HRP takes place as an integral part of an organization s business planning process; this is referred to as plan-based HRP. This is a logical approach because

11 CHAPTER THREE Planning 95 EXHIBIT 3.5 Operational Format and Example for Human Resource Planning (HRP) Job Category and Level Organizational Unit: Sales and Customer Service Forecast for Workforce Current One Year Workforce Requirements Availabilities Reconciliation and Gaps Action Planning A1 (Sales) (shortage) Recruitment A2 (Sales manager) (surplus) B1 (Customer service representative) B2 (Customer service manager) (shortage) (shortage) (shortage) Selection Employment Retention Compensation Training and development

12 96 PART TWO Support Activities most organizations do business planning, and these plans almost always have HR implications. It is always a good idea to have a close, reciprocal linkage between business and HR plans. Not all important business developments are captured in formal business plans, however, particularly if they occur rapidly or unexpectedly. Sudden changes in consumer preferences or legal requirements, for example, can wreak havoc on business plans. Organizational responses to these changes often occur in the form of special projects, rather than in changes in the total business plan. Part of each response requires consideration of HR implications, however, resulting in what is called project-based HRP. This type of planning helps ensure that the necessary creation of new jobs, changes in requirements and rewards for existing jobs, and employee job changes are undertaken systematically and without undue interruption. In addition, many organizations do HRP outside the formal planning cycle for critical groups of employees on a regular basis. This often occurs for jobs in which there are perennial shortages of employees, both externally and internally. Examples here include nurses in health care organizations, faculty in certain specialized areas at colleges and universities, and teachers in elementary and secondary schools. Planning focused on a specific employee group is referred to as population-based HRP. Planning Time Frame Since planning involves looking into the future, the logical question for an organization to ask is, How far into the future should our planning extend? Typically, plans are divided into long term (three years and more), intermediate (one to three years), and short term (one year or less). Organizations vary in their planning time frame, often depending on which of the three types of HRP is being undertaken. For plan-based HRP, the time frame will be the same as that of the business plan. In most organizations, this is between three and five years for so-called strategic planning and something less than three years for operational planning. Planning horizons for project-based HRP vary depending on the nature of the projects involved. Solving a temporary shortage of, say, salespeople for the introduction of a new product might involve planning for only a few months, whereas planning for the start-up of a new facility could involve a lead time of two or more years. Population-based HRP will have varying time frames, depending on the time necessary for labor supply (internal as well as external) to become available. As an example, for top-level executives in an organization, the planning time frame will be lengthy. Job Categories and Levels The unit of HRP and analysis is comprised of job categories and hierarchical levels among jobs. These job category/level combinations, and the types and paths of employee movement among them, form the structure of an internal labor market.

13 CHAPTER THREE Planning 97 Management must choose which job categories and which hierarchical levels to use for HRP. In Exhibit 3.5, for example, the choice involves two jobs (sales and customer service) and two levels (entry and manager) for a particular organizational unit. Job categories are created and used on the basis of the unit of analysis for which projected shortages and surpluses are being investigated. Hierarchical levels should be chosen so that they are consistent with or identical to the formal organizational hierarchy. The reason for this is that these formal levels define employee promotions (up levels), transfers (across levels), and demotions (down levels). Having gap information by level facilitates planning of internal movement programs within the internal labor market. For example, it is difficult to have a systematic promotion-from-within program without knowing probable numbers of vacancies and gaps at various organizational levels. Head Count (Current Workforce) Exactly how does an organization count or tally the number of people in its current workforce for forecasting and planning purposes? Simply counting the number of employees on the payroll at the beginning of the planning period may be adequate for intended purposes. It ignores two important distinctions, however. First, it ignores the amount of scheduled time worked by each employee relative to a full workweek. For example, it treats full-time employees as synonymous with part-time employees. To rectify this, an employee head count may be made and stated in terms of full-time equivalents, or FTEs. To do this, simply define what constitutes full-time work in terms of hours per week (or other time unit), and count each employee in terms of scheduled hours worked relative to a full workweek. If full time is defined as 40 hours per week, a person who normally works 20 hours per week is counted as a.50 FTE, a person normally working 30 hours per week is a.75 FTE, and so on. A second problem with current payroll head count is that it ignores vacancies that exist at the time of the count. Since most of such vacancies are probably socalled authorized ones, derived from previous HRP, they are better added into any head-count tallies for the current workforce. Roles and Responsibilities Both line managers and staff specialists (usually from the HR department) become involved in HRP, so the roles and responsibilities of each must be determined as part of HRP. Most organizations take the position that line managers are ultimately responsible for the completion and quality of HRP. But the usual practice is to have HR staff assist with the process. Initially, the HR staff take the lead in proposing which types of HRP will be undertaken and when, and in making suggestions with regard to comprehensiveness, planning time frame, job categories and levels, and head counts. Final decisions on these matters are usually the prerogative of line management. Once an

