1 EI Malcriado.. THE VOICE OF THE FARM WORKER Volume III Number 3 Delano, California in English April 1-1-5, 19 COACHELLA GROWERS ON THE RUN story on page 3
2 EL MALCRIADO/page 2 JUDGE DENIES UFWOC ACCESS TO POISON INFO. BAKERSFIELD, March 27--In an appalling decision standard propaganda speil. The Judge also quoted handed down by Judge George A. Brown today, the the growers' contention that "the grape strike and Judge ruled that UFWOC Attorney Jerome Cohen and boycott having been unsuccessful: the purpose in the other representatives of the Union should be denied Union's campaign to regulate the use of pesticides was access to all public records on pesticide and herbi- "to invoke public sympathy and support and to force cide poison applications filed with the County Agri- unionization" on the workers. cultural Commissions. The records, which contain such Cohen told EL MALCRIADO' that he will definitely information as the kinds of poisons used, the places appeal the decision, and that the Union will continue used, the amounts and strengths of the dosages, and its campaign to protect the workers from the danother pertinant information, were sought by Union' gers of economic poisc;ms used in the fields. representatives for information on which to base protective clauses in Union contracts protecting farm workers from possible injuries while working with or in proximity with such chemical poisons. The case has been dragging through the courts for' over eight months, and became an issue last August 22 when Superior Court Judge J. Kelley Steele issued a "temporary" restraining order forbidding the Kern County Commissioner from showing any of the records to Cohen. The Crop Dusting companies and poison applicators petitioned for the injunction, and Seldon Morley, Kern County Agricultural Commissioner, supproted their petition. UFWOC entered the case as "intervenor" in behalf of the general public and the farm workers. In his decision, Judge Brown ruled, TIlERE IS NO DISPUTE THAT MANY COMMONLY USED PESTI CIDES--PARTICULARLY THE ORGANIC PHOSPHATES AND CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS--ARE HIGHLY TOXIC AND CAN CONSTITUTE A HAZARD TO HUMAN HEALTH AND WELFARE, INCLUDING DEATH, IF NOT PROPERLY REGULATED AND USED," But the Judge ruled that "requiring the disclosure of this information would seriously hamper the essential cooperation existing between all segments of the pesticide industry and the farmers on the one hand and with the commissioners on the other." The Judge further stated, "TIlE IMPORTANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRY TO THIS VALLEY AND THIS STATE IS ENORMOUS, NOT ONLY IN TERMS OF TIlE EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME WHICH IT GENERATES, BUTIN TERMS OF TIlE ASTRO NOMICAL INCREASE IN PRODUCTIVITY AND IM PROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF FOOD AND FIBER THAT HAS ACCOMPANIED WIDESPREAD USE OF AGRICUL TURAL CHEMICALS, " The JUdge's decision contained a series of statements which indicated his attitude towards the Union in general. At one point, the Judge states, The court is not unmindful of the very few agricultural workers who are members of UFWOC," a statement which sounds like it is based on Johnny Giumarra's BORDER LAWS MAY BE ABUSE'D MEXICALI, BAJA CALIFORNIA-6pokesmen for the United Farm Workers have warned that the new border crossing regulations, which went into effect on January IS, may open the border to a new flood of strikebreakers into the Coachella Valley when the grape harvest gets under way in May. Thousands of Mexican citizens are taking advantage of new regulations and applying for visiting permit cards to travel in the United States, according to Robert L. Jarratt of the US Immigration and Naturalization Service. Previously, Mexican visitors could not travel more than ISO miles past the border and were limited to 72 hours in this country. Though a visitor's card did not permit the Mexican citizen to work in the US, many Mexican citizens used it to gain entry, and then went to work, often strike-breaking, illegally. Jarratt explained that the new regulations are even more liberal" in that they allow Mexican citizens a IS-day visitor card for travel anywhere in a fourstate area-arizona, New Mexico. Texas, and California. Six-month visitor cards are also available. In a check at Nogales, MexiCO, at least Mexicans had obtained the IS-day permit during the two weeks following January 15.. In a speech to Arizona businessmen, Jarratt pointedly warned that American labor unions are increasing pressure to halt Mexicans commuting to jobs in the United States. His implications were clear: that these visitor's permits were being abused and that if the unions had their way, regulations would be considerably tightened. UFWOC has no objections to liberal visitors permits. but is increasingly concerned over the wholesale violations of the spirit, intent, and letter of the law. and the lax attitude of the Immigration Department towards the problem.
