1 Elements of Effective Succession Planning A Working Paper for the UCEDDs This material is funded in part by the Administration on Developmental Disabilities under Contract # to the Association of University Centers on Disabilities. The content of this material does not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Administration on Developmental Disabilities. No official support or endorsement by the Administration on Developmental Disabilities is intended nor should be inferred. Suggested citation: Caldwell. A.C. (2007, May). Elements of Effective Succession Planning: A Working Paper for the UCEDDs. Silver Spring, MD: Association of University Centers on Disabilities.
2 Introduction Administration on Developmental Disabilities Association of University Centers on Disabilities Currently, many leaders in the national network of University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities (UCEDDs) who to a great extent represent a formative generation of program directors are nearing retirement. There is no coordinated effort at this time to support or plan for the transition of this set of leaders to those who will assume responsibility for the UCEDDs of the future. The departure of a director is a transformational event for any kind of program, regardless of the circumstances. Key to an organization s success is its ability to transition to new leadership. Each transition tests the organization's ability to renew itself, so that it can continue to fulfill its mission in a changing environment. A successful change in leadership preserves the organization and the trust of its stakeholders, and allows it to grow and adapt to meet new challenges. Acknowledging the importance of supporting UCEDDs as they experience leadership transitions, the Administration on Developmental Disabilities (ADD) and the Association for University Centers on Disabilities (AUCD) is taking steps to assist UCEDDs in assessing and preparing for leadership transitions to promote a dynamic future. The first step in this process was at the 2006 ADD Technical Assistance Institute, which featured William J. Rothwell as a keynote speaker. Dr. Rothwell addressed challenges to meeting succession and leadership development needs in university contexts. Following the Institute, ADD and AUCD have explored how to further support leadership development and transition across the UCEDD network. These discussions resulted in the development of the following paper, Elements of Effective Succession Planning: A Working Paper for the UCEDDs. This paper summarizes various strategies both within and external to the higher education environment to support leadership development and transition. The purpose of the paper is to generate a discussion with the UCEDDs on possible strategies for supporting leadership development and transition. ADD and AUCD look forward to advancing discussions with the UCEDD network on potential strategies for supporting leadership development and transition. We ask that you read the Elements of Effective Succession Planning: A Working Paper for the UCEDDs in preparation for the discussion to be held at the 2007 ADD Technical Assistance Institute and to consider volunteering to participate in a workgroup that will examine ways in which leadership development and transition can be supported at a national level. 2
3 Elements of Effective Succession Planning A Working Paper for the UCEDDs Ann Cameron Caldwell, PhD Overview This working paper was prepared for a to-be-named Workgroup of UCEDD staff members within the UCEDD network, who will be working on developing leadership strategies for UCEDDS within the network. It identifies information found as a result of a literature review on the elements of effective succession planning. The specific intent of the review was to find information on the topics of leadership development mechanisms and strategies, transition planning mechanisms and strategies, strategies for capturing and transmitting technical memory, and strategies for capturing and transmitting institutional memory and important relationships to new leaders. The hope is that this information will be of interest to the Workgroup members and inform the leadership planning process. Leadership development in the context of UCEDD succession planning means the process of preparing individuals to take on leadership roles such as UCEDD Director and Associate Director. The literature showed that it is important to differentiate the concepts of skill development which allows an employee to perform their daily jobs well and leadership development, which conveys a different set of skills that concern more globalized thinking, situational analysis, and risk-taking in decision-making. Therefore, this search did not focus on skill development initiatives for daily job activities, nor did it include the leadership development of students. For this working paper, succession models used in higher education, corporate, association, and non-profit arenas were explored. The rationale for this approach was that these types of organizations may all have something in common with a UCEDD, and can offer guidance in preparing leadership succession initiatives within the AUCD network. The paper is divided into four major areas: Leadership Development, Transition Planning, Capturing and Transmitting Institutional and Technical Memory, and Transmitting Important Relationships. Methodology Information was gained through literature reviews in academic research search engines (ERIC, Illumina, and q which searches many other databases), Google scholar, and direct internet searches using primary key words that included succession planning, leadership development, transition planning, transmitting institutional and technical memory, higher education development, and organizational culture. Library searches were also conducted at university and public libraries for journal articles, books and book chapters, and popular magazine articles. As this is an internal working paper to present broad leadership approaches to the Workgroup, few citations are provided in text; however, key articles are included in the bibliography and are provided for closer reading.