14 98 PART TWO Support Activities approach has been decided on, task forces of both line managers and HR staff people are assembled to design an appropriate forecasting and action planning process and to do any other preliminary work. Once these processes are in place, the HR staff typically assumes responsibility for collecting, manipulating, and presenting the necessary data to line management and for laying out alternative action plans (including staffing plans). Action planning usually becomes a joint venture between line managers and HR staff, particularly as they gain experience with, and trust for, each other. Forecasting HR Requirements Forecasting HR requirements is a direct derivative of business and organizational planning. As such, it becomes a reflection of projections about a variety of factors, such as sales, production, technological change, productivity improvement, and the regulatory environment. Many specific techniques may be used to forecast HR requirements; these are either statistical or judgmental in nature, and are usually tailor made by the organization. Statistical Techniques A wide array of statistical techniques is available for use in HR forecasting. Prominent among these are regression analysis, ratio analysis, time series analysis, and stochastic analysis. Brief descriptions of two of these techniques, regression analysis and ratio analysis, are given in Exhibit 3.6. We will not elaborate on these techniques for several reasons. First, their very complexity would lead away from a staffing focus. Second, all of these techniques are designed simply to project the past into the future. These techniques thus have limited applicability in organizations whose immediate past and/or future forecast are characterized by significant alterations in products and services, technologies, or organizational structures. (Obviously, this includes a large percentage of organizations of varying size today.) Third, as they are dependent on the discovery of historical relationships between certain so-called leading indicators (e.g., sales or production volume) and head count, often these relationships are difficult to find; if found, they may not hold up in the future. Judgmental Techniques Judgmental techniques represent human decision-making models that are used for forecasting HR requirements. Unlike statistical techniques, it is the decision maker who collects and weighs the information subjectively and then turns it into forecasts of HR requirements. The decision maker s forecasts may or may not agree very closely with those derived from statistical techniques. Implementation of judgmental forecasting can proceed from either a topdown or bottom-up approach. In the former case, top managers of the organization, organizational units, or functions rely on their knowledge of business

15 CHAPTER THREE Planning 99 EXHIBIT 3.6 Examples of Statistical Techniques to Forecast HR Requirements (A) (B) Ratio Analysis 1. Examine historical ratios involving workforce size. $ sales No. of new customers Example:?? 1.0 FTE 1.0 FTE 2. Assume ratio will be true in future. 3. Use ratio to predict future HR requirements. $4,000 sales Example: (a) is past ratio 1.0 FTE (b) Sales forecast is $4,000,000 (c) HR requirements 100 FTEs Regression Analysis 1. Statistically identify historical predictors of workforce size. Example: FTEs a b1sales b2new customers 2. Only use equations with predictors found to be statistically significant. 3. Predict future HR requirements, using equation. Example: (a) FTEs sales.02 new customers (b) Projected sales $1,000,000 Projected new customers 300 (c) HR requirements and organizational plans to make predictions about what future head counts will be. At times, these projections may, in fact, be dictates rather than estimates, necessitated by strict adherence to the business plan. Such dictates are common in organizations undergoing significant change, such as restructuring, mergers, and cost-cutting actions. In the bottom-up approach, lower-level managers make initial estimates for their unit (e.g., department, office, or plant) based on what they have been told or presume are the business and organizational plans. These estimates are then consolidated and aggregated upward through successively higher levels of management. Then, top management establishes the HR requirements in terms of numbers. Forecasting HR Availabilities In Exhibit 3.5 head count data are given for the current workforce and their availability as forecast, in each job category/level. These forecast figures take into

16 100 PART TWO Support Activities account movement into each job category/level, movement out of each job category/level, and exit from the organizational unit or the organization. Described below are three different approaches to forecasting availabilities: manager judgment, Markov Analysis, and replacement and succession planning. Manager Judgment Individual managers may use their judgment to make availability forecasts for their work units. This is especially appropriate in smaller organizations or ones that lack centralized workforce internal mobility data and statistical forecasting capabilities. Continuing the example from Exhibit 3.5, assume the manager is asked to make an availability forecast for the entry sales job category A1. The template to follow for making the forecast, and the forecasting results, are shown in Exhibit 3.7. To the current staffing level in A1 (100) is added likely inflows to A1 (10), and then likely outflows from A are subtracted (37) to yield the forecasted staffing availability (73). Determining the inflow and outflow numbers requires judgmental estimates as to the numbers of promotions, transfers, demotions, and exits. As shown at the bottom of Exhibit 3.7, promotions involve an upward change of job level within or between job categories; transfers are lateral moves at the same job level across job categories; demotions are downward changes of job level within or between job categories. Separate forecasts may be done for the other job category/levels (A2, B1, and B2). To provide reliable estimates, the manager must be very knowledgeable about both organizational business plans and individual employee plans or preferences for staying in their current job versus moving to another job. Knowledge of business plans will be helpful in judging the likely internal mobility opportunities for employees. Business expansion, for example, will likely mean expanding internal EXHIBIT 3.7 Manager Forecast of Future HR Availabilities Job Category/Level: Sales (A1) Time 1 Inflows Outflows Time 2 Current Staffing Level 100 Promotion 0 Transfer 9 Demotion 1 Promotion 10 Transfer 15 Demotion 0 Exit 12 Forecasted Staffing Avail. 73 Note: Promotion is A1 to A2, A1 to B2, B1 to B2, or B1 to A2; transfer is A1 to B1, A2 to B2, B1 to A1, or B2 to A2; demotion is A2 to A1, A2 to B1, B2 to B1, or B2 to A1.