3 EL MALCRJADO/page 3 COACHELLA, April I--The members of the Desert Grape Growers League and League President Mike Bozick were named defendants in a $1 million libel suit filed this morning by United Farm Workers Organizing Committee Director Cesar Chavez. Chavez said today Bozick "knowingly made unfounded statements March 26 when he told the press that the Union and I were responsible for alleged threats on the lives of grower Keene Larson and crew boss Josephine Garcia." Chavez's suit also demands damages for Bozick's statements that Chavez or union members threatened tements that Chavez and the Union did not believe in their avowed dedication to non-violent principles. UFWOC Vice President Gilberto Padilla, in charge of the Union's organizing drive in Coachella Valley, said Chavez had ordered the suit filed after Bozick refused to retract his statements or make specific accusations against those who supposedly made the threats." Earlier this week, UFWOC Attorney David Averbuck called an State Attorney General Thomas L~Ch to investigate Bozick's allegations, and offering the Union's complete cooperation in the investigation. Union supporters have charged that Bozick's accusations against Chavez and unnamed members of the United Farm Workers appear to be designed to create an atmosphere of violence in the Coachella Valley against members of the farm workers' union. Chavez's administrative assistant Rev. James Drake said Thursday "Bozick is skirting just as close to libel as he can without having to clear himself. If he he has any clearcut proof that this was done by the union, then he should take the proper steps." Drake's employers, the California Migrant Ministry, are seeking an injunction in Los Angeles County Superior Court to prevent Larson from playing a tape recording of an abusive conversation which he claims is Drake's Drake has proof tht the voice on the recording, which is being played in n; merous California churches, is not his. Chavez's suit names as defendants al I members of the Desert Grape Growers League, since Bozick made his charges in his capacity as president of the League. UFWOC's headquarters in Coachella are situated in 1377 Sixth Street in Coachella. t \ COACHELLA, April I--The United Farm Workers OrganiZing Committee returned to the Coachella Valley last week, and the organizing campaign got off to a frenzied start. As organizers began moving around the valley, signing up more workers daily, local growers seemed to panic. While Cesar Chavez was in Delano, local newspapers here reported that he had been seen in the Coachella Valley. Desert Grape Growers League President Mike Bo": zick charged the Union was responsible for alleged threats against two growers and a female crew boss, and was answered with a $1 million libel suit filed by UFWOC's Assistant General Counsel David" Averbuck in the Rh'erside County Superior Court~ TIle local Immigration and Naturalization Service chief came by the Union office for a visit, but had little to say about the huge flow of illegal green card workers who broke last year's strike and will probably be used for the same pupose this year. The mayor of Coachella said he was glad to have Continued on page 4.
4 EL MALCRIADO/page 4 the Union back in town, and invited UFWOC organizers to a City Council meeting scheduled for April 2. And while all of this was going on, farm workers came, in greater and greater numbers daily, to the Union office to sign authorization cards, to tell of the abysmal working conditions in this Valley, and to state their resolution to fight for their right to have a Union represent them. When you drive from Coachella sou,fu to Calexico and Mexicali, you go through immense stretches of date palm orchards, citrus ranches, and field crops. Workers can be seen bent double weeding with shorthandled hoes, a 20th century toture device designed to insure close inspection of the rows by workers as they proceed through' the fields. At Calexico, hordes of workers stream across the border in the morning, board labor contractors' buses and head for the fields. They return in the afternoon, are dropped off at the border, and plod their way across to :viexicali and their homes. Theycross with permanent residence visas, but are not residents of the United States. They are not stopped because they are an endless supply of cheap labor, while Mexican and Filipino workers who live in this country must get by on the wages which average aroung $2000 a year. Early in the morning, UFWOC organizers are at the border to hand out leaflets to the workers. The leaflets disappear into pockets and lunch sacks, to be read later when the foremen aren't watching. In the afternoon there is a new leaflet, and the workers are eager to get their hands on them. Brothers George Catalan, Apolonio Benson, and Willie Barrientos head out each evening to visit the camps where theij;' Filipino countrymen are housed in buildings unfit for cattle. The authorization cards are piling up. UFWOC Vice President Gil padilla and organizer Robert Bustos and the crews of local farm workers go out each afternoon to visit the workers. There is no problem finding people who want to talk about their problems in the fields and their desire for a Union. EL MALCRIADO's one-man branch office keeps the mimeograph machine running, and the leaflets keepcoming out with new information. Attorney David Averbuck and his secretary Idelia Escamilla work late, while Rev. Jim Drake and patty Averbuck keep the office workd as up to date as they can. More organizers are due next week. The office, at 1337 Sixth St., with farm workers every day. somebody to help. Coachella, is filled There is always The workers in the Coachella Valley want a Union, and they are willing to work for it. EL MALCRIADO thinks they are going to have it before long. Henry R. Tafuya. Jr. Office, Res., EL MALCRIADO P.O. BOX 130 DELANO, CA FRESNO FILL OUT THIS CARD AND SEND IT WITH $3.50 TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS FOR A ONE-YEAR SUBSCRIPTION TO EL ~~LCRIADO, SENT TO YOUR HOME EVERY TWO WEEKS FOR ONE YEAR. NAME-nombre ADDRESS-domici1io CITY-ciudad STATE-estado CALIFORNIA ~ h~w to get your copy ~ SUB.SCRIBE TODAY More and more people are finding out that a subscription to EL MALCRIADO is the best way to keep up w.ith the farm worker struggle. Don't be left out--send in this coupon today! English_ Espanol_ ZIP ~ I