4 Leadership Development Challenges Faced by Higher Education Institutions Higher education institutions are highly relevant to UCEDDs in that most of the UCEDDs operate within a university setting. Looking to best practices models within this arena may be of key importance in strategically designing an effective leadership development initiative. Although a number of university leaders have begun to recognize the need to train the next generation of leaders, the literature shows that such programs are typically driven by individuals rather by institutions. Some view that changes in leadership at higher educational institutions are often personal and tribal in nature, and that succession decisions are often controlled by Boards or selection committees outside of the department, who can choose whether to maintain continuity and momentum, or make significant changes to institutional direction and focus. Leadership development strategies for higher education address many issues that are particular to the academic setting: Academics are often ambivalent about assuming leadership roles. Professional identity and sense of satisfaction from work of leaders in higher education settings are often derived principally from their professional expertise and accomplishments not for their leadership potential. Those in higher education settings are often not recruited for their leadership potential, but rather are selected and rewarded for their research, course development, and/or teaching skills. Often, the institutional system tends to snuff out the spark of enthusiasm for leadership before the flame is ignited. The prestige of specific professional disciplines drains off potential leaders into profitable non-leadership roles. Many academics are unwilling to give up their professional and personal lives for ones consumed by leadership responsibilities. As this list shows, the state of selection, meaning, and the processes by which higher education institutions go about identifying, recruiting, and selecting candidates at the top levels of the higher education institutions is often precarious. Descriptions of leadership development programs or strategies currently in use by higher education institutions, corporate organizations, associations, and non-profits are provided below. Corporations Corporate organizations offer an ample menu of leadership development models. These models are relevant to UCEDDs in that these models focus on networking, identifying talent and cultivating leadership qualities, and strategic thinking. Provided here are several different models and resources for consideration. 4
5 Visionary Companies One process of leadership development within organizations is based on case studies of visionary companies (Collins & Porras, 1994). Visionary companies support the development of cult-like organizational cultures that ensure employees share the same values, ideologies, and management habits throughout the organization. The process of developing a visionary company involves management investment in developing or refining the core values of the organization. The core values then inform how each aspect of work at every level is performed. Employees are charged with taking active leadership responsibilities in developing and deepening the organization s operations, and establishing goals for the organization to work towards that go far beyond existing day-to-day operations (hence, visionary ). As a result, a definitive strength-based organizational culture is developed, which supports a methodical leadership development process. Leadership Pipelines Another strategy was explored by Conger and Fulmer in Developing Your Leadership Pipeline, an article which presents leadership development strategies used by several Fortune 500 corporations including Eli Lilly, Bank of America, and Dow Chemical. Key concepts concerning the choice and cultivation of future leaders are presented, and the authors suggest that strongest leadership benches are developed when succession management a combination of succession planning and leadership development is strategized and implemented at all organizational levels. Leadership development is a process that occurs over time, and which uses multiple methods and approaches that vary according to the organizational culture, mission, individual interests, and support and resource systems in place. In this model, effective succession management happens when corporations adopt a talentfinding mindset that occurs when (a) corporate leaders make time for in-depth talent assessment; there is a process in place that differentiates between strong and weak performers; high-potential managers are identified and (b) challenging assignments are given to inexperienced but highpotential managers. The guidelines for building a leadership pipeline are: Focus on development: Integrate succession planning with leadership development to ensure that you know what skills future leaders need as well as how they can learn these skills. Pair classroom training with all-important work experiences that solve real organization problems while enhancing budding leaders general management expertise. Mastery of general competencies in all areas of business is essential. Identify linchpin positions: Determine which middle to senior management positions are essential to your organization s long-term health. Keep a full pipeline for those linchpin positions by regularly identifying high potential candidates, then increase their leadership skills by giving them linchpin assignments coupled with team support, training, and/or mentoring. Also, regularly evaluate performances of linchpin incumbents to determine their potential for even more challenging assignments. Make it transparent: A stronger leadership bench is created when you openly tell managers where they stand on the performance and potential ladder, and what they need 5
6 to do to advance. To make the succession management process more transparent, consider web-based succession management tools that allow easy and secure access to information for developing leaders and their managers. Measure progress regularly: Development is a long-term process, so it s important to know whether the right people are moving at the right pace into the right jobs at the right time. Measurement helps you see where the pool of candidates is too shallow and when the number of attractive jobs is too limited to retain your highest potential managers. Measurement of holes in leadership pipelines can use the following metrics: o How many important positions have been filled with internal candidates? o How many succession plans have two or more ready now candidates? o How many of the same employees are ready now candidates on more than three different succession plans? Other Corporate Approaches to Leadership Development A number of examples of innovations in corporate leadership development are available that meet the unique needs of each organization. General Electric moves individuals identified as future leaders through different positions and geographic locations to prepare them for eventual leadership. XEROX managers are not eligible for promotion unless they have recruited, trained, and developed their own replacements. Banata, a large digital imaging and printing company utilizes succession planning by having current leaders identify, recruit, and develop new leaders. Other initiatives include voluntary administrative internships or mentorship programs, or workshops and seminars Eli Lilly has a bi-annual action-learning program that brings together potential leaders, selected by line managers and the HR department, to focus on a strategic business issue chosen by the CEO. Eli Lilly also has a group development review that is mandatory for employees identified through the company s talent assessment process as having executive potential. Dow gives future leaders broad experience by launching small joint ventures or internal enterprises through lateral moves across functions and business units in order to gain experience in a dimension not offered within their home offices. National Associations Association leadership development models may be most relevant to the network of UCEDDs in that this organizational model most closely resembles their relationship with AUCD. Many of the organizational issues of AUCD are similar in nature to other associations and influence how 6
