1 MILL VIEW /MILL VILLE SUBDIVISION (alk/a PORT ST. JOE MILL VIEW ADDITION) PORT ST. JOE, GULF COUNTY, FLORIDA EPA FACILITY ill: FLNOO473 4 MA Y 22, 23 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Division of Health Assessment and Consultation Atlanta, Georgia 3333
2 Health Consultation: A Note of Explanation An A TSDR health consultation is a verbal or written response from A TSDR to a specific request for information about health risks related to a specific site, a chemical release, or the presence of hazardous material. In order to prevent or mitigate exposures, a consultation may lead to specific actions, such as restricting use of or replacing water supplies; intensifying environmental sampling; restricting site access; or removing the contamiated material. In addition, consultations may recommend additional public health actions, such as conducting health surveillance activities to evaluate exposure or trends in adverse health outcomes; conducting biological indicators of exposure studies to assess exposure; and providing health education for health care providers and community members. This concludes the health consultation process for this site, unless additional information is obtained by A TSDR which, in the Agency's opinion, indicates a need to revise or append the conclusions previously issued. You May Contact ATSDR TOLL FREE at A TSDR or Visit our Home Page at:
3 . FOREWORD This document summarizes public health issues for the Millville or Mill View subdivision in Port St. Joe, Florida. It is based on a site evaluation prepared by the Florida Department of Health (DOH). A number of steps are necessary to do such an evaluation: Evaluating exposure: Florida DOH scientists begin by reviewing available information about environmental conditions at the site. The first task is to find out how much contamination is present, where it is fund on the site, and how people might be exposed to it. Usually, Florida DOH does not collect its own environmental sampling data. We rely on information provided by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), the U.s. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government agencies, private businesses, and the general public. Evaluating health effects: If there is evidence that people are being exposed-or could be exposed-to hazardous substances, Florida DOH scientists will determine whether that exposure could be hannful to human health. Their report focuses on public health; that is, the health impact on the community as a whole, and is based on existing scientific information. Developing recommendations: In the evaluation report, Florida DOH outlines its conclusions regarding any potential health threat posed by a site and offers recommendations for reducing or eliminating human exposure to contaminants. The role of Florida DOH in dealing with hazardous waste sites is primarily advisory. For that reason, the evaluation report will typically recommend actions to be taken by other agencies, including the EP A and Florida DEP. If, however, a health threat exists or is imminent, Florida DOH will issue a public health advisory warning people of the danger, and will work to resolve the problem. Soliciting community input: The evaluation process is interactive. Florida DOH starts by soliciting and evaluating information from various government agencies, individuals or organizations responsible for cleaning up the site, and those living in communities near the site. Any conclusions about the site are shared with the groups and organizations providing the information. Once an evaluation report has been prepared, Florida DOH seeks feedback from the public. If you have questions or comments about this report, we encourage you to contact us. Please write to. Or call us at: Health Education Program Manager Superfund Assessment and Health Education Bureau of Environmental Epidemiology/Florida Department of Health 452 Bald ypress Way, Bin # A-8 Tallahassee, FL (85) , or toll-free during business hours:
4 Background and Statement of Issues Mill View Health Consultation MillvilleZFinalZ.doc The Florida DOH evaluates the public health significance of hazardous waste sites through a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in Atlanta, Georgia. In this health consultation, Florida DOH evaluates the public health threat from chemicals found in the soil/groundwater samples collected by Florida DEP in late 21 and early and mid-22 (Florida DEP 22). In 1938 the St. Joe Paper Company began its Gulf of Mexico paper mill operations, settling in Port St. Joe, Florida (Figure 1). From the 194s to the early 195s the St. Joe Paper Company filled a "sock-shaped" canal/wetlands area east of the paper mill with paper mill wastes (Figure 2). These wastes included tree bark, boiler ash, "lime grits" (small pieces of limestone) and slag. In the mid-195s