Prepared by Fredrik O. Andersson Grace L. Chikoto Shelly M. Schnupp

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1 NonproFIt WISCoNSIN In Brief Size & Scope Prepared by Fredrik O. Andersson Grace L. Chikoto Shelly M. Schnupp Commissioned by the Wisconsin Nonprofits Association and Forward Community Investments with generous support from Spectrum Nonprofit Services 2015

2 This Wisconsin Nonprofit Size & Scope report provides an overview of the State s nonprofit sector. The report is designed to promote an understanding of the importance of Wisconsin s nonprofit sector to the well-being of Wisconsin s citizens by providing the following: Background on how nonprofits are defined and classified Explanation of those nonprofits for which data are easily available or not and why Numbers and growth of Wisconsin s nonprofit sector Information about nonprofit revenue -- amounts and sources Facts about nonprofits that correct common misunderstandings about the sector Highlights regarding unique and important aspects of the sector. This report reveals the following (and more): Wisconsin s nonprofit sector is growing and there are many more nonprofits than we are able to easily count. Nonprofits rely on a broad array of revenue sources and amounts and sources of revenue vary significantly among different types of nonprofits. Government continues to rely on nonprofits to perform a number of key functions in our communities and challenges remain related to the contracts and grants involved. Both staff and volunteers play critical roles in carrying out nonprofit missions. Nonprofits have long been viewed as catalysts for change and a mechanism for serving societal needs. Repeatedly and increasingly, public policymakers are turning to nonprofits to find local solutions for community problems. Boris, 2001

3 Nonprofit organizations are key community players frequently called upon to address critical community needs. The nonprofit sector is an essential component of the civic infrastructure of Wisconsin playing an integral role in the delivery of services to people throughout the state. Nonprofit organizations not only provide an enormous range of important services but also enrich personal development, and play a critical role in strengthening civic engagement. Furthermore, the nonprofit sector is a major economic force both locally and nationally. Nonprofits have come to play significant supplementary, complementary, and confrontational roles to those of the state (Young, 2000), without which our world would be very different. They strengthen and contribute to the success of our democracy, providing vehicles for defining and promoting often competing visions of the public good (Boris and Steuerle 2006). In order for the nonprofit sector to be effective in fulfilling its key roles and to prepare for the future, nonprofit leaders, board members, funders and other stakeholders must have reliable information about the state of Wisconsin nonprofits and the environment in which they operate. While there is much information available from various sources there are currently few places where one can get a solid overview of the Wisconsin nonprofit sector. This report seeks to address this gap by providing key information on the composition and basic characteristics of the Wisconsin nonprofit sector, broadly defined. DEFININg Nonprofit The nonprofit sector is complex and sometimes misunderstood. Some define nonprofits for what they are not (for-profit business or government), others for what they contribute. Many look to the IRS for clarity when defining nonprofits. Section 501(c) of the federal tax code specifies 29 different classifications of nonprofits which can be grouped into two major types: Charitable (501(c)3 nonprofits serve the public and donations they receive are tax deductible. Charitable organizations include pubic charities and private foundations. They also include religious congregations that are not required to register with the IRS. Noncharitable nonprofits receive much of their funding from the members they serve, as opposed to the general public. Noncharitable entities are exempt from federal taxation but their donors are not permitted to deduct contributions from their federal taxes. In addition, there are many informal associations often viewed as nonprofits that are not registered with the IRS. This report focuses on public charities for which IRS data are available

4 WISCOnSIn s Diverse NonprOFIT SeCTOr The latest numbers released from the National Center for Charitable Statistics suggest there are nearly 19,000 public charities in Wisconsin registered with the IRS. This number excludes religious congregations. However, because many of these organizations are small they are not required to report their income and expenses to the IRS. While these small non-reporting charities are indeed part of the civic fabric of the state of Wisconsin this report will only cover charities for which data are available those reporting gross receipts of $25,000 or more. Overall, Wisconsin is characterized by a robust charitable nonprofit sector, one that has seen a 13% growth since There were 7,944 reporting public charities in Wisconsin in 2011, a 0.5% rise from This sector is also characterized by significant diversity in the nature of the fields in which they operate, the size of the subsectors (measured by total expenses) and the types of resources they attract. As demonstrated in the Table on page 3, Human Services includes the largest number of public charities in Wisconsin, consisting of nearly 38% of public charities in HOW Many NonprOFITS? Various reports about the nonprofit sector offer different numbers of nonprofits. Some include only those that report to the IRS. Others report on nonprofits but exclude the larger subsectors of education and hospitals. According to noted scholar, Lester Salamon (2002), no one knows for sure how many nonprofit organizations exist in the United States Many are unincorporated, and others are not required to report to the IRS. In addition, IRS rules for reporting have changed over the years making comparable data hard to come by. If religious organizations and smaller nonprofits not required to report to the IRS are considered, the estimated number of nonprofits in the U.S. would be close to 2.3 million (Nonprofit Almanac, 2012). Wisconsin s nonprofit sector includes 19,000 public charities and many more religious congregations and smaller or unincorporated groups. FACT: Nonprofits can and often should lobby, making their voices heard on issues that are important to their missions and to the people or causes they serve. However, partisan political activity, such as endorsing a candidate for public office, is prohibited conduct for charitable nonprofit organizations. 2 Nonprofit Wisconsin: IN Brief

