# Dynamical Systems. Chapter 7

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2 Chapter 7 Dynamical Systems Mathematical models of scientific systems often lead to differential equations in which the independent variable is time. Such systems arise in astronomy, biology, chemistry, economics, engineering, physics and other disciplines. It is common to speak of a system of differential equations ẋ = f (x) (7.1) as governing a dynamical system (or of generating, or of being, a dynamical system). We are more precise about this below (conditions 7.6). In the present chapter we introduce some of the principal ideas of dynamicalsystems theory, and illustrate them in the restricted but important context of planar systems, i.e., systems in R 2. A norm will appear at various points below without explanation; we assume an appropriate norm has been chosen (see the discussion in 6.2). There is an emphasis on nonlinear systems, 1 and on: 1. the qualitative behavior of the system viewed on a long time interval. Put differently, the long-time dynamics, or the asymptotic behavior as t +, is often a major issue. 2. behavior of solutions as the initial data are changed. In considering the system (7.1) of differential equations together with initial data x (t 0 ) = a, the solution is regarded not only as a function of t but also as a function of a: x = φ (t, a). 3. families of differential equations. The members of the family are often distinguished from one another by the value of a parameter, µ (say). 1 However, as we shall see in Chapters 8 and 9, our previous emphasis on linear systems will prove to be of great importance. 151

3 152 The right-hand side of equation (7.1) is then written as f (x, µ). The solutions will then depend also on µ and will sometimes be expressed as x = φ (t, a, µ). These features mimic those of problems arising in applications, which frequently depend on parameters, and which need to be considered for a variety of initial data. The one-dimensional equation ẋ = µx with initial data x (0) = a has the solution x = a exp (µt). Its behavior for t + depends dramatically on the sign of the parameter µ. The one-dimensional equation ẋ = µx 2 with initial data x (0) = a has the solution x = a/ (1 aµt). It s behavior depends dramatically on the parameters and initial data: if the product aµ < 0, the solution decays to zero as t ; if aµ > 0, it becomes unbounded in a finite time. 7.1 Autonomous Equations The equations of the examples, or the system (7.1), are referred to as autonomous because the right-hand sides do not depend explicitly on the time. This terminology originates in mechanical examples in which an explicit time dependence reflects a mechanical forcing imposed upon the system by some external agent: when there is no such forcing the system is self-governing, or autonomous. The more general, non-autonomous, system ẋ = f (t, x) (7.2) of n equations may be converted to an autonomous system of n+1 equations by adjoining the equation ẋ n+1 = 1 and replacing t by x n+1 in the remaining n equations: this equivalent autonomous system is sometimes referred to as the suspended system. It may therefore appear that there is no difference between autonomous and non-autonomous systems, but this is not entirely true (see Problem 2 below). In this chapter and in Chapters 8 and 9 we consider autonomous systems unless the opposite is explicitly stated. A distinctive feature of autonomous systems is the arbitrariness of the origin of the time variable. If x = ψ (t, t 0, p) represents the solution of the initial-value problem ẋ = f (x), x (t 0 ) = p, (7.3)

4 153 then ψ (t, t 0, p) = φ (t t 0, p) (7.4) where φ (t, p) = ψ (t, 0, p), i.e., φ is the solution of the initial-value problem when t 0 = 0. This is a straightforward consequence of the uniqueness theorem for the initial-value problem as discussed in Chapter 6: either side of the preceding equation is seen to satisfy the initial-value problem, and they must therefore be the same (see problem 2 of Problem Set 6.4.1). The solution map φ (t, p) of (7.3), sometimes called the flow, can be thought of as a family of mappings, parametrized by the time t, defined on the domain D 0 of the initial-value vectors p in R n, and taking values in another domain D t of R n, namely, the image of the domain D 0 under the mapping φ (t, ). As long as the initial-value problem continues to be satisfied at points of the latter domain, the identity φ (t + α, p) = φ (t, φ (α, p)), (7.5) holds, again as a direct consequence of the uniqueness theorem. A formal definition of dynamical system that is sometimes used in abstract studies is that of a family of maps φ(t, ) : Ω Ω, defined on a domain Ω parametrized by a variable t on an interval (a, b) and satisfying, for each p Ω the following three conditions: (i) φ(0, p) = p (ii) φ C[(a, b) Ω] (iii) φ(t + α, p) = φ(t, φ(α, p)). (7.6) If in item (ii) the C is replaced by C k with k 1, the dynamical system is said to be differentiable. These studies can be viewed as abstractions of flows of autonomous differential equations. When the mapping φ is generated by an initial-value problem (7.3), it is a homeomorphism, i.e., a continuous map with a continuous inverse. If the vector field f is C k, it is a diffeomorphism 2. There are also Discrete dynamical systems for which t takes on discrete values, but we shall consider continuous dynamical systems generated by autonomous systems like equation (7.1) for which t takes on values in an interval of the real axis unless otherwise specified. Suppose for each p R 0, a subdomain of Ω, solutions exist on a common interval (a, b), then the family of maps φ(t, ) generates a homeomorphism from R 0 to its image R t under the map for any t (a, b). The orbit γ(p) through a point p is defined as the set γ(p) = {x R n : x = φ(t, p) for some t (a, b)}. (7.7) 2 A diffeomorphism is differentiable map that possesses a differentiable inverse.