5 CHAIN STORES BARGAIN EL MALCRJADO/page 5 WITH UFWOC LOS ANGELES, March 23--"The supermarket is the agent of all the agribusiness complex behind it," Clarence G. Adamy, Executive Director of the National Association of Food Chains (NAFC) stated in a meeting with representatives of the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee here today. Adamywent on to assert that "We are neutral" in the grape strike and boycott, and that the multi-million dollar purchases of grapes by the nation's supermarkets are a duty that the Supermarkets must perform to Serve the public. NAFC, which represents 230 food chains and over 20,000 supermarkets, was the second major supermarket association to meet with UFWOC representatives during March. Michael O'Conner, Executive Secretary of the Supermarket Institute, and several of his colleagues met with UFWOC representatives in mid-march. The'Supermarket Institute represents Krogers, Jewel Tea, and many other major chain stores. Both groups indicated that supermarkets all across the country are being hurt by the boycott and want it to end. As UFWOC representatives pointed out, the boycott would end tomorrow if growers would sit down with Union representatives and negotiate decent contracts. And the chain stores could persuade the growers to begin negotiations within 24 hours if they told the growers flatly, "We will buy no more grapes until you settle this boycott." As Dolores Huerta, UFWOC Vice President told Adamy, "You have the power to end the boycott. TIle growers may not want to listen to our advice, but they surely will listen to you." Mrs. Huerta also stressed that chain stores' have a moral as well as economic responsibility to help settle the strike. Chain stores are getting bigger," she told Adamy. "1 t is the chain Stores that set prices which growers receive for their produce. The chains are deeply involved in Agribusiness, through interlocking ownerships and sometimes.direct ownerships. You have a responsibility to bring order and justice to agricultural workers." In the meeting with the Supermarket Institute, O'Conner was repor ted to have told UFWOC representatives, "TIlis boycott is a 'Lose-L ose' affair. Both the growers and the workers are loosing." Rev. James Drake, Administrative Assistant to UFWOC Director Cesar Chavez replied, "It is a tlose-il ose- Lose' situation, and the supermarkets are loosing the most of all." The chain store representatives are still repeating absurd charges made by the Birchers, that UFWOC does not represent the workers, that that the Union seeks a stranglehold o.n the nation's food supply, that Robert.J. SaMhss ().mer the strike is some sinister plot. "They remain so removed from the day-to-day reality of a farm worker that they don't understand how our demands could be so modest and reasonable" one Union member commented, "so they think there must be some' kind of a plot." Hopefully, the chain stores are beginning to realize that they are involved in the farm labor dispute. Hopefully, they will realize that from the point of view of their own economic well-being, they should seek an end to the strike and boycott. Hopefully, they will realize that their control, and in many cases their direct ownership of agribusiness corporations, makes them in large degree responsible for the economic injustices heaped upon farm labor. Until they do realize these things, they will face the picket lines and boycotts and economic consequences of their social blindness. C1an'II('(' (;. \lialll\ The only completely Mexican Mortuary in northern California SANCHEZ=HALL MORTUARY f"resno 1022 "S" STREET L r TEL.EPHONE Services available everywhere,no mat~ tet where you live, our price is the same death notices in newspapers and on ~h~ ~adlo are Included:. we can make arrangements for every economic situation Telephone 237~3532
6 EL MALCRIADO/page 6 SENATORS VIEW FLORIDA POVERTY 1:vI:vIOKALEE, FLORIDA -- Members of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs looking for evidence of hunger in Amedca found out in Immokalee, Collier County, Florida, thilt some places have more than their share of it. The Committee toured two labor camps and two Immokalee apartment complexes built for laborers and talked to 12 migrants who testi fied. Rodolfo Juarez, a migrant farm worker, told the committee that crew leaders (contractors) who furnish work forces to the farmers "maintain a slave labor system." "I have worked in the fields since I was five years old through hunger and Sickness, and my children will have to do this unless you act," he said. Juarez, who has seven children, said that when his wife is pregnant, "she also must go to the fields to earn money to pay for the baby." The senators also found (as is the case in several rural counties in California) that though Collier County is totally dependent on the migrant to harvest a $40 million annual' truck. crop - backbone of its economy - it makes no provision for the migrant's welfare. County offici'als said that the migrant is a "federal problem, not a county problem." But the county has also refused to participate in federal programs for the poor, complaining that the cost of food distribution is high ($45,000 to $50,000 a year). Marcela Longoria, who lives in a labor camp at Belle Glade, said her eight children "Sometimes go for weeks with not enough to eat because we had to pay the rent or be evicted." The five Senators in the Committee had varied reactions towards the economic and social conditions that the migrants live in. Sen. George McGovern of South Dakota, chairman of the committee, found people "living on fatback and peas." Sen. jacob Javits, a Republican from New York, found people were "living in houses fit for chickens and pigs - but not people." Sen. Walter Mondale of Minnesota said, "We found an eerie apathy, ~mpty people living almost shadow lives. They are people without hope." (Senator Mondale recently spent several days in Delano and expressed his dismay at conditions here.) Meanwhile, Florida Governor Claud Kirk attended the sessions and apparently did not like the witness list. He was also angry because the committee had not called Dr. Wilson T. Sowder, head of the State Board of Health to the witness stand. Instead, one of his nutritionists was invited to testify. "I believe we ought to hear from the general, and not from a corporal," Kirk angrily said. After the two days of hearings, last week, Senator McGovern said that "Most of the cattle and hogs in America are better fed and sheltered than the families we have visited in Collier' and Lee Counties." "We might so shake the national conscience that something will be done, even for the migrant farm worker," Senator Javits added. Senators view Migrant Housing in Florida.