5 WISCONSIN BY SUBSECTOR % CHANGE ( ) ARTS, CULTURE, & HUMANITIES (9.73%) 13% EDUCATION 987 1,220 1,167 (14.69%) 15% ENVIRONMENT (5.53%) 2 HEALTH (10.6) 1 HIGHER EDUCATION (0.47%) 14% HOSPITALS (1.7) -8% HUMAN S 2,640 2,842 2,993 (37.68%) 1 INTERNATIONAL * (1.4%) 38% MUTUAL BENEFIT (0.3%) -8% PUBLIC & SOCIETAL BENEFIT 969 1,150 1,020 (12.84%) 5% RELIGION RELATED (4.9) 23% (0.1) 56% TOTAL 6,941 7,903 7,944 (100%) 13% *INternATIOnAL nongovernmental OrGAnizATIOns International Nongovernmental Organizations (INGOs) represent those nonprofits located in the U.S. that conduct the majority or all of their work in developing nations (Stoddard, 2012). This subgroup of nonprofits represents about of all nonprofits in the U.S. (Reid & Kerlin, 2003). For Wisconsin, INgos make up only 1.4% of nonprofit organizations but showed significant growth from These organizations represent the international reach of some of Wisconsin s nonprofits. INgos located in Wisconsin include; Africa Youth Outreach Inc., Friends of Haiti, Inc., Global Outreach, Amigos De Las Americas, Grandmothers Beyond Borders, Worldwide Hunger Relief Inc., Andean Health and Development Inc., to name a few

6 LOCATION OF WISCONSIN BY COUNTY & POPULATION Buffalo LOCATION OF WISCONSIN BY COUNTY & POPULATION30 Not surprisingly, the vast majority of nonprofits are located in Milwaukee, Dane, and Waukesha counties. These counties are also among the most populated. Burnett 21 Burnett 21 Polk 73 Polk 73 St. Croix 77 St. Pierce Croix Pierce 43 Douglas 30 Douglas 30 Washburn 32 Washburn 32 Barron 78 Barron 78 Dunn 38 Dunn Pepin 38 8 Pepin Buffalo 8 11 County Population COUNTY POPULATION County UNDER Population COUNTY POPULATION 50,000 50,000 UNDER TO 50,000 99, ,000 50,000 TO TO 99, , , ,000 - TO 499, ,999 FACT: Nonprofit 500, ,000 OR - 499,999 GREATER organizations may 500,000 OR GREATER earn a profit but they cannot distribute profits to any private individuals such as staff or board members. Bayfield 33 Bayfield 33 Sawyer 36 Sawyer 36 Rusk 12 Rusk 12 Chippewa 58 Chippewa Eau 58 Caire 133 Eau Caire 133 Trempealeau Buffalo Trempealeau La Crosse Ashland 46 Jackson 22 Jackson 22 Monroe 45 La Crosse Monroe 172Vernon Crawford Vernon Crawford 18 Ashland 46 Grant 60 Grant 60 Taylor 25 Taylor 25 Clark 15 Clark 15 Iron 8 Iron 8 Price 21 Price 21 Richland 27 Richland 27 Wood 115 Wood Portage Waupaca Outagamie Brown Waushara68 230Calumet293 Adams 15 Winnebago Marquette Waushara Calumet Adams 6 15GreenWinnebago Fond du Lac23 Juneau 16 Lake Marquette 27 6 Green Fond du Lac Juneau Lake Sauk Columbia Dodge Washington 147 Iowa 31 Iowa Lafayette Lafayette 15 Vilas 48 Vilas Oneida Oneida 68 Lincoln 36 Marathon 142 Sauk 92 Lincoln 36 Marathon 142 Portage 93 Columbia 75 Dane 1,146 Dane 1,146 Green 50 Green 50 Langlade 28 Langlade Menominee 28 4 Menominee Shawano 434 Shawano Waupaca43Outagamie Rock 177 Rock 177 Florence 1 Forest Florence 11 1 Marinette Forest Oconto 26 Dodge 84 Washington Jefferson Waukesha Jefferson Waukesha Walworth 128 Walworth 128 Marinette 57 Oconto 26 Brown 293 Racine 211 Racine 211 St. Croix 77 Pierce 43 County Population COUNTY POPULATION UNDER 50,000 50,000 TO 99, ,000 TO 249, , ,999 Door 74 Door 74Kewaunee 17 Manitowoc 95 Manitowoc Sheboygan Sheboygan 156 Ozaukee 169 Ozaukee 169 Milwaukee 1,595 Milwaukee 1,595 Kenosha 138 Kenosha 138 Map Source: Courtesy of Kate Madison, UWM Center for Economic Development and Grace Chikoto, Helen Bader Institute for Nonprofit Management at UWM. Dunn 38 Pepin 8 500,000 OR GREATER Kewaunee 17 Chippewa 58 Eau Caire Trempealeau La Crosse 172 Vernon 41 Jackson 22 Crawford 18 Monro 45 Grant 60 Clark 15 Ric 4 Nonprofit Wisconsin: IN Brief