5 154 Here (a, b) will always be the maximal interval unless otherwise stated; in general it depends on the point p. The values a = and b = are allowed for solutions defined on infinite intervals. Note that two orbits either coincide or do not intersect. For if q γ(p) then q = φ(t, p) for some t (a, b). Then φ(t, q) = φ(t, φ(t, p)) = φ(t + t, p). Thus γ(q) = γ(p). This property of autonomous systems that they either coincide or do not intersect is not shared by nonautonomous systems, as the following example shows. Example The nonautonomous system ẋ = x + ɛ(cos t sin t), ẏ = y + ɛ(cos t + sin t) has solutions x = ae t + ɛ cos t, y = be t + ɛ sin t. If we choose a = b = 0, the orbit is a circle of radius ɛ. However, if we take instead initial data (x(0), y(0)) = (0, ɛ/2) lying inside the circle, then x = ɛ(cos t e t ) and y = ɛ((1/2)e t + sin t), which leaves the disk of radius ɛ and hence intersects the circle at some t > 0. Of course, if distinct orbits of nonautonomous systems cross, they must cross at different times, to be consistent with the general uniqueness theorem. 7.2 Constant and Periodic Solutions The simplest kinds of solutions are equilibrium points. These are points where f(p) = 0. The solution map φ(t, p) = p for all t, i.e. p is a fixed point of the map for each t. The orbit γ(p) is the set whose sole member is p. Theorem If p is an equilibrium point in Ω and φ(t, q) p as t t 0, then either t 0 = ± or q = p. Proof: If t 0 is finite then, since p Ω, the solution φ can be continued to t 0, and φ(t 0, q) = p by continuity. This means that the orbit through q is the orbit through p, and since p is an equilibrium point, coincides with p. Any point that is not an equilibrium point, i.e., any point p where f(p) 0, will be referred to as a regular point. The next simplest kind of solution is periodic: φ(t + T, p) = φ(t, p) for some T and all t R. We may assume that T > 0. Theorem A nonconstant periodic solution has a least period T.

6 155 Proof: Suppose not; then there is a sequence {T n } of periods, with T n 0 as n. For arbitrary t we have φ(t + T n, p) φ(t, p) φ(t, p) = lim = 0. n T n But this would imply that φ(t, p) is constant, which is a contradiction. A nonconstant periodic solution has an orbit which is a simple closed curve: the solution map φ(t, p) for fixed p maps the interval [0, T ] to its image in a one-one fashion if 0 and T are identified. Here T is the least period. A criterion for a solution to be periodic is given by the following theorem. Theorem Let φ be a solution of (7.1) that intersects itself i.e. φ(t 1 ) = φ(t 2 ) with t 1 < t 2. Then φ is periodic with period t 2 t 1. Proof: With T = t 2 t 1 we have φ(t + T, p) = φ(t + t 2 t 1, p) = φ(t t 1, φ(t 2, p)) = φ(t t 1, φ(t 1, p)) = φ(t, φ(0, p)) = φ(t, p). In this theorem, T = t 2 t 1 need not be the least period. 7.3 Invariant Sets A subset S of the domain Ω is an invariant set for the system (7.1) if the orbit through a point of S remains in S for all t R. If the orbit remains in S for t > 0, then S will be said to be positively invariant. Related definitions of sets that are negatively invariant, or locally invariant, can easily be given. If p is an equilibrium point of the system (7.1) then the set consisting of p alone is an invariant set for that system. Likewise, if γ(p) is a periodic orbit, it too is an invariant set. Invariant sets that are of particular importance in the remainder of the present chapter are the so-called ω and α limit sets, to which we now turn. Suppose the solution φ(t, p) exists for 0 t <. The positive semi-orbit γ(p) is defined by equation (7.7) above when (a, b) is replaced by [0, ). The ω limit set for such an orbit γ(p) is defined as follows ω[γ(p)] = {x R n : {t k } k=0 with t k, such that φ(t k, p) x as k }. It is clear that the solution must exist at least on [0, ) for this definition to make sense. For solutions that exist on < t 0 the negative semi-orbit and the α-limit set are defined similarly.