7 EL MALCRIADO/page 7 ~~Piil;b~rgh 'jud~:"fo!~~~ j~pila::~!1!= PITISBURGH, March A Pittsburgh judge has warned UFWOC grape boycotters here that they face arrest and maximum sentences if they persist in "SINGING" on the picket line! Al Rojas, leader of the UFWOC boycott in Pittsburgh, pledged that the picketingwouldcontinue "as long as there is a single scab grape on the store shelves in Pittsburgh" and also promised "We-. t '11 be signing 'We ShallOvercome, in English and Spanish, whether the judge likes it or not!h The strange judicial threat came from Judge Rocco Burello after cops arrested Rojas, Bruce b'agin, and James Scarbina for "loitering" and for"di~turbingthe peace" during the picketing of Indovina Market in the Shadyside district of Pittsburgh last week. The three were soon released on their own recognizance. The charges were so absurd that the judge was forceq to dismiss all of them when the threewerebrought to trial. But it was after dismissing ~he cases that the judge issued his threat. Over 150 labor union members, priests and clergymen, and supporters of the grape boycottjammed the courtroom to hear the trial, and all pledged to continue the nonviolent tactics, regardless of police harrassment and judicial threats. Meanwhile, Rojas and his beautiful wife Helen and the Pittsburgh boycott crew continue to score victories against stores in Pittsburgh that are still selling grapes. Jay Dana, secretary to U FW OC in Pittsburgh" told EL MALCRIADO that five Stores in Market Square which had been selling grapes have agreed to remove them. All signed binding legal agreements with the Poor Peoples Campaign agreeing that they would not carrygrapes until the strike is settled. The Oil, Chemical, and A tomic workers ask you to join them in their boycott of Standard Oil and Chevron Gas. ~.. HAIWAII OFFICIALLY ENDORSES GRAPE BOYCOTT HONOLULU, March 28:Both houses of the Hawaiian State Legislature endorsed the boycott of California table grapes this week. The resolution passed by both the House and Senate requested that "all 'public institutions of the State of Hawaii refrain from purchasing California table grapes until such time as the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee is successful in gaining union recognition from the California table grape growers." Hawaii IS the only state in the U nion that has such basic labor laws for farm workers as unemployment insurance, collective bargaining rights, and health and sanitation, safety, child labor, and fair labor standards laws which are enforced. Farm workers' wages in Hawaii are the highest in the nation, and workers in the two main crops, pineapples and sugar, are almost all protected by Union contracts with the I~ternational Longshoremen's I and Warehousemen's Union. So it is not surprising that Hawaii should once again be the first state to support the right of mainland farmworkers to gain similar benefits. Predictably, the Birchers and t.. Gra Bo cotters march in' Pittsbt,lrgh. if. Farm Bureaucrats began screaming for revenge against Hawaii as soon as they heard of the resolution. Assemblyman Kent Stacey, a reactionary growers' spokesman from Bakersfield, warned that the Hawaiian support for the grape boycott "may jeopardize relations" between California and Hawaii, and also warned of a Counter boycott against all Hawaiian products. Growers have already sponsored counterboycotts," ofdubious impact, against all products made in New York, City, Detroit, Chicago, St. Louis, Philadelphia, Boston, San Francisco, and dozens of other major cities across the nation whose majors have endorsed the boycott. They have boycotted the Catholic Church and sought (unsuccessfully) to destroy the Central California Register, the Catholic Archdiocese Newspaper for the San Joaquin Valley, because of the Church's suggestion that growers and farm workers should negotiate their differences. Now the growers are out to get Hawaii. Who will be next? Everybody is out of'step except little Johnny Agribusiness.