7 BY TOTAL AND SUPPORT BY TOTAL AND SUPPORT 3,805 (48%) 3,805 (48%) UNDER $100,000 UNDER $100,000 Nearly half (48%) of Wisconsin s public charities are considered very small, each generating less than $100,000 in annual total revenue and support. 44% of all human services nonprofits fall into this category. On the other hand, as shown, only 4% of public charities are considered very large, with each generating over $10 million in total revenue and this category is dominated by hospitals (83%). These general patterns are consistent with the nation s nonprofit sector (Blackwood, Roeger, & Pettijohn, 2012). 2,186 (28%) 2,186 (28%) $100,000-$500,000 $100,000-$500,000 1,611 (20%) 1,611 (20%) $500,000-$10 MILLION $500,000-$10 MILLION 342 (4%) 342 (4%) OVER $10 MILLION OVER $10 MILLION WISCOnSIn NonprOFITS and Government FUNDINg Federal, state, and local governments have been entering into agreements with nonprofit organizations to deliver services for most of our country s history. Nonprofits deliver services that governments cannot or do not wish to provide and funding, in the form of contracts or grants, is critical but not without challenges. The Urban Institute has been studying nonprofit-government funding relationships nation-wide. Their 2013 study included 1,216 Wisconsin nonprofits with budgets greater than $100,000 that had government contracts and grants. N ONPROFIT N ONPROFIT SOURCES SOURCES Wisconsin public charities raise significant revenue from multiple sources. In 2011, Wisconsin charities raised a total of $38.6 Billion in total revenue. Of this, 86% came from program service revenue which includes 1 1 fee-for-services paid for by nonprofit clients, fee-forservices paid by government 86% (through contracts), membership dues, and profits from other 86% mission-related business. Only 1 of total revenue came from grants and contributions. It is important to note that grants and contributions include gifts and bequests from the public, gifts from private foundations (independent, corporate, and community foundations) as well as grants from federal, state and local governments. Hence, the nonprofit sector is not primarily fueled by private contributions and grants, contrary to what many believe (Salamon, 2002). Sources and proportions of revenue differ significantly for different types of nonprofits. For WISCoNSIN nonprofits: Late payments from government, reported as problematic by 35% of Wisconsin nonprofits studied, were not as great as reported by 45% of nonprofits nationwide. Wisconsin ranks among the top ten states with nonprofits reporting problems with the following: Payments covering the full cost of services; complexity of/time required for reporting; and government changes to contracts/grants midstream. 28% of Wisconsin nonprofits studied, compared to 2 of nonprofits nationwide, reported that their experience with government contracts and grants was worse in 2012 than in previous years