7 156 Example Suppose γ(p) is a periodic orbit and let q be any point of it. Then q = φ(τ, p) for some τ [0, T ), where T is the least period, and φ(t k, p) = q if t k = τ + kt. Hence every point of the orbit is a point of the ω-limit set, i.e., the orbit equals the ω-limit set in this case: ω[γ(p)] = γ(p). It s also true that α[γ(p)] = γ(p). The α- and ω-limit sets have a number of basic properties that will be needed in the next section. Lemma The ω limit set is closed. Proof: Pick a sequence q n ω with q n q. By the definition of the ω-limit set, we know there exists {t n,k }, t n,k with φ(t n,k, p) q n as k. For each n, pick K(n) so that φ(t n,k, p) q n < 1/n k > K(n). Then, given ɛ > 0, pick N so that q q n < ɛ/2 if n > N. This implies that Thus q is in ω. φ(t n,k(n), p) q φ(t n,k(n), p) q n + q q n < 1/n + ɛ/2 < ɛ if n > max{n, 2/ɛ}. Lemma Suppose ω(γ(p)) is bounded and lies in Ω. invariant set. Then ω is an Proof: Let q lie in ω(γ(p)). We need to show that φ(t, q) ω[γ(p)] for all t R. We know there exists a sequence {t k } such that φ(t k, p) q as t k. Then certainly φ(t + t k, p) = φ(t, φ(t k, p)) φ(t, q) as t k. Therefore φ(t, q) ω[γ(p)] on its maximal interval of existence. Since ω[γ(p)] is closed (by the preceding lemma) and bounded (by assumption) we infer that the latter is (, ), as follows. If the left-hand endpoint of the maximal interval (a, say) is finite, then as t a+, φ(t, q) would have to approach a boundary point of Ω, by Theorem This is not possible because this limit is confined to ω(γ(p)), which cannot intersect the boundary of the domain Ω. The following theorem summarizes the properties of the ω-limit set. We use the notations d[x, y] = x y (7.8) to represent the distance between the points x and y in terms of the norm. Similarly, if A is a set and x a point, d(x, A) = inf d(x, y) y A

8 157 with a similar definition for the distance d(a, B) between two sets A and B. Theorem Let γ(p) be a bounded, positive semi-orbit whose closure lies in Ω. Then ω[γ(p)] is non-empty, compact, invariant, connected and d[φ(t, p), ω(γ(p))] 0 as t. (7.9) Proof: The sequence {φ(k, p)} is bounded, hence contains a convergent subsequence. This shows that ω[γ(p)] is non-empty. Since γ(p) is bounded, so is the set of its limit points, so ω(γ(p)) is bounded. We showed earlier that it is closed. This implies the compactness. Since the closure of γ(p) lies in Ω, so too does ω[γ(p)] and, by the previous lemma, it is invariant. It remains to prove the connectedness and the condition (7.9). We consider the latter first. Suppose the condition (7.9) fails. Then there exists ɛ > 0 and {t k } such that d[φ(t k, p), ω(γ(p))] > ɛ. Now the boundedness of the orbit guarantees the existence of a convergent subsequence of {φ(t k, p)}; continue to denote this subsequence {φ(t k, p)} and the corresponding subsequence of t- values {t k }. Let q = lim k φ(t k, p). Then q ω(γ(p)), but d[q, ω(γ(p))] ɛ. This is obviously a contradiction. It remains to show that ω is connected. We use the two following easily verified assertions. One of these is that the distance d(x, A) from a point x to a set A is a continuous function of x. A second refers to the description of a set which is not connected. The usual description is that ω is not connected if there exist open sets A, B with the following properties: (i)a B = φ, (ii) A B ω and (iii) A ω φ and B ω φ. The assertion is that if ω is closed and these properties hold for open sets A and B, they hold also for closed sets A and B. This is easily seen by checking the properties for the closed sets A = A ω and B = B ω. We now consider the connectedness of ω. Suppose it is not connected; then there exist closed sets A, B with the properties described above. Since A, B are disjoint closed sets, they are some finite distance apart. Denote d[a, B] δ > 0. Since there is some point of ω in A, t 1 such that d[φ(t 1 ), A] < δ/4. By the same reasoning, there is some time t 2 > t 1 such that d[φ(t 2 ), B] < δ/4. Again, there is some t 3 > t 2 such that d[φ(t 3 ), A] < δ/4. Continuing in this manner we obtain a sequence {t k } such that alternatively for odd and even indices, the orbital point φ(t k ) lies within a distance δ/4 of A or of B; we can clearly arrange this sequence so that t k. Note that δ = d[a, B] d[φ(t 1 ), A] + d[φ(t 1 ), B] d[φ(t 1 ), B] 3δ/4.