St. Joe Paper Company sold properties, including this filled area, for what became the 1-acre Mill View Subdivision West (Figure 3). Some Mill View residents told Florida DOH they added soil to their properties to fill holes, to raise the level of the land before building, and to grow lawns. During the 198s St. Joe Paper Company filled a second wetlands area with limey clay, soil, and wood chips. The second phase of the Mill View residential development, Mill View Subdivision East, was built over part of this second filled area (Figure 4). But before long, subsidence in these two areas caused cracked walls (photograph 11) and broken sewer lines in some homes. To avoid the risk of an explosion from a gas line breaking, the gas company disconnected gas service to one subsiding home (ATSDR 21a). In 199, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) found arsenic and solvents in groundwater beneath the Apalachicola Northern Railroad property, just south of Mill View Subdivision West (Figure 1). The source of the arsenic contamination at Apalachicola Northern Railroad was found during a Contamination Assessment in the early '9s and site remediation of the railroad site has been underway since. The Mill View neighborhood's attorneys recently revealed another possible (undisclosed) source to DEP they found during the "discovery" phase of an Apalachicola Northern Railroad cleanup-related lawsuit. DEP then undertook an investigation to resolve the question of the source of arsenic contamination. DEP's investigation resulted in.the Draft Mill View Preliminary Cotamination Report and Florida DOH's initial Health Consultation. In June 21, Florida DEP collected 32 soil samples on a predetennined grid from Mill View Subdivision West (Figure 3). The grid included 19 locations within the "sock-shaped" canal/wetlands area and 13locations outside this area. Florida DEP found ash, "lime grits" and slag, indicating that this area had been filled with paper mill waste. Florida DEP also tested these soil samples for five metals: arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel. The Gulf County Health Department requested Florida Department of Health (DOH) review the test results. In an October 31,21 health consultation, Florida DOH recommended Florida DEP collect additional soil/groundwater samples and analyze for all chemicals associated with paper mill waste (ATSDR 21a).
5 Mill View Health Consultation Millville2Fina12.doc Demographics In 199 approximately 224 persons lived within 1 mile of the center of the Mill View Subdivision West. About 29% were 19 years of age or younger. Approximately 69% were white, 31 % were black, and less than 1 % were American Indian or Hispanlc. The average per capita income was $1,267 and 18% (41 persons) were below the poverty level (Bureau of the Census 199). Methodology In late 21 and early to mid-22 Florida DEP collected soil, groundwater, and surface water samples in Mill View Subdivision West arid analyzed for contaminants associated with paper mill waste (Figures 5, 6, and 7, Florida DEP 22). Florida DEP also tested soil in Mill View Subdivision East (Figure 8). Because they did not find elevated levels of hazardous chemicals in the soil in the Mill View Subdivision East, Florida DEP did not test surface water or groundwater. In this Health Consultation, Florida DOH evaluates the following analytical data: Soil Samples Ari122 -Florida DEP collected 1 soil samples from Mill View Subdivision West and 8 soil samples from Mill View Subdivision East. They analyzed these soil samples for volatile organic compounds, semi-volatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, and metals. They also analyzed 6 soil samples (3 from each subdivision) for dioxins and furans (Florida DEP 22). June 22 -Florida DEP collected 18 more soil samples from Mill View Subdivision West. They also collected one surface scrape sample from both Mill View West and East Subdivisions. They analyzed all of the samples for semi-volatile organic compounds (including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) and polycworinated biphenyls (Florida DEP 22). Surface Water and Groundwater Samples August 21- Florida DEP sampled groundwater from six irrigation wells and 11 groundwatermonitoring wells in Mill View Subdivision West. They also sampled the canal north of the Subdivision West. Florida DEP analyzed the water samples for arsenic, cadmium, nickel, lead and volatile organic compounds (Florida DEP 22). October 22 -Florida DEP collected groundwater samples from the 11 monitoring wells and the canal and analyzed for chemicals associated with pulpwood manufacturing: calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, chloride, sulfate, sulfide, semi-volatile organic compounds (including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) and alkalinity (Florida DEP 22).