8 NONPROFIT SOURCES NONPROFIT SOURCES NONPROFIT SOURCES NONPROFIT SOURCES Nonprofits use a range of revenue types to carry out their missions and there is great variation Arts, Culture, & Humanities (e.g., Milwaukee Art Museum, Higher Education (e.g., Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee among Public nonprofits Museum, and Cornerstone their revenue Theatre Company, sources. These charts Marquette summarize University, the College basic of revenue the Menominee sources Nation, Robert Appleton for different Boys Choir, types Chippewa or subsectors Valley Cultural Association, of Wisconsin etc.). nonprofits. Welch University, Columbia College of Nursing, The Medical Arts, Culture, & Humanities (e.g., Milwaukee Art Museum, College Higher of Education Wisconsin). (e.g., Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee Arts, Culture, Public & Museum, Humanities Cornerstone (e.g., Milwaukee Theatre Company, Art Museum, Higher Marquette Education University, College (e.g., Milwaukee of the Menominee School of Engineering, Nation, Robert Milwaukee Appleton Boys Public Choir, Museum, Chippewa Cornerstone Valley Cultural Theatre Association, Company, etc.). Welch Marquette University, University, Columbia College College of the of Menominee Nursing, The Nation, Medical Robert Arts, Culture, & Humanities (e.g., Milwaukee Art Museum, Higher Education (e.g., Milwaukee School of Engineering, Appleton Boys Milwaukee Public Choir, Chippewa Valley Cultural Association, etc.). College Welch University, of Wisconsin). Museum, Cornerstone Theatre Company, Marquette University, Columbia College of Nursing, The Medical College of the Menominee Nation, Robert College of Wisconsin). Appleton Boys Choir, Chippewa Valley Cultural Association, etc.). Welch University, Columbia College of Nursing, The Medical College of Wisconsin). 3% 3% 37% 37% 37% 37% 3% 3% 58% GRANTS 58% & 58% 58% 773 NUMBER 773OF $381,000, $381,000,000 Education (e.g., Madison Montessori Society, Stout University Foundation, Friends of The Hank Aaron State Trail, $381,000,000 Yeshiva Elementary School, Heritage Christian Schools). $381,000,000 Education (e.g., Madison Montessori Society, Stout University Education Foundation, Friends (e.g., Madison of The Hank Montessori Aaron State Society, Trail, Stout Yeshiva University Elementary Foundation, School, Friends Heritage of The Hank Christian Aaron Schools). State Trail, Yeshiva Education (e.g., Madison Montessori Society, Stout University Elementary School, Heritage Christian Schools). Foundation, Friends of The Hank Aaron State Trail, Yeshiva Elementary School, Heritage Christian Schools). 5% 34% 5% 5% 34% 5% 34% 60% 34% 60% 1,167 60% 60% $1,790,000,000 NUMBER 1,167OF 1,167 1,167 Environment (e.g., Mississippi Valley Conservancy, Milwaukee Area Land Conservancy, Fox Valley Humane Association, Green Bay Botanical Garden, Manitowoc County Fish and Game Environment (e.g., Mississippi Valley Conservancy, Milwaukee Protective Association, Urban Ecology Center). Environment Area Land Conservancy, (e.g., Mississippi Fox Valley Valley Humane Conservancy, Association, Milwaukee Green Bay Area Botanical Land Conservancy, Garden, Manitowoc Fox Environment (e.g., Mississippi Valley County Humane Fish Association, and Game Green Protective Association, Urban Ecology Valley Conservancy, Center). Milwaukee Bay Botanical Garden, Manitowoc County Fish and Game Area Land Conservancy, Fox Valley Humane Association, Green Protective Association, Urban Bay Botanical Garden, Manitowoc Ecology Center). County Fish GRANTS and Game & Protective Association, Urban Ecology Center). 45% GRANTS 45% & 45% 45% 5 5 NUMBER 439 OF 5 NUMBER 5 OF $242,000,000 NUMBER 439OF $1,790,000,000 $1,790,000,000 $1,790,000, $242,000,000 Human Services (e.g., St. Ann Center for Intergenerational $242,000,000 Care, 4-H Clubs & Affiliated 4-H Organizations, Gildas Club 6 Nonprofit Wisconsin: $242,000,000 Madison Wisconsin, Habitat For Humanity International, IN Brief Caritas Human Services (e.g., St. Ann Center for Intergenerational for Care, Children, Big Brothers Big Sisters of Northwestern Wisconsin). Human 4-H Services Clubs & Affiliated (e.g., St. 4-H Ann Organizations, Center for Intergenerational Gildas Club Madison Care, 4-H Wisconsin, Clubs & Affiliated Habitat 4-H For Organizations, Humanity International, Gildas Club Caritas for Human Children, Services Big Brothers (e.g., Big St. Sisters Ann Center of Northwestern for Intergenerational Wisconsin) % GRANTS 16% & 16% 16% 37 NUMBER OF NUMBER 37 OF $2,570,000, $2,570,000,000 $2,570,000,000 $2,570,000,000 Hospitals (e.g., Columbia St. Mary s Hospital Milwaukee, St. Josephs Hospital-Hospital Sisters-Third Order of St. Francis, Holy Family Memorial, Watertown Memorial Hospital, Froedtert Health System). Hospitals (e.g., Columbia St. Mary s Hospital Milwaukee, St. Hospitals Josephs Hospital-Hospital (e.g., Columbia Sisters-Third St. Mary s Order Hospital of St. Milwaukee, Francis, Holy St. Family Josephs Memorial, Hospital-Hospital Watertown Sisters-Third Memorial Order Hospital, of St. Froedtert Francis, Holy Health Hospitals System). (e.g., Columbia St. Mary s Hospital Milwaukee, St. Family Memorial, Watertown Memorial Hospital, Froedtert Health Josephs Hospital-Hospital Sisters-Third Order GRANTS of St. & Francis, Holy System). Family Memorial, Watertown Memorial Hospital, Froedtert Health System). GRANTS & GRANTS & 97% 97% NUMBER 137OF 97% NUMBER OF 97% NUMBER 137OF Health (e.g., Orange Cross Ambulance, United States Cancer Pain Relief Committee, Partners for St. Josephs Hospital, American Indian Council on Alcoholism, The Milwaukee Rehabilitation Health (e.g., Orange Cross Ambulance, United States Cancer Center). Pain Health Relief (e.g., Committee, Orange Cross Partners Ambulance, for St. Josephs United Hospital, States Cancer American Pain Indian Relief Committee, Council on Alcoholism, Partners Health (e.g., Orange Cross for The St. Josephs Milwaukee Hospital, Rehabilitation American Indian Council on Alcoholism, The Milwaukee Rehabilitation Center). Ambulance, United States Cancer Pain Relief Committee, Partners for St. Josephs Hospital, American Indian Council on Alcoholism, Center). The Milwaukee GRANTS Rehabilitation & Center). < GRANTS 5% & < < GRANTS 5% & < 5% 5% 94% 94% NUMBER 843OF 94% NUMBER 94% OF NUMBER 843OF International (e.g., Friends of Guatemalan Children, Global Development Network Corporation, Africa Assistance Plan, Center International For International (e.g., Friends Health). of Guatemalan Children, Global International Development Network (e.g., Friends Corporation, of Guatemalan Africa Assistance Children, Plan, Global Center Development For International Network Corporation, Health). Africa Assistance Plan, International (e.g., Friends of Guatemalan Children, Global $17,900,000,000 $17,900,000,000 $17,900,000,000 $17,900,000,000 $10,300,000,000 $10,300,000,000 $10,300,000,000 $10,300,000,000