9 158 Since the distance function is continuous, we can find some τ 1 in [t 2, t 1 ] such that d[φ(τ 1 ), B] = δ/2. It follows, as above, that d[φ(τ 1 ), A] δ/2. We repeat this process for τ k [t 2k+1, t 2k ] k 0. This process generates another sequence {τ k } with τ k and d[φ(τ k ), A] δ/2, d[φ(τ k ), B] = δ/2. Since {φ (τ k )} is bounded, there exists a convergent subsequence; continue to denote this subsequence with the same notation. Let q = lim k φ(τ k ). Then q ω, but q is bounded away from both A and B. This contradiction completes the proof. The ω-limit set and α-limit set are two of a number of invariant sets that are encountered in characterizing the qualitative behavior of orbits. Here is another. Definition A point p is nonwandering for the system (7.1) if, given any neighborhood U of p and any time T > 0, φ(t, x) U for some x U and some time t T. The set of such points in Ω is called the nonwandering set. Example Let Ω be bounded and invariant under the system (7.1), and suppose that system generates a mapping preserving Lebesgue measure 3. For any p Ω choose a neighborhood U and a time T as in the definition. Consider the family of mappings {φ(t, U), φ(2t, U),..., }. Each of these has the same, positive measure. If they were all disjoint, the measure of Ω would not be finite, but we have assumed that it is in assuming that Ω is bounded. Therefore two of these have a non-empty intersection, say φ(mt, U) and φ(nt, U), where m < n. This implies a non-empty intersection of U and φ ((n m) T, U). Therefore for measure-preserving mappings, every point is nonwandering. Important invariant sets may be specific to a problem, as in the next example. Example In ecological modeling the Lotka-Volterra system is often introduced to approximate the relation between a predator and its prey in some fixed locale. Here the variable x is proportional to the number of 3 A Hamiltonian system will do this.

10 159 prey (rabbits, say) in this locale whereas y is proportional to the number of predators (foxes, say). The equations are ẋ = x(a by), ẏ = y(c dx), (7.10) where a, b, c, d are positive constants. Here it is important for the ecological interpretation that x, y be positive. In other words, if initially this is so, then this property is preserved by the equations. This is in fact the case (see Problem 7 below). PROBLEM SET Prove the identity (7.5) 2. Show that the suspended system of dimension n + 1 obtained from the time-dependent system (7.2) of dimension n cannot have an equilibrium point. 3. Find the periodic solutions of the system ẋ 1 = x 2 + x 1 f(r), ẋ 2 = x 1 + x 2 f(r) where r 2 = x x2 2 and f(r) = r(1 r2 )(4 r 2 ). 4. Consider the nonautonomous, periodic system ẋ = f(x, t), f(x, t + T ) = f(x, t). (7.11) Let x(t) be a solution such that, at some time t 1, x(t 1 ) = x(t 1 + T ). Show that this solution is periodic with period T. 5. Consider the planar autonomous system and suppose dx dt = f(x), x Ω R2, divf = f 1 / x 1 + f 2 / x 2 has one sign in Ω. Show that this system can have no periodic orbits other than equilibrium points.

11 Consider the gradient system dx dt = φ, x Ω Rn, where φ(x) is a smooth, single-valued function. Draw the same conclusion as in the preceding problem. 7. Consider the system ẋ = xf(x, y), ẏ = yg(x, y) where f, g are arbitrary, smooth functions defined in R 2. Show that the lines x = 0 and y = 0 are invariant curves for this system. Infer that each of the four quadrants of the xy-plane is an invariant region for this system. 8. Show that the nonwandering set is closed and positively invariant. 7.4 Poincarè-Bendixson Theory The behavior of solutions of the system (7.1) is severely circumscribed when n = 2 where it takes the form ẋ 1 = f 1 (x 1, x 2 ), ẋ 2 = f 2 (x 1, x 2 ). (7.12) This is due to the limited possibilities for orbits in the plane. A closed orbit, representing a periodic solution, is a Jordan curve, i.e. the topological image of a circle. The separation property of such a curve is based on the Jordan curve theorem, which states that if J is a Jordan curve in R 2, then the complement of J is the union of two disjoint open sets G i and G e, each of which has J as a boundary. G i is bounded and called the interior of J, whereas G e is unbounded and called the exterior of J. In the present section we consider the case n = 2, taking for granted the Jordan curve theorem. The resulting theory is usually referred to as Poincarè-Bendixson theory. The principal result is Theorem below. The proof requires some development and is completed below following a series of lemmas. We need the notion of a transversal to orbits of the system (7.12): Definition A finite closed segment S of a straight line in R 2 is called a transversal with respect to f if f(x) 0 for every point x S and if the direction determined by f at every point of S is different from that of S.