17 CHAPTER THREE Planning 101 mobility opportunities. Knowledge of employee plans or preferences will help pinpoint which employees are likely to change jobs or leave the work unit or organization. The estimated staffing availability (n 73) in Exhibit 3.7 coincides closely with the availability estimate (n 71) derived from forecasting based on Markov Analysis results, discussed below. This is intentional. Markov Analysis uses historical mobility data and probabilities to forecast future availabilities, while managers judgment uses current knowledge of business and employees plans to forecast employee movements person by person. Results from the two different approaches to availability forecasts will not necessarily coincide, but they can be quite close if the manager is knowledgeable about past mobility patterns, employee mobility intentions, and mobility opportunities. A major problem with using manager judgment to forecast availabilities is thus that the manager may lack the necessary business plan and employee intention information to provide solid estimates, as opposed to casual guesstimates. In addition, if there are large numbers of employees and job category/levels in the work unit, the sheer complexity of the forecasting task may overwhelm the manager. Markov Analysis presents a way out of this dilemma, since it substitutes historical data about internal mobility and exit rates for the manager s judgment as a basis for making availability forecasts, and it simultaneously considers all types of possible employee movement in the forecasts. Markov Analysis Markov Analysis is used to predict availabilities on the basis of historical patterns of job stability and movement among employees. Consider again the four job category/levels: A1, A2, B1, B2 in the sales and customer service unit (Exhibit 3.5). Note that between any two time periods, the following possibilities exist for each employee in the internal labor market: 1. Job stability (remain in A1, A2, B1, B2) 2. Promotion (move to a higher level: A1 to A2, A1 to B2, B1 to B2, B1 to A2) 3. Transfer (move at the same level: A1 to B1, B1 to A1, A2 to B2, B2 to A2) 4. Demotion (move to a lower level: A2 to A1, A2 to B1, B2 to B1, B2 to A1) 5. Exit (move to another organizational unit or leave the organization) These possibilities may be thought of in terms of flows and rates of flow or movement rates. Past flows and rates may be measured and then used to forecast the future availability of current employees, based on assumptions about the extent to which past rates will continue unchanged in the future. For example, if it is known that the historical promotion rate from A1 to A2 is.10 (10% of A1 employees are promoted to A2), we might predict that A1 will experience a 10% loss

18 102 PART TWO Support Activities of employees due to promotion to A2 over the relevant time period. To conduct Markov Analysis we must know all of the job stability, promotion, transfer, demotion, and exit rates for an internal labor market before we can forecast future availabilities. The elements of Markov Analysis are shown in Exhibit 3.8 for the organizational unit originally presented in Exhibit 3.5. Refer first to part A of Exhibit 3.8. There are four job category/level combinations for which movement rates are calculated between two time periods (T and T 1). This is accomplished as follows. For each job category/level, take the number of employees who were in it at T, and use that number as the denominator for calculating job stability and movement rates. Then, for each of those employees determine which job category/ level they were employed in at T 1. Then, sum up the number of employees in each job category/level at T 1, and use these as the numerators for calculating stability and movement rates. Finally, divide each numerator separately by the denominator. The result is the stability and movement rates expressed as proportions, also known as transition probabilities. The rates for any row (job category/ level) must add up to 1.0. For example, consider job category/level A1. Assume that at time T in the past there were a total of 400 people in it. Further assume that at T 1, 240 of these employees were still in A1, 40 had been promoted to A2, 80 had been transferred to B1, 0 had been promoted to B2, and 40 had exited the organizational unit or the organization. The resulting transition probabilities, shown in the row for A1, are.60,.10,.20,.00, and.10. Note that these rates sum to By referring to these figures, and the remainder of the transition probabilities in the matrix, an organization can begin to understand the workings of the unit s internal labor market. For example, it becomes clear that 60 80% of employees experienced job stability and that exit rates varied considerably, ranging from 10% to 35%. Promotions occurred only within job categories (A1 to A2, B1 to B2), not between job categories (A1 to B2, B1 to A2). Transfers were confined to the lower of the two levels (A1 to B1, B1 to A1). Only occasionally did demotions occur, and only within a job category (A2 to A1). Presumably, these stability and movement rates are a reflection of specific staffing policies and procedures that were in place between T and T 1. With these historical transitional probabilities, it becomes possible to forecast the future availability of the current workforce over the same time interval, T and T 1, assuming that the historical rates will be repeated over the time interval and that staffing policies and procedures will not change. Refer now to part B of Exhibit 3.8. To forecast availabilities, simply take the current workforce column and multiply it by the transition probability matrix shown in part A. The resulting availability figures (note these are the same as those shown in Exhibit 3.5) appear at the bottom of the columns: A1 71, A2 22, B1 140, B2 22. The remainder of the current workforce (80) are forecast to exit and will not be available at T 1.