9 5 5 $242,000,000 $242,000,000 $242,000,000 Human Services (e.g., St. Ann Center for Intergenerational Care, Human 4-H Services Clubs & Affiliated (e.g., St. 4-H Ann Organizations, Center for Intergenerational Gildas Club Care, Madison Human 4-H Wisconsin, Services Clubs & Affiliated Habitat (e.g., St. 4-H For Ann Organizations, Humanity International, Center for Intergenerational Gildas Club Caritas Care, Madison for Children, 4-H Wisconsin, Big Brothers Clubs & Affiliated Habitat Big Sisters 4-H For Organizations, Humanity of Northwestern International, Wisconsin). Gildas Club Caritas Madison for Children, Wisconsin, Big Brothers Habitat Big Sisters For Humanity of Northwestern International, Wisconsin). Caritas for Children, Big Brothers Big Sisters of Northwestern Wisconsin). 60% 60% 60% GRANTS 38% & 38% 38% $4,180,000,000 $4,180,000,000 $4,180,000,000 Mutual Benefit (e.g., Madison Masonic Center Foundation, Mutual Lutheran Benefit Cemetery (e.g., Association, Madison St. Masonic Vincent Center De Paul Foundation, Society of Mutual Lutheran Columbus, Benefit Cemetery Hartford Rotary (e.g., Association, Foundation). Madison St. Masonic Vincent Center De Paul Foundation, Society of Lutheran Columbus, Cemetery Hartford Rotary Association, Foundation). St. Vincent De Paul Society of Columbus, Hartford Rotary Foundation). 24% 24% 24% 19% 19% 19% < < < GRANTS 57% & 57% 57% Religion (e.g., City on a Hill, Buddha Haksa Corporation, Eastbrook Religion Church, (e.g., City Mt on Sinai a Hill, Congregation Buddha Haksa Foundation Corporation, of North Eastbrook Central Wisconsin, Religion Church, Hayvanu (e.g., City Mt on Sinai a Hill, Congregation Shalom Ahlaihem, Buddha Haksa Foundation Word of Corporation, of The North Lord Eastbrook Central Ministries, Wisconsin, Interfaith, Church, Hayvanu South Asian Mt Sinai Congregation Shalom Ministries). Ahlaihem, Foundation Word of of The North Lord Central Ministries, Wisconsin, Interfaith, Hayvanu South Asian Shalom Ministries). Ahlaihem, Word of The Lord Ministries, Interfaith, South Asian Ministries). 10% 10% 10% GRANTS 34% & 55% 55% 55% NUMBER 439OF 34% 34% NUMBER 2,993OF 2,993 2,993 NUMBER 24 OF $14,000,000 $14,000,000 $14,000,000 NUMBER 391OF $390,000,000 $390,000,000 $390,000,000 All percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding. 94% 94% International (e.g., Friends of Guatemalan Children, Global International Development Network (e.g., Friends Corporation, of Guatemalan Africa Assistance Children, Plan, Global International Development Center For International Network (e.g., Friends Corporation, Health). of Guatemalan Africa Assistance Children, Plan, Global Development Center For International Network Corporation, Health). Africa Assistance Plan, Center For International Health). < < < 80% 19% 19% 19% 80% 80% $23,700,000 $23,700,000 $23,700,000 Public & Societal Benefit (e.g., North American Friends Of Public Oranim, & Community Societal Service Benefit Center, (e.g., Centers North American For Prevention Friends and Of Public Oranim, Intervention, & Community Urban Economic Societal Service Benefit Center, Development (e.g., Centers Association North American For Prevention of Friends and Of Oranim, Intervention, Wisconsin, Wisconsin Community Urban Economic Council on Service Center, Development Economic Education, Centers Association United For Prevention of and Intervention, Wisconsin, Way of Greater Wisconsin Milwaukee). Urban Economic Council on Development Economic Education, Association United of Wisconsin, Way of Greater Wisconsin Milwaukee). Council on Economic Education, United Way of Greater Milwaukee). 20% 20% 20% 8% 8% 8% GRANTS 7 & 7 7 NUMBER 843OF $10,300,000,000 $10,300,000,000 $10,300,000,000 NUMBER 111OF NUMBER 1,020OF 1,020 1,020 $843,000,000 $843,000,000 $843,000,000 Grants, Gifts, & Contributions Includes funding from federated campaigns and contributions received from individuals, foundations, corporations. This amount also includes grants from the federal, state, and local government. Program Service Revenue This category includes revenue generated from fee-for-service activities directly related to nonprofit missions such as museum and orchestra admission fees and tickets, payments for hospital medical services, sales from Girl Scouts cookies, nonprofit college and school tuition; membership dues including payments for nonprofit sport clubs, and government contracts (payments from state and federal medical insurance programs). This portion also includes revenue from unrelated business income. Investment Income Includes interest and dividends as well as capital gains. Endowments are likely to generate investment income. Other Income Includes rental income; royalties; income from special events and sales of inventory and goods