7 leadership initiatives are designed and implemented, such as: (a) a centralized office that operates using membership dues, (b) a mission statement that shares its member s core values, (c) operational standards and reporting expectations, and (d) a leadership platform. There seems to be a difference between associations that serves primarily as a lobbying entity for their membership and those that also provide a higher level of professional development for their members. For example, AARP, a lobbying group with a membership of older individuals, does not appear to offer leadership opportunities for its membership, while the American Council on Education offers several leadership tracks for its membership of professional educators. Those associations that offer more professional development opportunities often include leadership development as part of their continuing education menu. There is little published information on how associations conduct succession-oriented leadership development initiatives to sustain their own organizations. Information gained through internet searches of association websites found informal leadership development where individuals move through different levels of leadership roles, beginning with local chapters, then moving to state organizations, and then to national association roles. Formal leadership development strategies were concern skill acquisition and development for an individual to do their daily jobs, and were not targeted towards succession models. Factors that contribute to difficulties in recruiting qualified leadership from the ranks in associations includes heavy workloads of day-to-day job responsibilities, lack of opportunities to develop themselves for leadership responsibilities within the association, personal career paths and goals that do not align with the development of additional professional skills, lack of effective communication mechanisms to educate and engage membership, and workplaces that do not necessarily value or reward voluntary work and leadership. Professional Associations Two examples of associations offering professional development to their members and their leadership programs are described below. The American Council on Education We found that The American Council on Education (ACE), the major coordinating body for all the nation's higher education institutions, seeks to provide leadership and a unifying voice on key higher education issues and to influence public policy through advocacy, research, and program initiatives. ACE provides several models of leadership development for those in higher education that may be of particular interest to the AUCD network. In an effort to strengthen American colleges and universities, ACE offers a series of leadership and professional development programs and activities that may be of interest to the AUCD network. Some of these include: Presidential Seminars and Roundtables: ACE conducts periodic and ongoing seminars and roundtables on emerging topics of interest to presidents of universities. For instance, The Leadership Network for International Education, a group of approximately 200 presidents and provosts committed to advancing internationalization on their campuses, meets annually to discuss the leadership role in internationalization. A series of seminars 7
8 on technology strategy was conducted in In 2004, a series of Presidential Roundtables, held in conjunction with the Futures Project, addressed higher education s changing social compact with the states. Follow-up discussions focusing on competition and public purposes and on reclaiming public confidence are scheduled for Summits for Presidents of Color: These summits are designed to explore the challenges and opportunities of university presidency for persons of color, provide direct support and service to sitting presidents, establish a multi-ethnic presidential network, and foster collaborations among presidents of color and with association leaders, government officials, and higher education scholars and consultants. Presidents Consultation Network: The Presidents' Consultation Network provides justin-time counsel to college and university presidents, especially those in their first year or two in office, and assists with their immediate challenges and pressing problems. Such problems might include handling fallout from controversial speakers on campus, legislative initiatives that intrude upon academic freedom, and problems with boards of trustees or campus governance. The Consultation Network will engage a group of former presidents to discuss presidential challenges, test ideas, and provide advice via phone to presidents looking for a sympathetic ear, an objective understanding, and a source of expert referral for longer-term consultation. Institute for New Chief Academic Officers: ACE s Institute for New Chief Academic Officers, designed for CAOs in their first three years on the job, provides practical executive leadership development through a yearlong series of meetings. The Institute enables participants to explore a broad range of leadership issues, including making difficult strategic and financial decisions, managing academic personnel, setting and evaluating institutional and personal agendas, leading change (and stability), and working with key internal and external constituencies. Institute participants convene three times during the academic year. National Leadership Forums for the Advancement of Women Leaders: The Office of Women in Higher Education offers forums which bring together college and university presidents to work with women who are ready to move into senior administrative positions or presidencies. The three-day event offers discussions of issues and challenges surrounding leadership in the academy and introduces participants to a number of search consultants who prepare them to engage in the search process. Advancing to the Presidency: A Workshop for Vice Presidents: This workshop for academic vice presidents provides an opportunity to individuals who will be seeking a presidency within the next year or two to gain valuable insight into the process of becoming a campus CEO. The two-day workshop focuses on presidential leadership, the CEO search process, contract negotiation, and successful transitions into the presidency. It is highly interactive, including candid conversations with search firm executives, coaching by current presidents from diverse institutions, feedback from mock interviews, and critiques of cover letters and vitas. Preparing to become a president requires a keen understanding of oneself and the search process, and a game plan for a successful search and the transition into the presidency. 8
9 Regional Leadership Forums: The Office of Women in Higher Education offers Regional Leadership Forums for emerging and mid-level women leaders who are ready to move into deanships and vice presidencies. The three-day event offers discussions of issues and challenges surrounding leadership in the academy, especially strategic planning, resource allocation, and fund raising. The participants are introduced to a number of search consultants who prepare them to engage in the search process. CLASSIC Series: The CLASSIC Series is designed to bring scholars and administrators together to discuss diversity issues and consider strategies that will promote greater participation of underrepresented groups at higher education institutions. These meetings provide a forum for leaders of color to collectively explore the challenges and opportunities associated with the positions of chief academic officer or chief student affairs officer. They also provide a venue to explore public policy issues affecting poor and minority students. Special sessions on federal public policy offer opportunities for discussing ways to forge new alliances on critical issues and to leverage federal resources for improving the condition of minorities in postsecondary education. NAFSA: Association of International Educators NAFSA, the Association of International Educators, is a member organization that promotes international education and provides professional development opportunities to the field. NAFSA offers an Executive Leadership Development Program, which is a week-long, intensive program that provides leaders in international education the opportunity to develop the leadership skills necessary for advancing the international education agenda in complex campus environments. This program is designed for deans, directors, and those who have been managers for at least five to seven years, who deal in complex problem solving, who contribute to campus strategy, and who yearn for a more theoretical grounding in management. Limited to 35 participants, the program draws on expert faculty from around the country, and is highly interactive with lectures, small group work, and individual readings. Participants can expect to develop a tangible blueprint to implement strategies and renew their professional energy. The program focuses on six topics that form the core of the discussions: Influencing systems in complex organizations Strategic thinking Implementing and sustaining change Managing conflict Decision-making and risk-taking Leadership and action planning Non Profit Organizations Leadership development programs in non-profit organizations are a relevant exemplar for UCEDDs in that they need to maximize leadership opportunities on oftentimes limited budgets. Many UCEDDs maintain a non profit status, so looking toward models that use funds and opportunities creatively and efficiently may be of interest in UCEDD leadership development strategies. 9