19 CHAPTER THREE Planning 103 EXHIBIT 3.8 Use of Markov Analysis to Forecast Availabilities A. Transition Probability Matrix Job Category and Level A1 A2 T T 1 B1 B2 Exit A A B B B. Forecast of Availablities Current Workforce A A B B Limitations of Markov Analysis. Markov Analysis is an extremely useful way to capture the underlying workings of an internal labor market and then use the results to forecast future HR availabilities. Markov Analysis, however, is subject to some limitations that must be kept in mind. 14 The first and most fundamental limitation is that of sample size, or the number of current workforce employees in each job category/level. As a rule, it is desirable to have 20 or more employees in each job category/level. Since this number serves as the denominator in the calculation of transition probabilities, with small sample sizes there can be substantial differences in the values of transition probabilities, even though the numerators used in their calculation are not that different (e.g., 2/10.20 and 4/10.40). Thus, transition probabilities based on small samples yield unstable estimates of future availabilities. A second limitation of Markov Analysis is that it does not detect multiple moves by employees between T and T 1; it only classifies employees and counts their movement according to their beginning (T) and ending (T 1) job category/level, ignoring any intermittent moves. To minimize the number of undetected multiple moves, therefore, it is necessary to keep the time interval relatively short, probably no more than two years. A third limitation pertains to the job category/level combinations created to serve as the unit of analysis. These must be meaningful to the organization for the HRP purposes of both forecasting and action planning. Thus, extremely broad categories (e.g., managers, clericals) and categories without any level designations

20 104 PART TWO Support Activities should be avoided. It should be noted that this recommendation may conflict somewhat with HRP for affirmative action purposes, as discussed later. Finally, the transition probabilities reflect only gross, average employee movement, and not the underlying causes of the movement. Stated differently, all employees in a job category/level are assumed to have an equal probability of movement. This is unrealistic because organizations take many factors into account (e.g., seniority, performance appraisal results, and KSAOs) when making movement decisions about employees. Because of these factors, the probabilities of movement may vary among specific employees. Replacement and Succession Planning Replacement and succession planning focus on the identification of individual employees who will be considered promotion candidates, along with thorough assessment of their current capabilities and deficiencies, coupled with training and development plans to erase any deficiencies. The focus is thus on both the quantity and quality of human resource availability. Through replacement and succession planning the organization constructs internal talent pipelines that ensure steady and known flows of qualified employees to higher levels of responsibility and impact. Replacement planning precedes succession planning, and the organization may choose to stop at just replacement planning rather than proceeding into the more complex succession planning. 15 Replacement and succession planning can occur at any and all levels of the organization. It is most widely used at the management level, starting with the chief executive officer and extending downward to the other officers or top managers. But it can be used throughout the entire management team, including the identification and preparation of individuals for promotion into the entry management level. It may also be used for linchpin positions ones that are critical to organization effectiveness (such as senior scientists in the research and development function of a technology-driven organization) but not necessarily housed within the management structure. Replacement Planning. Results of replacement planning are shown on a replacement chart, an example of which is in Exhibit 3.9. The chart is based on the previous sales customer service unit in Exhibit 3.5. The focus of attention is replacement planning for sales managers (A2) from the ranks of sales associates (A1), as part of the organization s grow your own, promotion-from-within human resource strategy. The top part of the chart indicates the organization unit and jobs covered by replacement planning, as well as the minimum promotion eligibility criteria. The next part of Exhibit 3.9 shows the actual replacement chart information for the incumbent department manager (Woo) and the two eligible sales associates (Williams, Stemke) in the menswear department at the Cloverdale store. The key data are length of service, overall performance rating, and the promotability rating. When the incumbent sales manager (Woo) is promoted to

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