10 WISCoNSIN VoLUNTEEring Not all nonprofit support is in the form of dollars. Many nonprofits rely heavily (and some exclusively) on volunteers and in-kind donations. Volunteers are a vital part of the nonprofit workforce, and it is estimated that one in four American adults volunteered in some form through an organization in The Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS) is a federal agency that reports on volunteer activities at the national, state, and some metropolitan areas in the U.S. According to information from CNCS, Wisconsin is ranked 5th among the 50 states and Washington DC in terms of the percentage of state residents that volunteer. Wisconsin residents volunteered nearly 36 (35.9) hours (i.e. volunteer hours per capita) in The most common type of nonprofit for which Wisconsin residents volunteer is religious organizations (29.6%) followed by educational (27.4%) and social service organizations (19.6%). CURRENT VOLUNTEERISM RATES FACT: Nonprofits are powered by paid staff in addition to volunteers. In 2010, nonprofits employed 13.7 million Americans, or about 10% of the work force and 9. of all wages and salaries paid in the US were from nonprofits. 35. OF WISCONSIN RESIDENTS VOLUNTEER MILLION HOURS OF VOLUNTEER $ 3.7 BILLION OF VOLUNTEER S CONTRIBUTED Source: Corporation for National and Community Service (2013). 8 Nonprofit Wisconsin: IN Brief