10 Leadership development in non-profits can be difficult due to scarcity of resources, time, and money. Both employees and Boards of Directors (who can take on a variety of leadership roles within an organization if necessary) need to be involved. Strategies to develop these leaders must be created to fit within the organizations overall strategic planning process. United Way In a study that explored leadership development in United Way agencies in New York, executive directors and pipeline leaders were found to agree on the relative utility of a number of professional development models (with majorities, often overwhelming, agreeing on the value of all the approaches). Both groups overwhelmingly support a coaching model, where after an initial training period in a workshop or seminar, a professional follows up with a trainee at the organization; a combination of workshops and seminars offered over a period of time and a combination of workshops and seminars leading to a certificate were also endorsed. About twothirds of both groups were found to agree that a program leading to a master s degree in non profit management would best serve professional development needs of senior professional/executive staff; however opinions diverged somewhat on the value of online learning. Some identified strategies of leadership development in non-profit organizations are to: Provide staff with opportunities to attend conferences and seminars that emphasize leadership and management skills Create occasions for key staff to interact with Board members Delegate an important task to staff with potential, and guide them through the project so that they learn new skills with appropriate supervision and support Mentor staff Partners in Policymaking The Partners in Policymaking leadership training program is another example of how a nonprofit approaches leadership development. Partners, created in 1987 by the Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, is a competency-based leadership training program for adults with disabilities and parents of young children with developmental disabilities. The program s format includes classroom training and skill building exercises, which typically occur over a 9-month period. Fellowships and Internships Fellowships and internships are other methods of leadership development. These models are relevant to UCEDDs as they may provide highly informative off-site leadership opportunities to staff in shorter time periods. Fellowships Fellowships provide unique and often intensive leadership development opportunities for those individuals wishing to experience first hand the process of being involved at the heart of topic or initiative. Three examples are discussed below. 10
11 ACE Fellows Program: Since 1965, hundreds of vice presidents, deans, department chairs, faculty, and other emerging leaders have participated in the ACE Fellows Program, a higher education leadership development program that has prepared senior leaders to serve American colleges and universities. The ACE Fellows Program is unique in comparison to other leadership development programs in higher education. The ACE Fellows spend an extended period of time on another campus, working directly with presidents, observe and participate in key meetings and events, and take on special projects and assignments while under the mentorship of a team of experienced administrators. They participate in three weeklong national seminars, visit other campuses, and attend national meetings, make contact with a national network of higher education leaders, and learn by observing and doing. The ACE Fellows Program enables participants to immerse themselves in the culture, policies, and decision-making processes of another institution. This program condenses years of on-the-job experience and skills development into a single year. Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. Public Policy Fellowship: The Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. Public Policy Fellowship selects outstanding professionals working in the field of inclusive services and supports for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities or parents of a child with an intellectual disability, to experience an intensive one-year Public Policy Fellowship in Washington, DC. During this one year experience, the Kennedy Fellow learns how legislation is initiated, developed, and passed by the Congress, or how programs are administered and regulations promulgated by federal agencies. They actively participate in public policy development through work on the staff of a congressional committee, or a federal agency in key areas such as special education, health and mental health care for persons with intellectual disabilities, child care, housing, justice, child welfare and other areas related to improving the quality of life for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation s Scholars in Health Policy Research Program: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation s Scholars in Health Policy Research Program was established in 1992 to develop a new generation of creative thinkers in health policy research. Scholars are selected to participate in the Program at one of three nationally prominent academic institutions: Harvard University, the University of California at Berkeley (in collaboration with the University of California at San Francisco), and the University of Michigan. There, Fellows have the opportunity to work collaboratively in multidisciplinary environments with faculty from the social sciences, medicine, public health, and public policy with the expectation they will seek to make important research contributions to future health policy in the United States. Scholars have access to the full range of university resources with no teaching or administrative responsibilities. Internships An internship provides individuals with the opportunity to spend time working in another organization on specific issues in order to gain a deeper understanding of a system and skill sets in that area. An internship, by nature, is time limited and might last anywhere from two months to two years. 11
12 The Harry S. Truman Scholarship Foundation provides a number of initiatives that may serve as an exemplar of the leadership development opportunities that internships can provide. The Foundation: Selects graduate students to work as an intern in the federal government or non-profit organizations for up to one year and provides support in moving into leadership positions Provides Truman Scholars with short term employment opportunities with federal agencies and NGOs Holds Summer Institutes, which brings scholars from all across the country to Washington DC where they work for nine weeks with federal agencies and NGOs The Foundation provides its scholars with orientation activities, workshops on ethics, leadership, and public service, and also organizes social and service activities with the greater Truman Alumni Community. While this example focuses on providing students with real life experiences in working in government, the method could also be applied to mid-to upper level managers within the UCEDD network. Transition Planning This section identifies methods used by other organizations for moving to new leadership, which may be relevant to UCEDDs in that as their current leadership ages out of the system, new leadership will take their place. For an efficient transition to occur, careful transition planning and mechanisms to support transitions are needed. Collins and Porras (1994) suggest that transition planning mechanisms and strategies are often already naturally accomplished with careful succession pre-planning and promoting home-grown managers into positions for which they have already prepared and trained. This goes back to the leadership development strategies that are tied to and assume movement of talented employees into future positions of leadership within the organization. Adherence to established core values of the organization, they argue, is the most reliable predictor of ensuring smooth transitions in succession situations. Executive Transition Management was one method used by the Support Center for Non-Profit Management in non-profit organizations to capture the range of opportunities presented by a leadership change. This holistic approach to transition management can be reduced to three key words: Prepare, Pivot, and Thrive. These concepts are more fully explained below. Prepare, Pivot, and Thrive Prepare: To successfully exploit the rich opportunities that a transition provides a Board, it needs to invest some time up front to prepare for the search and transition. The board should ensure that the organization is stable enough to make a good hire, the organization's situation is clearly understood, the current and future leadership needs of the organization have been fully explored, and all this information is captured in an updated job profile and a solid plan for the search and transition. 12