12 161 (a) q (b) p S γ p S Bendixson pocket γ q Bendixson pocket Figure 7.1: Figure (a) indicates an orbit γ intersecting a transversal S at the point p and returning to S at q, forming a Bendixson pocket. Here γ spirals outward along S. Figure (b) is the same except that the orbit spirals inward along S. Figure 7.1 provides an illustration. We infer that every orbit that meets a transversal must cross it, and that all such orbits must cross it in the same direction. Otherwise f would have to be tangent to S somewhere along it, i.e., determine a direction the same as that of S. It is clear that a transversal can be constructed at any regular point of f. We recall that a regular point is one where f 0. We can construct a flow box B on a transversal S consisting of orbits originating on S and continued throughout a small time interval [ σ, σ]: σ is small enough that the time interval required for a point of S to return to S along an orbit of (7.12) exceeds σ. If q B, then under the flow φ of (7.12) there is a unique point q = φ(t, q) on S at a unique time t [ σ, σ]. We ll return to a more formal justification of this in Chapter 9; here we rely on our intuition in the plane and view it as obvious. Lemma If γ is not periodic and meets the transversal S 0 to y 0 at distinct points y k = φ(t k, x) at times t 1 < t 2 <..., then the order of the points y k on S 0 is the same as the order of the times t k, i.e. y k lies between y k 1 and y k+1. If γ is periodic, it can meet S at most at one point. Proof: Suppose first that γ is not periodic. Let Σ be the simple closed curve consisting of γ between y 0 and y 1 and the segment of S 0 that joins

13 162 y 0 and y 1 (see Figure 7.1 (b) to fix ideas). The orbit enters the Bendixson pocket at y 1 in the same direction as at y 0. The orbit can never leave the Bendixson pocket: leaving by crossing γ would imply periodicity, and leaving by crossing S 0 is not possible because the vector field is in the wrong direction along S 0. Hence the next crossing must occur beyond y 1, i.e. y 1 lies between y 0 and y 2. Repeating this reasoning shows that y k+1 lies between y k and y k+2. Next suppose that γ is periodic, with least period T > 0. We express the solution as φ(t, y 0 ) so that the transversal S is constructed at y 0 = φ(0, y 0 ) (for example, y 0 = p in Figure 7.1 (b)). Any other point on the orbit is achieved at a unique time t in the interval [0, T ). Thus if the orbit crosses a second point y 1 on S (y 1 = q in Figure 7.1 (b)) it does so at a time t 1 < T. The orbit cannot return to y 0 across S so must cross γ at some point y 2 = φ(t 2, y 0 ), where t 1 < t 2 < T. But since y 2 also precedes y 1 we must have y 2 = φ(τ 2, y 0 ), where τ 2 < t 2. But then γ is periodic with period t 2 τ 2, a positive number less than T. This contradicts the assumption that T is the least period. Remark: If the orbit is traversed as in Figure 7.1(a), then the orbit leaves the Bendixson pocket instead of entering it, and cannot return. The conclusion is the same as that drawn above. Lemma Let p be a regular point of ω(γ) lying in Ω. A transversal S at p is a transversal to γ. If γ is not periodic, then it must intersect S at infinitely many distinct points. If these intersections with S are denoted by p i, then they all lie on the same side of p and the sequence {p i } converges monotonically to p. Proof: One can construct a transversal to ω(γ) at p since p is a regular point. Construct a flow box B on S including p. Since p is a limit point of γ the latter must enter B and therefore intersect S, showing that S is a transversal also to γ. These intersections must be distinct since otherwise γ would be periodic. Since they are all in the same order according to Lemma they must lie on the same side of p. Since the latter is in ω, one can, by constructing successively smaller flow boxes containing p, infer that they must tend toward p. Lemma If γ and ω(γ) have a regular point in common, then γ is a periodic orbit. Proof: Let p 1 γ ω(γ). Construct a transversal S and a flow box at p 1. Since p 1 ω(γ), the orbit must return to the flow box and hence to