11 DATA and MeTHODS This section provides background and basic information about the data used in this report, including some limitations and recent developments impacting the use of this data in assessing and analyzing the nonprofit sector. Past decades have seen a growing body of statistical studies focusing on the nonprofit sector. These studies vary in scope and emphasis from estimations of the size of the nonprofit sector to topics such as nonprofit compensation, employment, and volunteerism. The National Center for Charitable Statistics (NCCS) has been a leader in this research. This report draws primarily on data generated by NCCS but also data and research conducted by The Urban Institute, The Corporation for National and Community Service, and others. NCCS offers various types of data, obtained primarily from the IRS, that vary by the number and type of organizations included, and the number and type of variables examined. The NCCS IRS Business Master Files data contain descriptive information for all active organizations that have registered for tax-exempt status with the IRS, and is continuously updated by NCCS. The NCCS Core Files data is a combination of descriptive information from the Business Master Files and a number of financial variables from the IRS Return Transaction Files (Form 990, Form 990-EZ, and Form 990-PF). The Core Files are updated once a year. This report concentrates on the Core File data for public charities 501(c)(3) in the state of Wisconsin. The 501(c)(3) covers the bulk of exempt organizations and includes the types of organizations that are perhaps most commonly associated with the nonprofit sector. Private foundations are excluded. From an economic perspective, the 501(c)(3) category also includes the largest nonprofits, most notably hospitals, universities, and major arts and cultural institutions. The choice to use this particular dataset is because it offers greater detail and thus allow for more in-depth financial analysis of revenues, expenses, and assets of Wisconsin nonprofits. It is, however, important to acknowledge some of the limitations of using the Core File data. For example, it clearly underrepresents certain types of public charities (e.g. religious organizations) and overlooks a large number of small nonprofits because certain types of public charities are not required to obtain official recognition of their 501(c)(3) status. These organizations, unless they voluntarily choose to register, will not be included in the NCCS databases. This includes churches and religious organizations and their associations or auxiliaries as well as small nonprofits with less than $5,000 in yearly gross receipts. Such organizations receive automatic tax exemption and are not required to seek tax-exempt status with the IRS or file an annual report

12 Furthermore, starting in 2011, organizations with gross receipts of less than or equal to $50,000 have the option of filing the 990-N, which does not require provision of financial information to the IRS. This ruling is important to keep in mind when looking at the size and growth of the nonprofit sector for the year 2011 and forward. It is likely one contributing factor to the reported modest growth of the Wisconsin nonprofit sector between 2008 and 2011 given that this report is only able to capture registered public charities in Wisconsin reporting income by filing a Form 990 or Form 990-EZ with the IRS. Thus, many nonprofits that filed a Form 990 or 990-EZ in 2008 are no longer included in the 2011 Core data because they have gross receipts of $50,000 or less and there filed a 990-N. In addition to the changes made by the IRS it is also reasonable to think that the economic recession may have had a stifling effect on nonprofit sector growth. Research from the Urban Institute shows that during the recession period ( ), 11.3 percent of nonprofits fell below the $50,000 threshold, compared with 8.4 percent in the earlier four-year period. The same report also shows that the death rate for smaller nonprofits was only slightly higher during the recession (5% for , 4.3% for ). It is also important to note several things about reporting on nonprofit finances. First, the use of NCCS data involves a trade-off between depth and scope. For example, while the IRS Business Master Files could be used to obtain financial information for all active and registered nonprofits in Wisconsin the only information that could be shared are total revenue and total expenses. In contrast, the IRS Statistics of Income Sample contains more than 300 financial fields from the 990s but is a random sample drawn from all U.S. nonprofits; thus there will only be a small number of Wisconsin nonprofits in the Income Sample data. The Core files fall somewhere between the Business Master Files and the Income Sample with approximately 60 financial variables and good representation of medium to large-size nonprofits in Wisconsin. Although there are more financial data fields available there are still facets of nonprofit revenues and assets that are out of reach. For example, we are not able to separate government grants from government contracts using Core data. Further, one must treat the reported financial data with care. Nonprofit scholars have shown that the information on the tax forms frequently shows significant discrepancies between the information provided on the 990 and accurate numbers, such as findings from audits (Abramson, 1995; Froelich et al., 2000; Gordon, Khumawala, Kraut, & Meade, 2007). National Study of Nonprofit-Government Contracts and Grants 2013: State Profiles. Data reported are based on a national survey of 501(c)(3) public charities with expenses of $100,000 or more, conducted by the Urban Institute. Hospitals and higher education as well as nonprofits not likely to have government contracts and grants were excluded from the sample. Analysis is limited to nonprofits reporting government contracts or grants. 10 Nonprofit Wisconsin: IN Brief