8 EL MALCRIADO/page 8 EL MALCRIADO/page 9 Who IS supporting whom? 3.
9 EL MALCRIADO/page 10 ::;::=::::::;::::::::.;:::;:;::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::=:~:~:::!:::!:!:;:;:::~:;:::!:::! :!:::;:;::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;:;: LAW SUITS, PUBLIC PROTESTS, STU~ENT STRIKES DEL'ANO HI:GH REPRESSION CHALLENGED DELANO, March 28--The Delano High School ad- cerned Citizens of Delano, noting that in comparison ministration and School Board faced two actions in court to seven other local high schools in the Valley, only today where student Freddy Chavez filed suits against Delano actually measures the lengths of dresses, hair, them for incidents occuring over the past month. Nearly and side burns with a ruler, feels boys chins to de 300 Delano High School students staged a sit-down termine adequate shaves, prohibits medalions, and sends strike here on March 10, and Delano High School kids home for the slightest deviation from what school was likened to a "reform school" and a "prison" administrators consider acceptable standards. Girls by a group of over.150 concerned parents attending tell of the humiliation of being forced to kneel on the' a school board meeting here on March 18. ground as male administr,ators measure their dress The student stike was p spontaneous demonstration length. Boys tell of hair and sideburns b~ing pulled. by students protesting the suspension of Freddy Cha- Mrs. Wheaton described the whole code of dress and vez, Senior Class President, and his placement on attire "the most extreme and rigid rules in the area, "citizenship probation" for the rest of the year, be- and the most extreme penalties for minor infractions.", cause of alledgedly "disrespectful" behavior towards Students are not only sent home, but often are susa school administrator. The striking students were pended for the slightest violations. also protesting the whole system of repression and Mrs. Wheaton and Mrs. John Ferguson also strongly punishment at the high school. criticized the policies on tardiness. Mrs. Ferguson Speaker after speaker at the School Board meeting who has been active in most of the Anti-Union groups condemned the school administration for being more in Delano since 1965, spoke out vociferiously against concerned with control, conformity, discipline, and "strikes and sit-ins." But she confessed that she was repression, than with teaching. The charges were an amazed when she was ordered to llppear at the school outgrowth of parental and student and even teacher because her son faced suspension after being tardy dissatisfaction with the school's disciplinary policies to class three times in a period of 9 months. "Citiand with the refusal by school administrators to listen zen ship probation" is also quickly invoked after a few to student of parental advice. tardinesses, which denied her son the right to play But after hearing repeated charges by students, in the band or orchestra. Mrs. Ferguson suggested parents and teachers, the School Board recessed into that detention, not suspension, was an appropriate apparently illegal "executive session," a secret meet- punishment for being tardy. ing from' which the public was barred, where they One student, a young Anglo, got up and began to discussed the Chavez case without allowing Chavez speak about the double standard of punishment for poor of his parents or lawyer to be present. Chavez char- students and rich students. "If I were rich, like the ges in his suit that this secret meeting was a violation Zaninoviches.." he began, but was quickly cut off of the Brown Act, a state law outlawing secret meet- by the School Board, which said he could only speak ings. He further charges that the initial punishment to a secret session of the Board and could not make was completely unjustified and demands that the pun- his accusations public. ishment be recinded and that the entire incident be The School Board announced that it would "study" erased from his school record. the charges and recommendations presented by Mrs. It was Chavez's suspension and his being placed on Wheaton and the Concerned Citizens group, and sup "citizenship probation" which set off the student strh ported by the petitions signed by over 1000 local which in turn inspired parents to present the School residents. MeanWhile, the school administration con Board their complaints. But these complaints had tinues to impose new sentences ofpunishmenton students obviously been building' up for years. who participated in the sit-in, and continues to warn Speaker after'speaker from the Audience at the SChool of "conspiracy," and "outside agitators" as the cause board meeting, which included well-to-do middle class of all the High School's problems. They all say piously, parents, farm workers parents, Mexican-Americans, "We don't want another Berkeley," but that is exactly angloes, Blacks and Filipinos, pinpointed the problems. what they seem to be inviting. Mrs. William Wheaton led the presentation of Con-
10 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: =====:"':':":":":":":"::":":":":===~--=~======~~:--;-:== ELMALCRIADO/page 11 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~:::::~:::::::::::::::::::;:::::;:;:~:::::::::::::::::::;:;;::::;:::::::::. Photo by E. Clarke UFWOC Backs "Third World" Reform Aim DELANO, March 27--Striking minority students in the University 'of California campus at Berkeley suspended temporarily their strike after the School Academic Senate voted overwhelmingly in favor of establishing an ethnic studies department. The minority students accepted the formation of the Ethnic Studies Department as the first step towards establishing a Third World College which was their original demand. The student strike lasted more than six weeks. Emil de Guzman, a Berkeley student and former volunteer for the UFWOC, came to Delano on February 21 to explain the reasons for the strike to UFWOC members. He said that the newspapers had greatly twisted the facts about the student strike. He added that in general terms the students wanted a special course of studies on the history, culture, and other related matters of concern to Mexican Americans, Filipino - Americans, Black Americans, and other minority groups. De Guzman, a Filipino-American, pointed out thatwhile there are more than 100,000 Filipino - Americans living in California, there are only 25 students in the whole of the Berkeley campus of Filipino extraction. He added that Mexican Americans and Black students had similar grivances to bring out. UFWOC members endorsed the students' strike after finding out Richgrove Voice On RICHGROVE, April 1 -- Maybe there is not much excitement in an elementary school board e lection taking place in almost any town across the United States, but things are sometimes a little different in the San Joaquin Valley. Richgrove, a small town six miles away from Delano, is now preparing at full speed for the election on April 15. It is hard to decide what's more important in the Elementary School Board election in Richgrove. It could be the fact that even though 90 per cent of the children going to school in Richgrove are Mexican-American or children of farm workers, but that three out of five of the board members are Angloes. Three low income Mexican-Americans (two of them farm workers) are running for the school board. According to Joe Aguirre, one that there are no programs specifically designed for black and brown students, relevant to their society and their needs. Cesar Chavez noted that for a long time he had been concerned about the type and quality of education that Mexican-American and other minority and poor children get in public schools. He added that the Workers School Seek Boar:d of the candidc;tes, "It is about time low income people have an interest in e school and what's inside." Aguirre also complained about the language problem in the school board meetings. "They.(the board) do not talk anything buy money-wise, and they almost never translate anything into Spanish." The other two candidates are Paul Vargas and Paul Carrillo. Vargas, a Union member, also is chairman of the Schenley Ranch Committee. In Earlimart, also a nearby town, three Filipino-American teachers were recently fired, all at once. The firings appeared to be a case of discrimination. EL MALCRI ADO agrees that it is about time that low income people, especially Filipino- and Mexican-Americans become interested in their schools and what's going on inside. proposals of the Berkeley students seem to be a step in the right... direction. UFWOC members expressed satisfaction that the strike caused the establishment of an Ethnic Studies Department and hope that this will lead to a satisfactory settlement of the strike.