6 Mill View Health Consultation Millville2Fina12.doc Discussion Physical Hazards Florida DOH found fill subsidence in both the eastern and western Mill View subdivision fill areas could indirectly affect the health and quality of life of community members. Subsidence has caused structural damage to homes and affects water, sewer, and gas lines. Cracking outside walls and roofs could also allow inside access to water, insects, birds, and rodents, all of which can be disease vectors. Environmental Contamination By comparing soil, groundwater, and surface water test results to health-based screening values, Florida DOH identified arsenic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (P AHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as contaminants of concern. It should be noted, however, that identification of a contaminant of concern does not necessarily indicate a public health threat; rather, such identification focuses investigative attention on those contaminants of highest concern. M!: Mill View is in an industrial area of Port St. Joe. Thus in the past, residents could have been exposed to chemicals in the air from the St. Joe Paper Mill to the west, from the Arizona Chemical Company to the north, and from the Apalachicola Northern Railroad yard to the south. Because ofth absence of any air quality measurements, Florida DOH is unable to estimate a dose and evaluate possible health effects from inhalation exposures. Soil in the Mill View Subdivisions is a mixture of paper mill waste, fill, and native soil. Thus Florida DOH assessed the potential public health threat from exposure to all soil samples regardless of depth. Mill View residents could have accidentally eaten small amounts of contaminated soil from their hands or from homegrown vegetables. Residents could also have breathed contaminated dust from this soil. To estimate potential daily exposure rates for adults and children, Florida DOH assumed exposure to the maximum soil concentration of each chemical (Table 1). Exposure rate (also called a daily dose) is given in milligrams of chemical per kilogram of body weight per day (mg/kg/day). A milligram is 1;1 of a gram (a raisin or a paperclip each weigh about 1 gram). A kilogram is about 2 pounds. To calculate a dose, Florida DOH used standard body weights, ingestion rates, inhalation rates, and exposure times (ATSDR 1992, EPA 1997). Florida DOH assumed that adults might ingest 1 milligrams of soil per day (about the weight of postage stamp) and children might ingest 2 milligrams of soil per day. Florida DOH assumed daily exposure for 3 years for adults, and daily exposure for 4 years for children.
7 Mill View Health Consultation Millville2Fina12.doc Table 1. Soil Concentrations for Contaminants of Concern IPAHs *ATSDR Ix 1-1> excess cancer risk evaluation guide (ATSDR 21) mg/kg = milligrams per kilogram PADs = polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PCBs = polychlorinated biphenyls Arsenic in Soil- Florida DOH found that accidentally ingesting contaminated soil or inhaling contaminated dust with the highest concentration of arsenic would not likely cause non-cancer illness. Likewise, Florida DOH found that accidentally ingesting contaminated soil or inhaling contaminated dust with the highest measured concentration of arsenic would not likely result in an apparent increased cancer risk (A TSDR 2a). Polycyclic Aromatic Hvdrocarbons (PAHs) in Soil- Florida DOH found that accidentally ingesting contaminated soil or inhaling contaminated dust with the highest concentration of P AHs would not likely cause non-cancer illness. Likewise, Florida DOH found that accidentally ingesting contaminated soil or inhaling contaminated dust with the highest measured concentration of P AHs would not likely result in an apparent increased cancer risk (A TSDR 1995). PAlls are not easily or extensively absorbed into the body. Coal tar shampoos and ointments have long been used for the treatment of various skin disorders. Studies have generally been unable to find evidence of increased tumors from exposure to P AHs in coal tar shampoos and ointments (Susten 2). Generally, adverse respiratory effects and skin cancers are only associated with daily inhalation or direct contact with high workplace levels of PAlls. Of the individual chemicals that make up the P AH group, only 15 are associated with cancer in animals or humans (A TSDR 1995). For an integrated concentration of chemicals Florida DOH multiplied the measured individual P AH concentrations by their toxicity relative to benzo[a]pyrene. Polychlorinated BiQhenyl (PCBs) in Soil- PCBs are measured as concentrations of various mixtures of individual PCBs. A PCB mixture known as "Arochlor-126" was found in the eastern fill area. Florida DOH compared the doses for adults and children-calculated for the highest levels of Arochlor-126 found in the fill-to doses of Arochlor-126 known to cause illness. Florida DOH found that accidentally ingesting contaminated soil or inhaling contaminated dust with the highest measured concentration of Arochlor-126 would not likely cause non-cancer illness (ATSDR 2b).