14 163 the transveral at some later time t 2. Let p 2 = φ(t 2, p 1 ) and assume that p 2 p 1 and therefore, by Lemma 7.4.2, that γ is not periodic. Since p 1 is a limit point of γ, the orbit intersects S infinitely often. Let p 3 = φ(t 3, y 1 ) be the next intersection of the orbit with S. By Lemma p 3 must occur further along S from p 1 than p 2. Construct the Bendixson pocket based on p 2 and p 3. Now the orbit γ cannot approach p 1 for t > t 3. However, this is clearly a contradiction since p 1 ω(γ). Lemma A transversal to γ cannot meet ω(γ) in more than one point. Proof: Suppose S is a transversal to γ, and let p 1 p 2 be two points of ω(γ) lying in S. Then the orbit γ also meets S at more than one point, and is therefore not periodic (Lemma 7.4.1). Then γ meets S at infinitely many points {y k } at times t 1 < t 2 <. However, since there are two limit points of γ on S, it is impossible for the points {y k } to be in the corresponding order on S, contradicting Lemma Lemma Suppose γ is bounded and ω(γ) lies in Ω and contains a non-constant periodic orbit γ 0. Then ω(γ) = γ 0. Proof: Let d = ω(γ)\γ 0 and suppose this set is non-empty. Since ω is connected, there exists a limit point of d in γ 0 (see Remark below): q k d, q k q 0, q 0 γ 0. Now, q 0 ω, and is a regular point since otherwise the periodic orbit γ 0 would be constant. By Lemma 7.4.2, one can construct a transversal S to γ at q 0. Construct a flow box on S; there is a point q d in this flow box since q 0 is a limit point of d. Hence p = φ(t, q ) S for some small t. However, p ω since the limit set is invariant and consequently S contains two points p, q 0 of ω. These points are distinct because p γ 0 since otherwise we would infer that q γ 0 which contradicts our assumption that q d. This contradicts Lemma 7.4.4, showing that d must in fact be empty. Remark: The second line of the proof may be expanded as follows. Take q k d with q k p. Then p ω(γ) = d γ 0 since ω is closed. Suppose all such limit points p lay in d. Then d would be closed, and since d and γ 0 are disjoint closed sets, we could infer that ω is not connected. With the aid of the preceding lemmas, we can now prove a version of the Poincarè-Bendixson theorem: Theorem (Poincarè-Bendixson Theorem) If γ is a bounded semiorbit for which ω(γ) lies in Ω and contains no equilibrium points of f, then ω(γ) is a periodic orbit.

15 164 Proof: Assume γ is not periodic, since otherwise the claim holds trivially. ω(γ) is not empty so contains a regular point, and therefore a non constant orbit γ 0. We wish to prove that γ 0 is periodic. γ 0 is bounded and possesses a bounded omega-limit set ω(γ 0 ). Let p 0 ω(γ 0 ). p 0 is a regular point (because ω(γ) contains no equilibrium points). Construct a transversal S 0 to γ 0 at p 0 (Lemma 7.4.2). Since p 0 ω(γ 0 ), γ 0 meets S 0 repeatedly. If γ 0 is not periodic, it meets S 0 at distinct points. Recall that ω(γ) cannot meet the transversal S 0 at more than one point (Lemma 7.4.4) and therefore meets S 0 only at p 0. Thus γ 0, which lies in ω(γ) meets S only at p 0 and is therefore periodic, by Lemma This shows that ω(γ) contains a periodic orbit and therefore (Lemma 7.4.5) is a periodic orbit. Orbits can of course be unbounded, but for bounded orbits the longtime behavior is, as remarked at the beginning of this section, severely circumscribed, as the following theorem shows: Theorem Let γ be a positive semiorbit contained in a compact subset K of Ω and suppose that K contains only a finite number of equilibrium points. Then 1. ω(γ) consists of a single point p which is an equilibrium point of f, and the orbital point x(t) p as t +, or 2. ω(γ) is a periodic orbit, or 3. ω(γ) consists of a finite set of equilibrium points together with their connecting orbits. Each such orbit approaches an equilibrium point as t + and as t Proof: The limit set ω(γ) may consist of regular points and of equilibrium points. We first consider the cases when one or the other of these is missing. 1. Suppose ω contains no regular points. Then it consists entirely of equilibrium points and, since it is connected, it must consist of exactly one of these, x 0 say. Inasmuch as ω = {x 0 }, the orbit approaches x 0 as t. 2. Suppose next that ω contains a regular point but no equilibrium point. Then it contains a complete orbit and no equilibrium point, so it is periodic by the Poincarè-Bendixson theorem.

16 Finally suppose that ω(γ) contains both regular points and a positive number of equilibrium points. It cannot be a periodic orbit because of the latter assumption. Since it contains a regular point, it also contains a non-constant orbit γ 0. Its limit set ω(γ 0 ) is not empty. If ω(γ 0 ) contained a regular point, we could conclude (as in the Poincaré- Bendixson theorem) that γ 0 is periodic, a contradiction. Therefore ω(γ 0 ) contains only equilibrium points and therefore only one equilibrium point x + (since they are finite in number). Since the orbit γ 0 approaches ω(γ 0 ), γ 0 approaches x +.. The orbit γ 0 above, which approaches x + as t +, may also approach x as t. The orbit γ 0 is called a connecting orbit. The equilibrium points x + and x may be different, or they may be the same. In the following example, they are different. Example Consider the system ẋ 1 = x 2 + x 2 1 Rx 1 ( x x 2 1), ẋ2 = 2 (1 + x 2 ) x 1, (7.13) where R is a parameter. The curves x 2 = 1 and x 2 = 1 2x 2 1 are invariant curves for this system (see Figure 7.2). The compact set K consisting of the finite region bounded by these curves together with its boundary contains three equilibrium points, at (0, 0), (1, 1) and ( 1, 1). Orbits starting in the interior of this region spiral outward toward its boundary, which is the ω-limit set for any such orbit. This ω-limit set contains two equilibrium points together with the two orbits connecting them, illustrating the third possibility enumerated in Theorem Limit Cycles A comprehensive theory of periodic orbits in R n and their stability is taken up in Chapter 9. However, when n = 2, we are able to draw a number of useful conclusions on the basis of the Poincarè-Bendixson theory and its supporting lemmas. The setting that we wish to consider is the following. We suppose that the region Ω contains an isolated periodic orbit Γ. We then show that nearby orbits spiral into Γ either as t + or as t. Theorem Suppose that Γ is a non-constant, periodic orbit of the twodimensional system (7.12) and there are no other periodic orbits within some neighborhood of Γ. Then every trajectory beginning sufficiently close to Γ spirals into it either as t + or as t.