11 EL MALCRIADO/page 12 PRISONERS IN THE FIELDS SAN FRANCISCo--California growers will not be able to use prisoners from state penitentiaries to pick their crops after San Francisco Superior Court Judge Williams A. O'Brien issued an order last week for a permanent injunction against this practice. Prisoners had been authorized for field work by Governor Reagan in 1967, according to a Teport in Union Labor Journal, a Bay Area lahor paper. Thomas L. Pitts, secretary treasurer of the California Labor Federation, AFL-CIO, filed a suit on October 5, 1967, against Governor Reagan after the Governor authorized the use of convict labor to harvest grape and fig crops in the San Bernardino and Merced Counties. A preliminary Injunction issued by San Francisco Superior Court Judge Robert J. Drewes had upheld the Labor FederatiJn contention that this authorization by Governor Reagan was both illegal under the state constitution and in violation of the Work Furlough Program for prisoners under which the governor attempted to justify their use. The. decision by Judge O'Brien to issue a permanent injunction was thus a follow-up to the suit filed by Pitts. "Judge O'Brien's authorization of the permanent injunction," Pitts said, "means that one more door interests of cheap captive farm labor that denies domestic workers the right to decent wages and tends to -boost welfare costs to California taxpayers as a Coachella Growers result of disemployment of domestic workers has been closed." Ignore Wage law Named as defendants in the Federation suit were COACHELLA, April 2--UFWOC: Assistant General Governor Reagan; Ronald K. Procunier, director of counsel David Averbuck said today he is investigating numerous reports from Coachella Valley farm the State Department of Corrections; and Peter Weinberger, director of the State Department of Employment. The suit had pointed out that Article 10, Section workers who claim they have not been paid legal minimum wages by local growers. I of the State Constitution states that: Under California law, women who work in the fields must be paid at least $1.65 per hour. Under the Civil...The labor of convicts shall not be let out by contract to any person, co-parmership~ company or Rights Act, men who perform the same jobs must also earn the same wage. corporation, and the legislature shall, by law, provide for the working of convicts for the benefit of the Many farm workers in the Coachella area have brought state.' complaints to the Union, saying that they have been earning only $1.40 per hour or sometimes $1.50. Judge Drewes' decision, with which Judge O'Brien in essence concurred, pointed out that Reagan's authorization of the use of convict -labor involved a situation Averbuck said he was investigating the complaints, and that the Union would assist workers in collecting back wages if they have not received the. legal minimums. in which "the state owned neither the crops harvested, nor the land upon which the work in question was performed, nor did it pay the workers. The interests During legal wrangling a year ago, as growers attemted to forestall en~orcementof the new wages, they were of the growers are private, not public, and the work ordered to deposit the difference between what they performed was therefore not for the benefit of the were paying and the minimum wage pending settlement :::tate within the meaning of Article 10, Section I, of of legal questions. the Constitution of the State of California. Apparently few growers did so, and workers in many areas seem to be having a tough time collecting their back pay.
12 EL MALCRIADO/page 13 Wine Grape Grower Seek Union fresno, march l5--wine grape growers are the latest group of growers to endorse the principal of collective bargaining--for themselves, if not for their workers. The Wine Grape Growers Bargaining Association, patterned on the Raisin Bargaining Association, was launched here this week, and organizers hope to control 200,000 tons of the Thompson seedless wine grape crop in the 1969 harvest. That would be appr:oxiamtely a third of the total Thompson seedless harvest used by California's wineries. Organizers of the Bargaining A ssociation feel that if they can sign up growers who produce 200,000 tons of the Thompson grapes, and then threaten to withhold the grapes from the market to force the price up (sounds like a boycott!) then they would be in a good bargaining position with the wineries who crush the grapes. Their main organizing drive is now directed among inde pendent grape growers, none of whom have recognized the right of their grape pickers to organize and b a I' g?- i n collectively. The wine growers who have contracts with united Farm Workers are alllargel' growers with their own wineries. el malcriado says; we hope that by organizing themselves, the growers will become more tolerant towards their workers when UFW OC asks them forathe same collective bargaining rights. A Question Of Motivation REEDLEY, March A new course at Reedley College, entitled Agricultural Labor and its Effective Use, will be offered to young fu~ ture farmers and labor contractors at this Fresno County college next year.. The purpose of the course seems to be to teach the young farmersto-be hqw to get more work out of their 'Meskins' for the same amount or less money. The course is designed 'to study methods of motivating farm labor through humanrelations techniques' according to the Fresno Bee. It will also cover 'time and motion studies related to field production and also laws governing farm labor" Education is a wonderful thing. The growers are