13 Pivot: One transition aspect often overlooked when a Board focuses exclusively on the search is what the organization can do to pave the way to greater success for the new executive. In most organizations there are legacy or transition issues that, if left unattended, might blunt the effectiveness of the new executive. Identifying these issues and setting corrective action into motion before the new executive comes on board can help lay the groundwork for the executive and organization to thrive. Thrive: Some simple actions in the post-hire phase can have a dramatic impact on success and help flatten the executive's learning curve: providing a solid orientation and encouraging the executive to build key relationships early; ensuring that there is an agreed-on set of priorities for the first months of the new executive's tenure; building a strong social contract between the board and executive with clarity about roles, responsibilities and expectations; and establishing performance monitoring mechanisms and an evaluation plan that addresses both the board's performance as well as the executive's. Methods to achieve effective transition may include a transition committee that is appointed early in the process. Usually this is a small (about four) team of Board members and may include one or two staff members. Larger, more complex organizations may have larger transition committees. In these cases, 6 10 members or more are not uncommon. Typically, these larger committees will have one or more subcommittees that focus on key areas of the transition, for example, a search subcommittee, a transition issues subcommittee, etc. After the question of organizational stability has been addressed and the transition team is in place, the next activity should be an organizational review or an assessment. The goal of the review is to ensure that the transition team and board truly understand (and agree on) the organization's situation, strengths and assets, transition type, challenges, and opportunities. Whether the departing executive is the founder or a long-term executive is another major factor to consider. Long-term and founder transitions typically involve more complicated separation issues and more complex organizational development activities during the transition. Often, these executives' jobs have become an eclectic mix of duties. When you begin to unpack the job, you often find elements of two, three, or more jobs. Segregating and delegating these extraneous duties and getting down to the executive's core responsibilities can be a complicated developmental exercise in itself. Onboarding In corporate settings, a new trend in preparing leaders for the initial transition is to hire coaches to ensure the success of new hires during the most critical period of their tenure: the first days. This technique is called onboarding and includes outside consultants to help with the process, involvement of the outgoing executive, using institutional and corporate memory supports, and Board involvement in the transition process. Several consultants and companies were found in on-line searches that offer these services, but efforts to identify specific techniques used in onboarding support were not found. 13
14 Capturing and Transmitting Institutional and Technical Memory Institutional memory can be defined as a collection of facts, concepts, experiences, and knowhow held by a group of people. As institutional memory transcends the individual, it requires the ongoing transmission of these memories between members of this group. Elements of institutional memory may be found in corporations, professional groups, government bodies, religious groups, academic collaborations and by extension in entire cultures. Institutional memory may be encouraged to preserve a group s ideology or way of work and may include preferred methods to get someone new in a leadership position up to speed with the roles and responsibilities of their position and the organization they are leading. Conversely, institutional memory may become so ingrained that it becomes hard to challenge if new information becomes available. This element of organizational structure is relevant to UCEDDs in that each center has its own history, in addition to the national history, which needs to be mindfully captured, documented, disseminated, and expanded so that staff have comprehensive knowledge of these centers. Discussed below are several strategies for capturing and transmitted institutional memory and a brief discussion of corporate memory, a related concept which may also be relevant to the network of UCEDDs. Storytelling The review of literature obtained through academic search engines revealed only 12 publications dated from that used the key words institutional memory. One study explored a theory of organizations as a collective story-telling system in which the performance of stories is a key part of members sense-making and a means to allow them to supplement individual memories within the institutional memory. For instance, the institutional memory of a college or university depends largely on staff continuity and student memory. By encouraging graduates to tell their stories about the institution, advancement professionals can foster a desire among alumni to make donations to the institution. Storytelling topics and themes might include faculty and curricular experiences, social/extracurricular experiences, or institutional character. Storytelling behavior is clearly observed in corporate, non-profit, and association organizations. Documentation Other, more technical means of capturing and transmitting institutional memory include documenting written output or results from meetings and events into an accessible, electronic format. One study (found through academic search engines) explored how vocational education was developed using narrative historical perspectives as a method of identifying and preserving institutional memory: Because most vocational decision makers in Florida lack in-depth knowledge of how vocational education developed in the state, a six-year historical study was conducted to provide a narrative history as an aid for identifying recurring policy issues. Traditional historical research in libraries and archives was conducted and oral history interviews were compiled. 14
15 The research provided a foundation for the historical narrative. This historical narrative was analyzed for policy implications with respect to program governance, program determination decisions, and federal-state-local relationships in vocational education. Through this project, a professionally printed history of vocational education in Florida and three volumes of oral history transcripts were developed. These products provide insight into the interaction among federal, state, and local officials and their influence on the development of vocational education in Florida. Corporate Memory Corporate memory is conceptualized as the total body of data, information, and knowledge that is required to deliver the strategic aims and objectives of an organization. A corporate memory is the combination of a repository (the storage of objects, artifacts, documents, and information) and a community: the people that interact with those objects to learn, make decisions, understand contexts, or find colleagues. Corporate Memory can be subdivided into the following types: Professional (reference materials, documentation, tools, methodologies) Company (organizational structure, activities, products, participants) Individual (status, competencies, know-how, activities) Project (definition, activities, histories, results) The corporate repository may be used in transmitting institutional memory to new leaders. To optimize the utility of such a repository, organizations must answer the following questions: What knowledge representation(s) should be used (stories, graphs, cases, rules, etc.)? Who will be the users and what will be their information and learning needs? How best to ensure security and who will be granted access? How best to integrate with existing sources, stories, and systems? What to do to ensure the current content is correct, applicable, timely and weeded? How to motivate experts to contribute? What to do about ephemeral insights, how to capture informal scripts (e.g., and instant messenger scripts)? Transmitting Important Relationships The transmittal of important relationships to new leaders often is cited as part of transitioning and leadership development. This aspect of succession planning is also included in efforts to build in some form of corporate memory, capture expertise, speed new learning, record decision rationales, document achievements, or learn from past successes and failures. Specific techniques of transmitting important relationships to new leaders that are found embedded in other aspects of succession planning include: 15