17 x x 1 Figure 7.2: The compact region K described in Example is shown, together with a typical orbit. The three equilibrium points are denoted by dots. The value of the parameter has been taken to be R = 0.2. Any such orbit spirals outward, gradually becoming indistinguishable from the boundary, which is its ω-limit set.

18 167 Proof: It is possible to choose a neighborhood N of Γ in which there are no equilibrium points, for otherwise there would be a sequence of equilibrium points {x n } for which d(x n, Γ) 0 as n. This sequence is bounded and therefore has a convergent subsequence, converging (say) to x. Since f(x n ) = 0, this is so for x as well, i.e., x is an equilibrium point. But d(x, Γ) = 0, i.e., x Γ: this contradicts the assertion that Γ is a nonconstant, periodic orbit. Choose N so that it contains no equilibrium point of the system (7.12), and no periodic orbit other than Γ. Establish a transversal S to Γ at a point p. Then Γ returns to p at intervals of time ±T, where T is the (least) period of Γ. Orbits starting within a sufficiently small neighborhood of Γ must likewise intersect S within a time interval close to ±T, by virtue of the continuity of solutions x = φ(t, x 0 ) with respect to initial data x 0. It therefore suffices to consider orbits starting on S within a sufficiently small neighborhood of Γ (smaller than the neighborhood N of the preceding paragraph). Let q 0 be such a point for some orbit γ and let q 1 be the next intersection of γ with S for t increasing, q 1 the next intersection for t decreasing. These two points cannot be equal or γ would be periodic, which is excluded. Therefore one of them is closer to p than the other; for definiteness, say d(q 1, p) < d(q 1, p). We consider the Bendixson pocket B 1 formed by following γ from q 0 to q 1 and then S from q 1 back to q 0, and we repeat this, getting a second intersection q 2. It is clear that d(q 2, p) < d(q 1, p), and so on: successive intersections are nearer to p. Suppose the sequence {q n } failed to converge to p. Denote the interior of the curve Γ by I Γ and consider the closure of the set B 1 /I Γ. The positive semi-orbit γ is confined to this compact set, which is free of equilibrium points and which then, by the Poincarè-Bendixson theorem, contains a periodic orbit a contradiction. Therefore the intersections {q n } converge to p and the orbit γ spirals into Γ as t. Had we assumed that d(q 1, p) < d(q 1, p) instead, then we would conclude that γ spirals into Γ as t. An isolated periodic orbit like that of this theorem is called a limit cycle if all sufficiently nearby orbits are attracted to it as t + or as t (cf Problem 4 of Exercises 7.4.1). However, the theorem allows for the peculiar possibility that orbits outside Γ tend to Γ as t + whereas those inside tend away from Γ in this limit (or tend toward Γ as t ) (cf. Problem 5 of Exercises 7.4.1). It will be a consequence of the general theory of Chapter 9 that this peculiar possibility is excluded if the vector field is assumed to be C 1.

19 168 We consider next an important class of cases for which periodic orbits are not isolated Hamiltonian systems Let the system (7.12) be in canonical Hamiltonian form, defined as follows: dq dt = H p, dp dt = H q (7.14) where we have written x = (q, p) to conform to standard terminology in Hamiltonian dynamics, and H(q, p) = H(x) is a smooth function in a domain Ω in R 2. Suppose the domain Ω contains an isolated equilibrium point x 0 = (q 0, p 0 ) which is, moreover stable: given a neighborhood U 0 of x 0, all orbits starting in a sufficiently small neighborhood V 0 U 0 remain in U 0 for all t > 0. This will be true if the function H(x) H(x 0 ) is positive-definite near x 0. 4 We may assume U 0 is small enough to exclude any equilibrium points other than x 0. We may then infer, under fairly general assumptions, that all orbits starting in V 0 are periodic. The precise result, stated for the case when the equilibrium point in question is located at the origin of coordinates, is as follows. Proposition Suppose that the system (7.14) has a stable equilibrium point at the origin and that the domain Ω contains the origin and no other equilibrium point. Suppose there is a direction ˆt such that ˆt H > 0 (7.15) on Ω\{O}. Then there is a subdomain V 0 of Ω such that all orbits beginning in V 0 \ {O} are periodic. Remark: By the notation Ω \ {O} we mean the punctured region consisting of Ω with the origin removed. Proof: The part of the line segment x = sˆt that lies in Ω \ {O} is easily seen to be a transversal S to orbits in this region. Choose V 0 so that any orbit beginning in V 0 remains in Ω for all subsequent times. Let γ be any orbit beginnining in V 0 \ {O}; it is necessarily nonconstant. If it is not periodic it must, by Lemma 7.4.2, intersect S successively at distinct points x 1 = x(t 1 ), x 2 = x(t 2 ),.... Because of the condition (7.15), H(x 1 ) H(x 2 ). But the structure of the Hamiltonian system is such that H(x(t)) is constant on orbits. It follows that γ is periodic. 4 We discuss stability more fully in the next chapter.