now trying to learn froin psychologists and sociologists and anthropologists and efficiency exp2rts how to 'motivate'theirworkers. But heaven forbid they should provide decent wages and working conditions. When. will they ever learn? The sig n that tells you people are working toget-her to fill their needs You do not have to be a member to shop-come in and see how. economic democracy works PERLIN BANQUET AN OLD LOS ANGELES, Aprill--A testimonial banquet will be held on April 27 in honor of Paul Perlin, International Executive Board member of the International Longshoremens & Warehousemen's Union (ILWlJ) and a long time supporter of the farm workers' struggle, for justice. Cesar Chavez is honorary Chairman of the even and all proceeds from the affair will go to the United FarmWorkers. Brother Perlin has been active in the labor movement for 35 years and over the past few years, in addition HONORS FRIEND to his full time job as a representative of the ILWU, he has aided the UFWOC in its boycott drives, in fund raising, and in many other areas. One of his sons, David Perlin, was an organizer for UFWOC and is married to the former Gloria Rodriguez, now secretary for UFW OC's legal department. The dinner, which will be held at the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles at 6pm, will cost $7.50 per person. For reservations, write to P.O. Box 43406, Los Angeles GREETINGS TO THE UNITED FARM WORKERS FROM The Consumer Cooper ative of Berkeley
13 EL MALCRIADO/page 14 DIGIORGIOI WORKERS STAND UNITED LAMONT, March Nearly 500 workers and their families. marched down Main Street in Lamont today to celebrate the second anniversary of the signing of the Oi Giorgio contract and to warn Kern County growers that the Union was united and determined to fight to defend the workers' rights in this rich agricultural area. The Oi Giorgio workers, the backbone of the Union in southern Kern County, face an uncertain future since the Oi Giorgio Ranch is being sold and some of the buyers have expressed vicious anti-union sentiments. The theme of the march, Solidarity Day in Lamont," was best expressed by the hundreds of flags, fro:ll Arvin, Lamont, Bakersfield, Delano, Porterville, Cutler, Orosi, and even London (California, that is), and by the spirit and determination that showed in the faces of the Chicanos, Filipinos, Blacks, Puerto Ricans, and Angloes as they marched side by side. After the march, the workers gathered in the park for a hot lunch served by the women of Arvin and Lamont and for a brief meeting. Di Giorgio Ranch Committee members Arnett Coleman, Lupe Rangell, Eduviges Lugo, Teofilo G~cia, and Jose Posadas welcomed the people to Lamont and spoke briefly of the struggles that had gone into winning the Oi Giorgio contract, from the bloody strikes of the 1930's and 1940's, through the strike and boycott and arrests and finaliy the election campaign that UFWOC decisively won in Brother Mack Lyons, former leader of the Oi Giorgio workers, read a letter from Cesar Chavez, Director of UFWOC, praising the Oi Giorgio workers fro their long struggle for justice, and expressinghis solidarity with them. Dolores Huerta, Vice President of the Union, spoke of the Union's committment to defending the rights of the Di Giorgio workers, come what may. And members of the other Ranch Committees, Juan Ramirez, from Perelli - Minett, Paul Vargas from Schenley, Eloy Garcia from Christian Brothers, and Sr. Covarrubias from the Novitiate Vineyards all expressed their solidarity with the Oi Giorgio workers. The meeting ended with lively Asparagus Wages LAMONT, March 31--Di Giorgio Corporation still refuses to discuss a revision of wages for 1969, according to Juan Flores, chief negotiator for the United Farm Workers at Oi Giorgio Ranch. The contract specifies that wages can be re-negotiated in April of 1969, bur Oi Giorgio claims that the Union did not notify the company far enough in advance that it wanted to negotiate higher wage rates. The company also says that contract negotiations are meaningless since the ranch is being sold and there is no successor clause in the contract. While Oi Giorgio wages, at $1.70 an hour, lag 20 behind the rates at most of the other Union contract ranches, Oi Giorgio workers face a further loss in wages under the new anti-union owners, according to Flores. One grower, Harley Martin, has bought land and much of the asparagus crop from Oi Giorgio. While the asparagus was PhOto by G. Chocklate music, with songs of la Causa, written and s.ung by Jesus Rivera, and with dancing It was a beautiful spring day in Lamont, and a beautiful march. But many storms lie ahead for the farm workers of Kern County, and especially for the Oi Giorgio workers who have suffered and sacrificed so much already. Decline' planted by Union workers under Union contract, receiving either a $1.70 an hour wage or more under piece rate, Martin is paying a flat $1.65 for the harvest. In addition,1 Martin is not paying the 5 an hour for health and welfare or for unemployment insurance or all the other benefits that Oi Gioq:;io workers had under the old contract. UFWOC has sent a telegram to Martin asking for recognition or for negotiations to establish that the Union represents the asparagus workers. No answer has. as yet been received. 1l1e continuing problems that the workers are having with Oi Giorgio just go to Show that no contract i-s really secure until all the growers in that area are under contract," commented Dolores Huerta, UFWOC Vice President, who negotiated much of the original contract with Oi Giorgio in 1966 and 1967.