13 References Abramson, A. J. (1995). Sources of Data on Nonprofit Finance. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 5(4), Blackwood, A. S., Roeger, K. L., & Pettijohn, S. L. (2012). The Nonprofit Sector in Brief: Public Charities, Giving, and Volunteering, Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute. Boris, E. T. (2001). Next Steps for Building Capacity in Nonprofit Organizations. In C. J. De Vita & C. Fleming (Eds.) Building Capacity in Nonprofit Organizations (2001). Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute. Boris, E. T., & Steuerle, C. E. (2006). Nonprofits and Government (2nd Edition). Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press. Boris, E. T., Pettijohn, S. L., & Farrell, M. R. (2013). National Study of Nonprofit-Government Contracts and Grants 2013: State Profiles. Washington D.C.: Urban Institute. Brown, M. S., McKeever, B., Dietz, N., Koulish, J., & Pollak, T. (2013). The Impact of the Great Recession on the Number of Charities. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute. Corporation for National and Community Service. Volunteering and Civic Engagement in Wisconsin. Website Accessed on January 21, Froelich, K. A., Knoepfle, T. W., & Pollak, T. H. (2000). Financial Measures in Nonprofit Organization Research: Comparing IRS 990 Return and Audited Financial Statement Data. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 29(2), Gordon, T., Khumawala, S. B., Kraut, M. A., & Meade, J. A. (2007). The Quality and Reliability of Form 990 Data: Are Users Being Misled. Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal, 11, National Council on Nonprofits. America s Nonprofits, Website Accessed on November 1, Ott., J. S., & Dicke, L. A. (Eds.) (2012). The Nature of the Nonprofit Sector. Boulder: Westview Press. Reid E. J., & Kerlin J. A. (2006) The International Charitable Nonprofit Subsector in the United States: International Understanding, International Development and Assistance, and International Affairs. Washington DC: Urban Institute. Roeger, K. L., Blackwood, A. S., & Pettijohn, S. L. (2012). The Nonprofit Almanac Washington D.C.: The Urban Institute Press. Salamon, L. M. (2003). The Resilient Sector: The State of Nonprofit America. In L. M. Salamon (Ed.), The State of Nonprofit America. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. Stoddard, A. (2012). International Assistance. In L. M. Salamon (Ed.), The State of Nonprofit America. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. Young, D. R. (2000). Alternative Models of Government-Nonprofit Sector Relations: Theoretical and International Perspectives. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 29(1),

14 CoNTributor Page Helen Bader INStitute for NonproFIt MANAGement at the UniverSIty of WISCoNSIN-MilWAukee Andersson, Fredrik O., Assistant Professor, Department of Public and Nonprofit Management. Chikoto, Grace L., Assistant Professor, Department of Public and Nonprofit Management. Schnupp, Shelly M., Associate Director, Helen Bader Institute for Nonprofit Management at UWM. Through pioneering educational programs, applied research and active engagement with Wisconsin nonprofit organizations, the Helen Bader Institute for Nonprofit Management (HBI) develops nonprofit leaders who increase the effectiveness of nonprofits for which they work and volunteer. Founded in 2001, HBI is the first and only Nonprofit Academic Center in Wisconsin. For more information: WISCoNSIN NonproFIts ASSoCIAtion The Wisconsin Nonprofits Association (WNA) is a statewide membership organization whose sole mission is to strengthen individual nonprofits and the nonprofit sector in Wisconsin. Started in 2007, WNA provides: public policy information and advocacy on nonprofit issues; ensures access to education and training opportunities; delivers technical assistance, and offers a comprehensive package of cost-saving benefits for nonprofits. For more information: ForWArd CoMMuNIty Investments Forward Community Investments is an investor, connector and advisor for organizations and initiatives that reduce social, racial and economic disparities in Wisconsin communities. FCI builds stronger, healthier communities by working with other organizations to understand the root causes of social issues and by encouraging and supporting initiatives that make positive change possible. For more information: 12 Nonprofit Wisconsin: IN Brief

15 Nonprofits embody the best spirit and values of our nation. They turn our beliefs into action - as promoters of democracy, champions of the common good, incubators of innovation, laboratories of leadership, protectors of taxpayers, responders in times of trouble, stimulators of the economy, and weavers of community fabric. You would be hard pressed to find anyone who has not been touched in some way by a nonprofit organization, whether they knew it or not. National Council of Nonprofits,

16 Helen Bader Institute for Nonprofit Management University of Wisconsin Milwaukee 3230 E. Kenwood Blvd. Milwaukee, WI

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