8 Mill View Health Consultation Millville2Fina12.doc Florida DOH found that accidentally ingesting contaminated soil or inhaling contaminated dust with the highest concentration of Arochlor-126 would not likely result in an apparent increased cancer risk. The dose Florida DOH calculated for daily, long-term exposure to the highest measured level. of Arochlor-126 is about 11, times less than the lowest Cancer Effect Level (a daily dose) found in long-term rat studies (ATSDR 2b). To minimize exposure to soil contaminants, ATSDR often has recommended residents not garden in soils having PCBs greater than 1 parts per million (ppm-the same as milligrams per kilogram). In soils having between 1 and 1 ppm PCBs, ATSDR has recommended that residents use good gardening practices (see below),((john Wheeler, ATSDR Environmental Health Scientist, personal communication, 22, fa;r an example see Appendix A).. In the Mill View western fill area DEP did not find any surface soil with PCBs measuring more than 1 ppm. The two samples with PCBs between 1 and 1 ppm were measured in fill samples deeper than 2 feet below the land surface. For soils with less than 1 ppm PCBs, ATSDR recommends no special gardening practices but notes that good gardening practices are still recommended. Good Gardening Practices:./ Add clean compost or soil to your garden..i Be sure phosphate and ph levels do not fall below recommended values. Your county extension office can help evaluate your soil../ Avoid dust. You can do this by using mulches and not gardening in dry soil on windy days..r Don't eat and drink while in the garden..r Limit intake of homegrown root crops, especially carrots. Root crops, in addition to dirt adhering to them, could take up PCBs under certain conditions. Crops that form -above the ground are much less likely to contain PCBs. A layer of cells in the roots stop PCBs from being transported into the rest of the plant. Residents can avoid any chemicals in the fill by growing root vegetables in raised beds containing only clean topsoil (not paper mill waste fill)..r Wash leafy vegetables that grow close to the ground (such as lettuce) because contaminated soil can adhere to the large surface areas of such plants. Adding a little vinegar to the wash water will help remove dirt and contamination. When coming in the house from working in the garden:.t Remove shoes before entering the house..t Wash your hands. tf Wash dirty clothing.
9 Mill View Health Consultation Millville2Final2.doc Since Florida DOH cannot e out PCBs in surface soil at levels that should be avoided in gardening exposures, we_reco end residents follow these practices as prudent public health policy. Use of good gardenin practices will reduce the chances of coming into contact with contaminated soil while still lowing individuals the enjoyment and convenience of homegrown fruits and vegetables. Surface Water and Groundater No one in the Mill View Subvision West or East is using either surface water or groundwater as drinking water. These subdfvisions are supplied with municipal water from city wells. Florida DEP found relatively.ttle groundwater contamination. The surface water and many groundwater samples, howev, contained iron, a naturally occurring metal. Iron can give water a strong taste and a rusty color. ne irrigation well contained lead above the drinking water standard. The lead in water fr m this well, however, could be from leaded solder in plumbing rather than in groundwater. Le d in water from this irrigation well is unlikely to accumulate to levels in plants that would cau e illness if the plants were eaten. Three monitoring wells contai ed sodium at levels greater than the drinking water standard. Sodium hydroxide was used i the chemical wood-pulping process at the mill and could be responsible for the basic (high ph levels found in some wells. Florida DEP found very low levels of dioxins and furans in one groundwater sample. The laboratory blank, however, also contained dioxins and furans, ndicating laboratory contamination. Regardless of the source of dioxins and furans, residents i the Mill View Subdivision West or East are not using either surface water or groundwater drinking water. Children's Health Considertions ATSDR and Florida DOH rec gnize that in communities faced with the contamination of their environment, the unique vuine bilities of infants and children demand special attention. Children are at a greaterisk an are adults for certain kinds of exposure to hazardous substances emitted from waste sites. Because they play outdoors and because they often carry f,ood into contaminated areas, hildren are more likely to be exposed to contaminants in the environment. Most children ar shorter than adults. This means they breathe dust, soil, and heavy vapors closer to the ground. T ey are also smaller in stature than adults, resulting in higher doses of chemical exposure per body weight. And if toxic exposures occur during critical growth stages, the developing body sy tems of children can sustain permanent damage. Probably most important, however, is that chi dren depend on adults for risk identification and risk management, housing, and acc ss to medical care. Thus adults should be aware of public health risks in their community so the can guide their children accordingly. In recognition of these concem, ATSDR has developed screening values for the chemicals calculated specifically for chil en's exposures. The concentrations of chemicals measured in the soil in the Mill View Subdivisi n are unlikely to cause illness in children (ATSDR 2c).