14 EL MALCRIADO/page 15 filipi~~uan~~~ricans The two-day first annual convention ot" the Filipino American Political Association was attended by delegates from San Diego north to San Francisco. Saturday, March 29, the guest speaker was Paul SChrade of the United Auto Workers who pledged his support in this effort to organize Filipinos into a powerful political machinery or organization and to form alliances, of power with other minority groups in the struggle ;:;. ~ ~ ':" ~:../! <' I!,." ";' for human dignity and justice. Joe. San Felipe chaired the general session and resolutions on Health, Education and Welfare, Community Development and Immigration were adopted by the assembly. Also the International Hotel crises in San Francisco, as well as the San Jose College students' efforts to make Ethnic Studies as an accredited unit were also resolved for endorsement. Attending the Saturday activities were Consul General Savalones of San Francisco and Consul General Faustino of Los Angeles. Speaker at the evening program. was Cayetano Santiago, who emphasized the Filipino's -. '-. f.:-_-:~---., WElCOM --<!'ii!}"'l"!;.;""",._~-' struggle in their fight for principles--for freedom. Last speaker of the last day of the convention was ' Cesar Chavez, Director of UFWOC, who spoke of the struggles of the Filipinos for the last 30 years, the hardships, injustices, exploitation and the denial of their rights as human beings..n.;....,,, At the close of Chavez's speech, the delegates passed a resolution in very strong words urging the Philippine Organize Legislature to boycott California grapes. This resolution was presented to the FAPA by Larry!tliong, Paul Shrade speaks at FAPA Convention; Convention chairman, assistant director of UFWOC, Photo by G. Chocklate and the newly elected president of the California state FAPA. Vice President; Esther Banes, Secretary, and Val Other newly elected officers include Ubaldo Flores, Fabias, Treasurer. " Viva lei Ca'usa - y EI Progreso etue'ete411 fj6 4 1Neue4Ie- ;'/1IU!IUe4#e ;'/tt~ Fresno California ZAPATA THE IDEOLOGY OF A PEASANT REVOLUTIONARY Iby Robert P. MHlon Through a detailed analysis of Zapata's program for revolution and reconstruction after victory, this book represents the real Zapatahero of his people, leader of a just revolution..from your bookshop or :INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHERS 381 Park Avenue South, New York, N. Y $5.95 cloth; $2.25 paperba~k
15 EL MALCRIADO/page 16 SIGN THE PLEDG We Will Not Sho,p At Safeway Un.til... We, the undersigned, support the striking grape workers in their non-violent efforts to organize, to win, recognition, and to bargain collectively with their employers. Because of the growers' consistent refusal to negotiate, grape workers have been forced to boycott all California table grapes. Various small chain stores and independent food markets in California and elsewhere are giving their support to grape workers by refusing to handle grapes. Safeway, the largest chain store in the West, has consistently supported the growers by continuing to buy table grapes picked by strikebreakers. THEREFORE, WE THE UNDERSIGNED WILL NOT SHOP AT SAFEWAY STORES UNTIL SAFEWAY MAKES A PUBLIC ANNOUNCEMENT THAT THEY WILL NOT HANDLE CALIFORNIA TABLE GRAPES FOR THE DURATION OF THE BOYCOTT. It is our hope that a decision by Safeway not to handle table grapes will help bring table grape growers to negotiate a just settlement with their grape workers, therefore assuring a prompt end to the dispute. NAME ADDRESS CITY~ STATE YOU CAN HELP US! Tell your friends and neighbors about -the grape Ask-them to help. And if there is a Safe~ay store in your county 'ask them to sign the pledge. GRACIAS! This Pefition Distributed By: NAME: ADDRESS: CITY: STATE ZIP around the petition in my neighsend me more petitions.) boycott. or city~ Return completed petition to: "DON'T BUY GRAPES CAMPAIGN" United Farm Workers Organizing Committee, AFL-CIO P.O. Box 130, Delano, Calif (phone ) ".~ r. ~ ::0..0.l:> 0 It-' I'" C 0 -e I'" [="; NOW ALSO I N LAMONT Ma ins t. la M(XICANA Bakeries FOUR WCATION8 TO SERVE YOU IN KERN COUNTY BAKERSFIELO 630 Baker St _..., HASCO 1000 "FlO St Egg Bread and Pastries AZZ Kinds of Donuts Cakes for all Occasions French Bread DELANO th Ave We have a large Selection of Spanish Magasinea, Books, and Records.
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JUSTICE COURT # 2 GRAHAM COUNTY STATE OF ARIZONA P.O. BOX 1159, 136 WEST CENTER STREET, PIMA AZ 85543 PHONE (928) 485-2771 FAX (928) 485-9961 SMALL CLAIMS INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING ***EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1,
Key Words: public policy, public affairs A. The Role of Interest Groups Chapter 9: Interest Groups Section 1: The Nature of Interest Groups 1. Interest groups seek to influence public policy. Public policy
11 MS. SCHLANGER: We're going to hear 12 next from Michael Jacobson, who is the Director of the 13 Vera Institute of Justice, which is obviously the 14 sponsoring organization for this Commission. Before
WHAT IS MY ROLE AS THE LAWYER FOR A JUVENILE CLIENT? First Defense Volunteers go to the Police Station on all calls involving minors, including misdemeanors. This requirement includes cases where the child