16 Developing a mindful strategy of how to transmit important organizational relationships to new leaders which is applied regularly and frequently as part of a methodical leadership development and succession planning processes Bringing new leaders to meetings with key partners, Board Members, clients, vendors and consumers on a regular basis to establish familiarity with issues, initiatives, individuals, and procedures Involving new leaders in work initiatives with these individuals or groups Using corporate memory and institutional memory methods to inform new leaders of organizational histories, patterns, culture, and forward vision. Conclusion Succession planning cannot occur in isolation; rather, the elements of successful succession efforts are rooted in four major and interrelated organizational processes: leadership development, transition planning, capturing and transmitting institutional and technical memory, and transmitting important relationships. In the context of UCEDD succession planning, leadership development means the process of preparing individuals to take on leadership roles at the UCEDD Director and Associate Director level. Several conclusions may be drawn from this review: Transition planning, which includes methods and steps to move toward new leadership, must be engaged in thoughtfully. Institutional memory the collection of facts, concepts, experiences, skills, and ideology necessary either to perform or provide context for the work must be conveyed to new leaders. Relationships, both institutional and personal, that are important to performance success must be maintained as leadership changes. The members of the to-be-named Workgroup might consider the models presented in this paper as they explore developing leadership strategies within the UCEDD network. 16
17 Selected Sources Birdsell, D., Muzzio, D. (2003). The next leaders: United Way New York City grantee leadership development and succession management needs. Baruch College School of Public Affairs. Boje, D. (1991). The storytelling organization: A study of story performance in an office-supply firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp Byham, W. C. (2002). A new look at succession management. Ivey Business Journal, 66(5), Canadian Nurses Association. Succession Planning for Nursing Leadership. Approved by the CNA Board of Directors, 1 March 2003 (Recommended by the CNA Committee on Nominations to the CNA Board of Directors in February 2003, with thanks to Committee on Nominations member, Heather F. Clarke, RN, PhD for initial draft.) Cohen, D. & Jackson, K. (1998). The secrets to effective succession planning. CMA Collins, J.C., Porras, J.I. Built to Last: Successful habits of visionary companies. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, Conger, J., Fulmer, R.. Developing your leadership pipeline. Harvard Business Review. December Gardner, H. (1995). Leading minds An anatomy of leadership. New York: Basic Books. McDade, S. A. (1994). Evaluating leadership development programs: New directions for leadership development. Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), Pearce, C. L., & Conger, J. A. (Eds.). (2003). Shared leadership: Reframing the hows and whys of leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Rothwell, W.J., Jackson, R.D., Knights, S.C., Lindholm, J.E., Wang, A., Payne, T.. Career planning and succession management: Developing your organization s talent for today and tomorrow. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, Internet searches, conducted in August and September 2006: Key words: leadership development, succession planning, transition planning, higher education, non-profit, association, institutional memory, organizational culture. 17
18 1010 Wayne Avenue, Suite 920 Silver Spring, MD Phone: Fax: George Jesien, PhD Executive Director 18
SUCCESSION PLANNING FOR NURSING LEADERSHIP The need Today s nurses need to plan well in advance for the next stage of leadership in the profession. This is especially important now as the majority of nurses
I. EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY KECK SCHOOL OF MEDICINE GOVERNANCE DOCUMENT June 20, 2011 As a non-profit public benefit corporation, the University of Southern California (USC) is governed by the Board of Trustees.
Approved by Academic Affairs May 2010 DEPARTMENT OF MARKETING COLLEGE OF BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION POLICY ON REAPPOINTMENT, TENURE, AND PROMOTION (RTP) I. DEPARTMENT OF MARKETING RTP POLICY A. Preamble B.
Darden School The Darden School of Business recently celebrated its 50 th anniversary, reflecting the strong base on which to build toward its centennial. While the world in which the School operates has
What are job descriptions for nonprofit board members? Summary: Suggestions for duties and responsibilities for board members and officers. This item contains suggestions from several sources and indicates
PAINTER EXECUTIVE SEARCH Position Description Painter Executive Search is supporting the in a search for an experienced to lead a broad regional coalition of Bay Area land conservation agencies and organizations
Leadership Development at AACN Leadership Devel Leadership development has been a cornerstone of AACN s programs and services since the association s inception more than 40 years ago. Designed to provide
1 In Pursuit of Excellence and Equity Gevirtz Graduate School of Education Strategic Plan 2007 2012 The Gevirtz Graduate School of Education is one of five colleges at the University of California, Santa
Leadership, Diversity and Succession Planning in Higher Education, Scholar in Residence, Assistant Director of Leadership NC State University Women s Center The current research shows that women and racial
SCHOOL OF MASS COMMUNICATIONS STATEMENT ON GOVERNANCE Preamble This document is guided principally by a common belief in shared governance at all levels, intent on creating trust and collegiality and aimed
Chief Librarian Job Description Summary: The Chief Librarian will provide proactive strategic direction and professional leadership and direction in advancing the Institute s teaching and research mission
CONSTITUTION COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA This Constitution is intended to be consistent with Florida law, the University Constitution and the regulations of the University of Florida Board
2010-2015 Strategic Plan Executive Summary REACH Context The School of Business and Economics Brand................................2 Vision, Mission, & Values................................................
1 Dean of the College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences Texas Southern University invites nominations and applications for the position of Dean of the College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences (COPHS). Reporting
www.simonejoyaux.com Simone P. Joyaux, ACFRE Performance Appraisal Process for the CEO 1 Note: This process and appraisal tool along with Joyaux CEO job description applies, in general to any organization.
Board of Directors Handbook Bruce Lev Chairman of the Board Annora Gilman Chair, Leadership Committee David Newman Executive Director Welcome to the Hofstra Hillel Board of Directors Welcome to the Board
Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, Volume 16, Number 4, p. 3, (2012) Copyright 2012 by the University of Georgia. All rights reserved. ISSN 1534-6104 The History of TRUCEN B Maureen F.
UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION MISSION, VISION & STRATEGIC PRIORITIES Approved by SBA General Faculty (April 2012) Introduction In 1926, we embarked on a noble experiment the creation
SCHOOL OF URBAN AFFAIRS & PUBLIC POLICY CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR PROMOTION AND TENURE The School of Urban Affairs and Public Policy is an interdisciplinary graduate and professional school, designated
10/23/03 DEPARTMENT PLAN The Department of Counseling, Educational, and Developmental Psychology College of Education and Human Development Eastern Washington University Cheney ω Spokane Washington Formally
HUMAN SERVICES MANAGEMENT COMPETENCIES A Guide for Non-Profit and For Profit Agencies, Foundations and Academic Institutions Prepared by: Anthony Hassan, MSW, Ed.D. William Waldman, MSW Shelly Wimpfheimer,
Evaluation of Undergraduate Academic Programs Self-Study Guidelines Office of the Provost Fall 2009 Purpose This guide is designed to support academic unit efforts to evaluate undergraduate academic programs
Strategic Guide to creating a World Class Customer Advisory Board Program This paper is authored from CustomerAdvisoryBoard.org industry association research including the CAB Manager Industry Surveys,
University Of Alaska Anchorage College Of Health Department Of Human Services Criteria and Guidelines For Faculty Evaluation This document is to be used in conjunction with the UNAC and UAFT Collective
Department of Civil Engineering & Construction Management College Of Engineering and Computer Science California State University-Northridge Northridge, Ca Construction Management Program PROGRAM PUBLIC
PSI Leadership Services Strategic Solutions for Your Leadership Needs Select, Promote, & Develop the Leadership Talent Needed to Drive the Growth of Your Business SOLUTION BENEFIT/OBJECTIVE TYPICAL PROJECTS
Ph.D. Counselor Education and Supervision 2014 2015 Program Guidebook NOTE: 1) This guidebook is subject to change. If it does, students will be notified via email and will be provided with the revised
SECTION 9 MARKETING, COMMUNICATIONS, AND OUTREACH (Last Updated APRIL 2011) NUMBER 9.0 VICE PRESIDENT OF MARKETING, COMMUNICATIONS, AND OUTREACH EFFECTIVE: APRIL 2009 POLICY The Vice President of Marketing,
College of Business University of South Florida St. Petersburg Governance Document As Amended by the College Faculty on December 14, 2012 Administrative Structure for Academic Policy Purpose: The administrative
DISCIPLINE REVIEWER INSTRUCTIONS AND POLICY 2015-2016 APPLICATIONS Thank you for serving as a Discipline Reviewer for the Fulbright U.S. Scholar Program. Your preliminary evaluation will assist regional
School of Accounting Florida International University Strategic Plan 2012-2017 As Florida International University implements its Worlds Ahead strategic plan, the School of Accounting (SOA) will pursue
INTERDISCIPLINARY PROGRAMS: ESTABLISHMENT, ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE, FACULTY APPOINTMENTS AND PROCESSES THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT GREENSBORO Approved by the Provost, April 5, 2006 1 I. Mission
College of Business Administration Strategic Plan Overview Mission: The mission of the College of Business Administration at SDSU is to maintain a challenging learning environment that fosters excellence
LAW DEAN LEADERSHIP PROFILE THE OPPORTUNITY Suffolk University seeks an entrepreneurial Law School dean who is able to capitalize on the University s urban location and build on its strengths in ways that
TABLE OF CONTENTS Letter from the President... 2 Campus Addresses... 3 ECC Advisory Board Members Introduction... 4 College Vision, Mission, and Goals... 5 Purpose & Role of Advisory Boards... 6 Functions
University Policy Statement UPS 210.001 RECRUITMENT AND APPOINTMENT OF TENURE-TRACK FACULTY I. INTRODUCTION The goal for recruitments is to appoint a high quality and diverse faculty utilizing an effective,
HHS MENTORING PROGRAM Partnering for Excellence MENTORING PROGRAM GUIDE November 17, 2008 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I. VISION STATEMENT.... 2 II. MISSION STATEMENT. 2 III. INTRODUCTION...2 IV. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES.
1 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey School of Nursing Legacy CON Faculty Appointment, Reappointment, and Promotion of Clinical Track Faculty (Policy 60.5.10) Individuals whose status is qualified
JOB DESCRIPTION ALUMNI DEVELOPMENT COORDINATOR INCUMBENT: DIVISION: Community Relations GROUP: SSA DEPARTMENT: Development CLASSIFICATION: Level 9 DATE REVIEWED: June, 2006 SUMMARY STATEMENT: The Alumni
Draft: April 10, 2016 NORTHEASTERN 2025 Distinctively Excellent PhD Education Context We are in a moment of Northeastern s history when our PhD programs have the opportunity to excel by building on the
OAKLAND UNIVERSITY DEAN OF THE SCHOOL OF HEALTH SCIENCES Oakland University seeks an inspiring and visionary leader to serve as Dean of the School of Health Sciences. The Search Committee will begin reviewing
Chief Diversity Officer Office of Diversity and Inclusive Excellence Position Description San José State University invites nominations and applications for the newly created position of Chief Diversity
Contents: UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration Proposal for a Clinical Faculty Track 1. Rationale and Objectives of the Proposal 2. The Simon School Mission
Chapter 2 Planning, Resource Allocation, and Institutional Renewal An institution conducts ongoing planning and resource allocation based on its mission and utilizes the results of its assessment activities
75 College Avenue Greenville, PA 16125 www.thiel.edu Dean of Enrollment Search Prospectus Fall 2015 www.thiel.edu/deanofenrollment Thiel College in Greenville, Pa., invites nominations and applications
Characteristics of Effective and Sustainable Teaching Development Programs for Quality Teaching in Higher Education This presentation will address the following conference aim/question: What are the contextual
Policy on Academic Tracks and Promotions for the School of Nursing (SON) at the American University of Beirut (AUB) Preamble The School of Nursing currently has 2 tracks, Academic and Clinical. The Academic
UW REGULATION 7-631 Regulations of the University Libraries 1. PURPOSE. To promulgate the regulations of the University Libraries, as adopted by the library faculty. 2. REGULATIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES
Civic Engagement in Graduate Education: Preparing the Next Generation of Engaged Scholars Wingspread Conference Report Context of the Meeting: Responding to a rising conversation around civic engagement
Council for Standards in Human Service Education National Standards MASTER S DEGREE IN HUMAN SERVICES http://www.cshse.org 2013 (2010, 2009) I. GENERALPROGRAM CHARACTERISTICS A. Institutional Requirements
Table of Contents Executive Summary... 3 Preamble... 4 Mission... 5 Vision... 5 Values... 5 Research... 6 Education... 8 Community and Clinical Partnerships... 10 Stony Brook University School of Nursing
GUIDE TO THE AMIA BOARD OF DIRECTORS This guide provides information for AMIA Members about the AMIA Board of Directors. It is hoped that AMIA members considering running for a position on the Board will
Competency Requirements for Executive Director Candidates There are nine (9) domains of competency for association executives, based on research conducted by the American Society for Association Executives
The Successful Manager s Leadership Program The Successful Manager s Leadership Program The University of Minnesota s College of Continuing Education (CCE) is pleased to present the following information
Call for Proposals Next Generation Faculty Program Introduction Traditional faculty hiring at Georgia State University has focused upon the important task of building disciplinary-specific scholarly depth
Community College of Philadelphia Administrative Function and Support Service Audit Learning Lab Executive Summary Introduction to Function /Service Description and History The Learning Lab was founded
UNIVERSITY OF HAWAI I AT MĀNOA POSITION DESCRIPTION DEAN, COLLEGE OF NATURAL SCIENCES ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Position No: 0089197 Title of Position: Dean Reports to: Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs,
Testimony by Freeman A. Hrabowski, III President, University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) before the Subcommittee on Research and Science Education House Committee on Science & Technology Rayburn
TERI CANNON Higher Education Consultant 1326 Curtis Street Berkeley, California 94702 Cell: 510-219-1977 email@example.com EDUCATION J.D., Loyola Law School, Los Angeles, 1984 Dean's List, all years
THE NATIONAL HUMAN SERVICES ASSEMBLY President and CEO Washington, DC EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The National Human Services Assembly (the National Assembly), the premier professional association for the nation
SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY: ACADEMIC STRATEGIC PLAN These are extraordinary times for higher education and for students aspiring to succeed in a rapidly changing world. Technology is affecting the way we learn
MISSION STATEMENT To promote the quality, effectiveness and image of the social work profession and to promote social change and social justice in order to improve the well being of all residents of California.
ASAE s Job Task Analysis Strategic Level Competencies During 2013, ASAE funded an extensive, psychometrically valid study to document the competencies essential to the practice of association management
Institutional Assessment 328 Tigert Hall PO Box 113175 Gainesville, FL 32611-3175 (352) 273-1090 Non-Academic Effectiveness Process Documentation Division of Enrollment Management Mission Statement The
OAKLAND UNIVERSITY DEAN OF THE SCHOOL OF NURSING Oakland University seeks an inspiring and visionary leader to serve as Dean of the School of Nursing. The Search Committee will begin reviewing applications
College of Human Environmental Sciences Strategic Plan for 2012-2015 Revised Fall 2013 Mission: The College will be a well-recognized leader in preparing students to impact the lives of individuals and
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES MASTER OF SCIENCE IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT DIVISION OF PROGRAMS IN BUSINESS MASTER OF SCIENCE IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Leadership Profile Georgia College & State University Dean of the College of Education This search is being assisted by: THE SEARCH FOR A DEAN OF THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AT GEORGIA COLLEGE Georgia College
DRAFT College of Architecture Strategic Plan 2014-2025 Design. Technology. Engagement. School of Architecture School of Building Construction School of City and Regional Planning School of Industrial Design
OPPORTUNITY PROFILE Associate Dean Executive Education THE ORGANIZATION - ALBERTA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS EXECUTIVE EDUCATION The Alberta School of Business is one of the world s leading institutions in business
Onboarding Design Build Attract The most critical time in an executive s career is the first 100 days in a new role. Executives promoted or hired into new roles are expected to not only find their way,
BYLAWS OF COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION SERVICES (CCS) 1.0 COUNSELING AND CONSULTATION SERVICES MEMBERSHIP 1.1 Voting membership shall consist of all AAUP bargaining unit members with appointments in CCS.
Terry College of Business Strategic Plan The mission of the University of Georgia s Terry College of Business is the pursuit and dissemination of knowledge for the effective and ethical practice of business.
4.1 Describe the formal and informal performance appraisal processes used in the organization, including self-appraisal, peer review, and 360 o evaluation (as appropriate) for all levels in the organization.
HRCI Recertification Credits last updated: November 2013 SkillSoft is an HR Certification Institute Approved Provider. Being an HR Certification Institute Approved Provider gives recertification candidates
Utah Educational Leadership Standards, Performance Expectations and Indicators Standard 1: Visionary Leadership An educational leader promotes the success of every student by facilitating the development,
DEAN OF THE COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES AND ARTS EXECUTIVE SEARCH PROFILE S an José State University invites nominations and applications for an outstanding and innovative academic leader for Dean of the
CORPORATE LEADERSHIP COUNCIL JULY 2005 www.corporateleadershipcouncil.com LITERATURE Integrating Performance Management and Talent Review Processes Finding 1: Performance management involves the entire
College of Architecture Strategic Plan 2014-2025 From the Dean The College of Architecture at the Georgia Institute of Technology houses a rich mix of disciplines that are critical in shaping how people
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.