10 Mill View Health Consultation Millville2Fina12.doc Conclusions Florida DOH is unable to evaluate the possible health effects for workers and community members from airborne and/or work exposures from Port St. Joe industrial facilities (St. Joe Paper Mill, Arizona Chemical Company, Apalachicola Northern Railroad and possibly others) because we are unaware of any worker exposure or air quality data. Indirect exposures to family members may also have occulted if workers brought chemicals home on their clothes. Florida DOH found subsidence in both the eastern and western Mill View subdivision fill areas could indirectly affect the health and quality of life of community members. Subsidence has caused structural damage to homes and affects water, sewer, and gas lines. Cracking outside walls and roofs could also allow inside access to water, insects, birds, and rodents, all of which can be disease vectors. Although subsidence i occurring in both areas, elevated chemicals were only measured in the western fill material. To avoid confusion, our conclusions (other than subsidence) for the western and eastern fill areas are listed separately in the following paragraphs. Western Fill Area The western fill area along Battle Street in the Mill View subdivision is categorized as an "Indetenninate Public Health Hazard" because DOH cannot rule out PCBs in surface soil at levels that should be avoided in gardening exposures. No surface soil samples showed PCBs at levels of concern for health, but two soil samples from below 2 feet deep had PCBs at levels for which ATSD:R generally recommends good gardening practices. Adding clean topsoil would help form a barrier against the fill and would reduce potential fill-chemical exposures in dust, soil, or garden vegetables-as would good gardening practices. While shallow groundwater in the western fill area contains lead and sodium above Florida drinking water standards, no one in the western part of the Mill View Subdivision is using surface water or groundwater as a source of drinking water. No risk of illness is expected from exposure to this groundwater if it is used to water grass or edible plants. The entire Mill View subdivision is supplied with municipal water from city wells for drinking and other uses. Eastern Fill Area The Bay Street fill area is catagorized as a "No Public Health Hazard" because fill analytical results did not show chemicals at levels of health concern. Because elevated chemicals levels were not measured in the soil, no shallow groundwater was analyzed in the eastern fill area. Recommendations Florida DOH recommends residents in subsiding houses use flexible connections for gas, water and sewer service. Residents are encouraged to have the appropriate authorities ensure gas, water, and sewage infrastructure meet all safety standards. Florida DOH recommends residents
11 Mill View Health Consultation MillvilleZFinalZ.doc ensure that repairs are made to cracked roofs and walls to prevent water damage and limit access to insects, birds and rodents. Specific recommendations for the western fill area include: 1) Florida DOH recommends residents use the Good Gardening practices outlined in the previous Discussion section. 2) Florida DOH recommends residents not use shallow ground water for drinking because the sodium levels are above the Florida drinking water standards. Public Health Action Plan 1 Florida DOH will evaluate the additional infonnation on chemicals in soil and groundwater collected by the BPA and its contractor in late 22 and early DOH will continue to assist the Gulf County Health Department and the Millville/Mill View community by reviewing new environmental data.
12 References Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Public health assessment guidance manual Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Update. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Guidance on including child health issues in Division of Health Assessment and Consultation Documents. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2a. Toxicological profile for arsenic. Update. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2b. Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. Update. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 21. Soil and water comparison values. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 21a. Health consultation for Mill View/Millville Subdivision, Port St. Joe, Gulf County, Florida. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services. Bureau of the Census LandView ill software Version 1.1 (identifying demographic data in and around Port St. Joe, Gulf County, Florida.) Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce. Environmental Protection Agency. 1997, Exposure factors handbook, Volumes I, n, and ill. Washington, DC: EPA/6/P-95/2F a,b, c. Florida Department of Environmental Protection Groundwater monitoring parameters and pollution sources. Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Bureau of Waste Cleanup. Florida Department of Environmental Protection Developmnt of soil target cleanup levels for chapter , F.A.C. Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 22. Draft preliminary contamipation assessment report, Mill View, Port St. Joe, Gulf County, Florida, [city, state where prepared]: SIS report Number 22-X..
13 Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 22a. Development of soil target cleanup levels for chapter , F.A. C. Tallahassee, Florida. Susten A. 2. June 28 regarding toxicity of P AHs.
14 AUTHORS Florida Department of Health Authors Connie Garrett and Randy Merchant Bureau of Environmental Epidemiology Division of Environmental Health (85) ATSDR Reviewer Debra Gable Technical Project Officer Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
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17 CERTIFICATION The Florida Department of Health, Bureau of Environmeptal Epidemiology prepared this Public Health Consultation under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. It followed approved methodology and procedures existing at the time it began. -,, ;:=[f- Technical Project Officer, SPS, SSAB, DHAC ATSDR The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, A TSDR, has reviewed this health consultation, and concurs with its findings.,.'.#&-1h( -.t",-.- --' Roberta,Erlwein Section Chief, SPS, SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR 14
18 Appendix A A TSDR's Gardening in Anniston Brochure 15
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