20 S p 0 A q Figure 7.3: A phase-space diagram for the system with the Hamiltonian of Example The region marked A consists of the stable equilibrium point at the origin together with periodic orbits surrounding it. All other orbits either lie on the separatrix S (and tend toward ( 1, 0) as t ± ) or are unbounded. The region of periodic orbits need not be small. Given a stable equilibrium point, there is always an invariant domain containing it. If it can be ascertained that it satisfies the conditions for Theorem to hold, we can infer that all orbits are periodic in that domain. Example Let H = p2 2 + q2 2 + q3 3. This Hamiltonian has a separatrix S passing through the unstable equilibrium point at (q, p) = ( 1, 0) (see Figure 7.3). This curve, on which H(q, p) = 1/6, separates the plane into regions of different behavior. It is also an orbit, which approaches the (unstable!) (q, p) = ( 1, 0) both as t + and as t. The region marked A in Figure 7.3, which contains the stable equilibrium point (q, p) = (0, 0), is invariant and bounded. Any orbit in this region satisfies the conditions of Theorem 7.4.1, so all orbits in A are periodic. PROBLEM SET 7.4.1

21 Consider a two-dimensional system ẋ = f(x, y), ẏ = g(x, y) and consider an invariant curve of this system of the form y = h(x), where h is a differentiable function on some interval I of the x axis. Show that a necessary and sufficient condition for h to represent such a curve is that h (x)f(x, h(x)) = g(x, h(x)) (7.16) on I. 2. For Example of the text, verify, using the criterion (7.16) above, that the curves x 2 = 1 and x 2 = 1 2x 2 1 are indeed invariant. 3. Put R = 0 in Example Show that the system is then Hamiltonian. Find the Hamiltonian function. 4. Consider the system ẋ = (1 x 2 + y 2 )x y, ẏ = (1 x 2 + y 2 )y + x. Identify any equilibrium points and periodic orbits and, in the case of the latter, determine whether nearby orbits spiral toward or away from the periodic orbit. Hint: rewrite this system in terms of polar coordinates in the plane. 5. Repeat the previous problem for the system ẋ = 1 x 2 + y 2 x y, ẏ = 1 x 2 + y 2 y + x where the vertical bars denote absolute value. 6. Hilbert s Sixteenth Problem asks, in part, for the number of limit cycles the system (7.12 can have when f 1 and f 2 are polynomials of degree n in x 1, x 2. The maximum number for a given degree n, H(n), has been difficult to estimate. Show that H(1) = 0.

22 314

23 Bibliography [1] G. Birkhoff and G.-C. Rota. Ordinary Differential Equations. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, [2] P.F. Byrd and M. D. Friedman. Handbook of elliptic integrals for engineers and physicists. Springer, Berlin, [3] Jack Carr. Applications of Centre Manifold Theory. Springer-Verlag, New York, [4] Earl A. Coddington and Norman Levinson. Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations. New York: McGraw-Hill, [5] J. Guckenheimer and P. Holmes. Nonlinear Oscillations, Dynamical Systems, and Bifurcation of Vector Fields. Springer-Verlag, New York, [6] Einar Hille. Lectures on Ordinary Differential Equations. London: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, [7] M. Hirsch and S. Smale. Differential Equations, Dynamical Systems, and Linear Algebra. Academic Press, New York, [8] E.L. Ince. Ordinary Differential Equations. Dover Publications, New York, [9] S. MacLane and G. Birkhoff. Algebra. New York: Macmillan, [10] Jerrold E. Marsden, Anthony J. Tromba, and Alan Weinstein. Basic Multivariable Calculus. New York: Springer-Verlag:W.H. Freeman, [11] I.G. Petrovski. Ordinary Differential Equations. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs,

24 316 [12] Walter Rudin. Principles of Mathematical Analysis. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964.

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